Article

What moderates the too-much-choice effect?

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Abstract

Core theories in economics,psychology,and marketing suggest that decision makers benefit from having more choice. In contrast, according to the too-much-choice effect,having too many options to choose from may ultimately decrease the motivation to choose and the satisfaction with the chosen option. To reconcile these two positions,we tested whether there are specific conditions in which the too-much-choice effect is more or less likely to occur. In three studies with a total of 598 participants,we systematically investi- gated the moderating impact of choice set sizes,option attractive- ness,and whether participants had to justify their choices. We also tested the moderating role of search behavior,domain-specific expertise,and participants' tendency to maximize,in a within-subject design. Overall,only choice justification proved to be an effective moderator,calling the extent of the too-much-choice effect into ques- tion. We provide a theoretical account for our findings and discuss possible pathways for future research. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals,Inc.

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... Studies have suggested that most consumers actively narrow down the search space and reduce the number of options for a variety of products; these strategies are part of the pre-choice decision-making process [42,80]. For instance, through field experiments and survey instruments, Scheibehenne, Greifeneder and Todd [70] found that the size of a consumer's consideration set 2 is smaller than expected and depends on the quantity of available selections. Under exposure to classical music CDs, the survey respondents accumulated consideration set sizes of only 2.6 and 5.3 items in 6 and 30 available product options, respectively. ...
... The eye-tracking approach helps us understand the dynamics governing the attention allocation behaviors of consumers in online environments. The implementation of the approach is guided by the following questions: Addressing these issues with the aid of eye-tracking devices is worth pursuing in the context of e-commerce environments, where the presence of immense product options often overpowers consumers' cognitive capabilities and discourages purchase intent [70]. Designing an effective e-commerce system and harnessing sales opportunities require online retailers to comprehend consumers' actual search and browsing heuristics, pre-purchase choice decisions, and information-screening patterns. ...
... Large or extensive numbers of alternatives are operationalized as context where "there are reasonably large but not ecologically unusual" number of alternatives, such as 24 or 30, in Iyengar and Lepper's study [37]. In a meta-analysis analyzing the impact of the number of alternatives on choice behavior, Scheibehenne et al. [70] find that the average size of small and large number of alternatives in various research are 7 (IQR five-six) and 34 (IQR 24-30), respectively. Based on prior research, our study uses 10 alternatives to represent a small alternative case and 30 alternatives for a large alternative case. ...
Article
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Using eye-tracking field experiments, we examine the dynamics underlying consumers’ attention-allocation behaviors in online search, with focus on attention adjustment, attention renewal, and equilibrium seeking. In particular, we probed into how consumers’ e-commerce search behaviors vary when they are exposed to an advertisement during a search and when they are not. The findings from the two separate experiments suggest that consumers’ attention span decreases exponentially, instead of linearly, as they maneuver from the top to the bottom of a search result webpage. The total number of available options significantly influences the speed and pattern of attention decay. However, attention decay does not simply move in the direction of depletion but can be refreshed and renewed upon encountering attention-diverting ad stimuli. Although ad stimuli are often considered distracting and worthless, they can produce positive effects when positioned in the middle of a search results listing, where a consumer’s attention resources are rejuvenated by ads. Finally, because of consumers’ propensity to seek equilibrium, attention decay occurs more rapidly after, rather than before, attention renewal. We extend the literature on the mere categorization effect by investigating how ad stimuli structurally separate search choices into mental categories and diminish on-going attention decay patterns.
... The results from one study, focusing on volunteering behavior, suggest that the choice overload effect is generalizable to prosocial choice scenarios (Carroll et al., 2011). However, there are contradictory findings, suggesting that larger set sizes lead to increased donations (Soyer and Hogarth, 2011) and that set size does not have a robust effect on donation behavior, but might have an effect when individuals are required to justify their choice (Scheibehenne et al., 2009). ...
... Due to comparing within a smaller selection, individuals with more certain preferences are less susceptible to the cognitive strain of facing a large assortment of options. Scheibehenne et al. (2009) as well as Soyer and Hogarth (2011) either measured or manipulated prior knowledge of NGOs (which can be viewed as a form of expertise). Their results suggest that people may be more likely to donate to well-known NGOs (Scheibehenne et al., 2009) and that these organizations received a larger proportion of the allocated donations than unknown NGOs did (Soyer and Hogarth, 2011). ...
... Scheibehenne et al. (2009) as well as Soyer and Hogarth (2011) either measured or manipulated prior knowledge of NGOs (which can be viewed as a form of expertise). Their results suggest that people may be more likely to donate to well-known NGOs (Scheibehenne et al., 2009) and that these organizations received a larger proportion of the allocated donations than unknown NGOs did (Soyer and Hogarth, 2011). However, neither Scheibehenne et al. (2009) nor Soyer andHogarth (2011) address potential interaction effects between set size and prior knowledge on donation behavior. ...
Article
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Choice overload is the phenomenon that increasing the number of options in an assortment makes choosing between options more difficult, sometimes leading to avoidance of making a choice. In this pre-registered online experiment (N = 501), choice overload was tested in a charitable behavior context, where participants faced a monetary donation choice. Charity organization assortment size was varied between groups, ranging between 2 and 80 options. The results indicate that there were no meaningful differences in donation likelihood between the 16 organization assortment sizes, neither for individuals with high preference certainty nor for individuals with uncertain preferences among charitable causes. Having more charitable organizations to choose from did not affect donation behavior.
... La siguiente sección, examina los trabajos que defi enden que la estrategia de surtido amplio puede llegar a saturar al consumidor (Gourville y Soman, 2005, Herrmann et al., 2009, incrementando la difi cultad de la toma de decisión (Haynes, 2009), aumentando el arrepentimiento tras la elección (Sagi y Friedland, 2007), etc., por lo que a menudo es más conveniente optar por una estrategia de surtido más reducido. Finalmente, se lleva a cabo una revisión de las condiciones que moderan los tipos de reacciones del consumidor anteriormente expuestas (Dhar, 1997;Scheibehenne et al., 2009 Las referencias originarias sobre el concepto de surtido se remontan al año 1956, refiriéndose únicamente al conjunto de productos que ofrece una or-ganización. Balderston (1956) define el surtido de venta como el número total de productos diferentes que pueden ser vendidos por una organización en determinadas transacciones. ...
... En primer lugar la visión tradicional sugiere que los grandes surtidos son beneficiosos para el consumidor, defi niendo el denominado «la atracción de más posibilidades de elección» (White y Hoff rage, 2009), es decir, una relación positiva entre el tamaño del surtido y el efecto generado en el consumidor, porque más opciones implican mayor percepción de variedad (Chernev, 2003a;Chernev, 2003b;Chowdhury et al., 2009;Scheibehenne et al., 2009) y mayor probabilidad de que el consumidor encuentre exactamente lo que estaba buscando (Amine y Cadenat, 2003;Balderston, 1956;Baumol y Ide, 1956;Berger et al., 2007;Kahn, 1998;Koelemeijer y Oppewal, 1999;Lenton et al., 2008). ...
... Finalmente, también se han recogido evidencias de que no hay relación entre la variación del tamaño del surtido y el efecto generado en el comportamiento del consumidor (Scheibehenne et al., 2009). ...
Chapter
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El presente trabajo pone de relieve la importancia de las decisiones de surtido en la gestión del comercio minorita, identifi cando los diversos efectos que sobre el comportamiento de compra del consumidor puede tener los cambios en la composición del surtido. En concreto, se comprueba que el efecto del tamaño del surtido tiene un efecto heterogéneo sobre el consumo, por lo que se lleva a cabo un meta-análisis que permita sintetizar los efectos sobre el comportamiento del consumidor.
... Accordingly, researchers coined the terminology "hyperchoice" as a condition, similar to 'information overload,' in regard to consumerism whereby an 'ever-increasing amount of buying occurs amidst an everincreasing amount of new products, brands, and brand extensions' (Mick et al. 2004). In academic literature, such a phenomenon is also termed choice overload (Scheibehenne et al. 2010), overchoice effect (Gourville and Soman 2005), and too-much-choice effect (Scheibehenne et al. 2009). ...
... Dependent variables: decision satisfaction and decision difficulty As for dependent variables, following the important work in this domain (e.g., Chernev 2003;Iyengar and Lepper 2000;Scheibehenne et al. 2009), the study employed self-report measures. Participants completed two five-point Likert scales after completing each choice task. ...
... In addition, following previous studies (e.g., Iyengar and Lepper 2000;Lee 2017;Scheibehenne et al. 2009Scheibehenne et al. , 2010, the current work employed self-report measures to index subjective decision experience. While such measures are informative, people may have different interpretations of the numerical values on the Likert scale. ...
Article
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Due to new technologies, a profusion of products is released onto store shelves and the Internet, resulting in a special choice condition termed hyperchoice. Past research on whether hyperchoice deteriorates decision experience is mixed. The present study hypothesizes the experience in the scenario of hyperchoice may be moderated by individual characteristics, including numeracy and age differences. A total of 116 older adults and 112 younger adults were recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk. Along with the Rasch-based numeracy scale, each participant completed a consumer and a gamble choice task. In both tasks, the number of options being presented to participants was manipulated to create a hyperchoice condition (sixteen options) and a simple-choice condition (four options). Dependent variables were post-choice difficulty and satisfaction. Multiple regressions were performed with SPSS 24.0 to test the hypothesis. As a result, hyperchoice was related to greater decision difficulty in both choice tasks. Moreover, there was an interaction between numeracy and hyperchoice in the gamble task. Specifically, whereas higher numerate participants' experienced difficulty and satisfaction were relatively stable between the two choice conditions, lower numerate participants experienced more difficulty and dissatisfaction in the hyperchoice condition than in the simple-choice condition. Additionally, compared to younger adults, older adults reported greater decision difficulty and lower decision satisfaction, regardless of choice condition. The study supported the notion that the specific effect of hyperchoice was moderated by individual factors. The study implied merchants should adopt strategies to ease decision experience and advocated for numeracy education.
... Their work reviews the scientific evidence related to visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, and gustatory aspects of the store environment and their influence on the consumers' shopping behavior. Among the other influential works areReutskaja and Hogarth's (2009), cited 112 times, andScheibehenne, Greifeneder, andTodd (2009), cited 98 times. ...
... Their work reviews the scientific evidence related to visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, and gustatory aspects of the store environment and their influence on the consumers' shopping behavior. Among the other influential works areReutskaja and Hogarth's (2009), cited 112 times, andScheibehenne, Greifeneder, andTodd (2009), cited 98 times. ...
Article
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Psychology & Marketing (P&M), an internationally reputed journal, publishes original, peer‐reviewed, empirical research on the application of psychological theories and techniques to marketing. The aim of this essay is to provide a bibliometric overview of the leading trends in the special issues of P&M over its history (1984–2020). Using bibliometric techniques, we analyze the impact of the special issues via their most cited papers, most productive authors, affiliated institutions and countries, as well as the best guest editors who contributed to the selection of the most cited special issue articles. Using network analysis VOSviewer software, we also group the special issues into four clusters to identify common themes. Further, we develop graphical visualization of coauthorships, bibliographic coupling, and cocitations. Results show that the most productive contributors are from American institutions and that P&M remains well connected to other leading journals in the marketing and psychology discipline, such as the Journal of Marketing Research, the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, the Journal of Consumer Research, the Journal of Marketing, and the Journal of Business Research.
... Existe un gran número de documentos de investigación que estudian las preferencias sobre conjuntos de elección y los efectos del tamaño de estos sobre la satisfacción. Greifeneder et al. (2009) proporcionan un resumen de esta literatura e intentan identi…car las condiciones de la elección que llevan a la preferencia por variedad. Los hallazgos indican que los consumidores disfrutan la variedad (i.e. ...
... Nótese que la incertidumbre en cuanto al placer que el agente recibe de un bien z no desempeña papel alguno en nuestra representación. Así, nos enfocamos en las condiciones bajo las cuales las personas tienden a preferir hacer su selección de conjuntos más grandes, como ha sido identi…cado enGreifeneder et al. (2009).La evidencia citada anteriormente puede ser racionalizada por una combinación de preferencia por ‡exibilidad, cambios o heterogeneidad en gustos, los efectos de atracción o de dominancia asimétrica, u otras tendencias psicológicas ...
... In other words, customers constantly choose-however restricted their choices might be. The fact that choice is a ubiquitous aspect of service consumption (Papadopoulou et al., 2019; see also Chernev et al., 2015;Patall et al., 2008;Scheibehenne et al., 2009 for reviews) warrants the study of choice restrictions that may serve as an important moderator to buffer inauthenticity effects. ...
... Although studies have explored some stable and chronic moderators (e.g., individual customer differences; Chi et al., 2011;Lechner & Mathmann, 2021), less is known about the impact of dynamic factors on the link between employees' display inauthenticity and service performance. In this paper, we focus on choice restrictions as a dynamic moderator because choice is a ubiquitous aspect of service consumption (for reviews, see Chernev et al., 2015;Papadopoulou et al., 2019;Scheibehenne et al., 2009 Interestingly, we observed a nonhypothesized positive main effect of choice restrictions in two of the three studies (Studies 2 and ...
Article
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Frontline employees’ fake smiles (i.e., positive emotion display inauthenticity) frequently occur despite firms’ efforts to ensure real smiles in service delivery. Previous research on the effects of display inauthenticity on customers reveals considerable heterogeneity. Attempts to resolve this have largely been limited to stable and dispositional factors, which often escape managerial control. The present research investigates the impacts of display inauthenticity, choice restrictions, and their interaction on service performance. Choice restrictions may buffer inauthenticity effects as demonstrated by results from three factorial experiments in different contexts (e.g., restrictions of service provider choice in predelivery in Study 1 and in‐store choice restrictions during service delivery in Studies 2 and 3). Frontline employees’ display inauthenticity negatively affects service performance only if customers are subjected to low but not high choice restrictions. The interaction effect is explained by customers’ interdependent self‐construal and is generalizable to actual spending behaviors. Our findings inform managers about the interplay of increasingly common inauthenticity and choice restrictions due to market shocks such as COVID‐19 and provide insights into managerial interventions that can be used to mitigate the effects of inauthenticity on customers.
... This assumption is based on the classic economic theory. In fact, it argues that large assortments can better match individuals" characteristics, they can allow customers to maintain a certain flexibility when taking a decision and, finally, they create a perception of freedom of choice (Iyengar & Lepper, 2000Scheibehenne et al., 2009). This is consistent with the strategies developed by Retailers: they offer large assortments in all categories in order to meet customers" needs. ...
... Thus, the selection would be easier in front of a smaller assortment rather than a larger one (Chernev, 2003b;Fasolo et al., 2007). Recent empirical studies have demonstrated that large assortments lead to negative consequences, such as dissatisfaction, regret, disappointment with the choice and decreased motivation to make a choice (Scheibehenne et al., 2009). Moreover, other research suggest that in front of a great number of options available at the moment of the choice shoppers tend to consider fewer items and to process a smaller part of the overall information available (Iyengar & Lepper, 2006). ...
Article
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One of the most basic strategic decisions a retailer must take involves determining the product assortment to offer inside the store. Despite the importance of the topic, there are two opposite strands of literature that have come up with completely different points of view. To summarize them, the first one states that the more choices, the better, while the second one states that more choices lead to weaker preferences and lower levels of satisfaction. Furthermore, the majority of studies conducted so far have focused their attention on collecting self-report measures. However, it has been argued thet self-report measures, interviews and questionnaires may have strong biases. Specifically, they are a product of psychological, sociological, linguistic, experiential and contextual variables, which may have little to do with the construct of interest. Thus, the present work intends to enrich the extant literature about the effect of ‘choice overload’ on customer satisfaction and behavior inside the store by analyzing both cognitive and unconscious responses. In order to confirm our hypothesis, an experiment, involving 171 participants, was conducted in a laboratory supermarket in Milan to test the reactions in front of a regular pastry display and a display characterized by fewer options.
... Humans may also be uniquely susceptible to choice overload because of the personal accountability they place on their decisions. Scheibehenne et al. (2009) demonstrated the role that personal accountability plays on choice overload: participants were informed that they could choose to donate to a charity from a group, but that they would have justify their choice of charity. Participants who were presented with the smaller (five option) assortment were more likely to donate than were participants who were presented with the larger (40 option) assortment The average time it took monkeys to complete tasks in each condition (i.e., task performance). ...
... Error bars in all panels represent 95% confidence intervals. (Scheibehenne et al., 2009). Without the justification manipulation, the opposite was found: individuals were more likely to donate to a charity if they chose from the larger array. ...
Article
Given the choice, people are often drawn toward more options over fewer options in decision-making scenarios. However, mounting evidence indicates that sometimes, choosing from large arrays can result in suboptimal outcomes. The tendency to be overwhelmed, regretful, or less satisfied with a choice when there are many options to choose from is called choice overload. This effect has been well-studied in adult humans, but comparative research, such as with nonhuman primates, is lacking, despite the fact that such choice behavior may be related to general aspects of cognition that underlie behaviors such as foraging in the wild. In addition, research with monkeys can shed light on whether choice overload is a human-unique phenomenon that may be driven by sociocultural factors, or whether this effect may be shared more broadly among mammals. This experiment tested whether monkeys were susceptible to choice overload effects by using a computerized paradigm in which monkey subjects could choose from three, six, or nine task options. No evidence of choice overload was found for monkeys, although this may have been due to methodological limitations that are described.
... These negative consequences of extensive assortments on satisfaction and motivation to make a choice have been described by a number of theories such as the "choice overload" , the "too-much-choice effect" (Scheibehenne, Greifeneder, & Todd, 2009), the "tyranny of choice" (Schwartz, 2004) or the "excessive-choice effect" (Arunachalam, Henneberry, Lusk, & Norwood, 2009). Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. ...
... For example, the preference for large assortments (external modulators) may differ depending on the individuals' culture (individual characteristics). For instance, Scheibehenne et al. (2009) showed that American individuals prefer larger assortments (of charity organizations) than do German individuals. It may be also assumed that maximizer individuals would be less comfortable when facing extensive assortments than satisficer individuals. ...
Thesis
Out-of-home catering services frequently offer consumers the opportunity to choose their foods from among different proposals and/or provide consumers with a variety of food. The present thesis aimed at investigating the effect of providing choice of equally-liked foods during a meal on food liking and food intake in healthy, normal-weight adults. The first part focused on two characteristics of a food product assortment (desserts) as modulator factors of the choice effect: (i) the degree of similarities between desserts and (ii) the level of pleasantness of desserts. Two independent behavioral studies using the same paradigm were carried out in adults (n=80 for each experiment) who participated in a choice and a no-choice session. Providing choice enhanced food liking no matter the degree of similarity between the desserts, but enhanced food intake only when products were sufficiently dissimilar. The choice effect on food liking and food intake was not modulated by the level of pleasantness of alternatives. The second part of the thesis assessed the impact of choice and/or variety on food liking and food intake. Fifty-nine adults participated in a 4-session study where they consumed vegetable dishes under the four following conditions: (i) being served one dish (no-choice/no-variety); (ii) being served the three dishes (no-choice/variety); (iii) choosing one dish from among three (choice/no-variety) and (iv) choosing as many dishes as wanted (choice/variety). Providing choice increased vegetable liking and vegetable intake, while offering a variety of vegetables only increased their liking. No synergy effect between choice and variety was observed on vegetable liking and vegetable intake (i.e. the effect in the choice/variety condition was not significantly higher than the effects in the no-choice/variety and choice/no-variety conditions). It may be then concluded that providing choice of food to adults increases food liking even when choice is made among similarly-liked foods. Regarding choice and variety effects, however, their impacts on food intake appear to be vulnerable to contextual factors, and especially, the degree of similarity between food options.
... Schwartz et al., 2002;Fasolo et al, 2009 .) Oulasvirta et al., 2009;Scheibehenne et al., 2009;Peng, 2013 . ...
... Borle, Boatwright, Kadane, Nunes, & Shmueli, 2005;Lenton, Fasolo and Todd, 2008;Chiravirakul, 2014 Scheibehenne et al., 2009;Fasolo et al, 2009 ) . ...
Article
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Introduction: the purpose of this study was to study the effect of psychological factors and the search type on choice overload in the information retrieval systems. Methodology: This study used a descriptive review method and was done based on the study of relevant literature on the choice overload theory. Collection of related articles was done with using the keywords of ‘ ‘ Too-much-choice effect’ ’ , ‘ ‘ hyperchoice’ ’ , ‘ ‘ tyranny of choice’ ’ , ‘ ‘ paradox of choice’ ’ , ‘ ‘ lure of choice’ ’ and their combinations with the keywords of ‘ ‘ maximizer’ ’ , ‘ ‘ satisficer’ ’ , ‘ ‘ type of search’ ’ , ‘ ‘ modulators’ ’ and ‘ ‘ Google’ ’ in databases of SID, Magiran, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar in the time span of 19902017. Findings: The findings showed that factors such as restrictions on cognitive ability and occurring cognitive overload (cognitive overload theory), feeling regret about not including all items and then regret about the choice that leads to so-called "berry picking" or information selection with obsession (serendipity theory), and trying to select relevant information regarding to the cognitive capacity constraints (selective attention theory) are dissatisfaction factors in many retrieved results. Browsing researches in this area shows that amongst psychological factors, the personality factor is an effective factor in the choice overload. Conclusion: Users personality and search type are both effective variables in determining the level of satisfaction. According to the information retrieval systems' more direction toward customization, considering the type of personality and the type of search will lead to some retrieval with more satisfied users. Keyword(s): Choice overload theory,Psychological factors,Search type,Personality,Information retrieval systems
... Third, the results extend recent findings suggesting that, in addition to being a dispositional tendency, maximizing can also be triggered by the decision context (Ma & Roese, 2014). Fourth, this study extends an existing body of work which suggests that, contrary to the dominant view in both theory and practice, easier decisions do not necessarily result in increased choice satisfaction (Diehl, 2005;Levav et al., 2012;Mogilner, Shiv, & Iyengar, 2012;Scheibehenne, Greifeneder, & Todd, 2009;Schrift, Netzer, & Kivetz, 2011). ...
... Although much research has explored whether and when too much choice negatively affects choice likelihood (e.g., Reutskaja & Hogarth, 2009;Scheibehenne et al., 2009;White & Hoffrage, 2009), less research has investigated the effects of self-customization on choice likelihood (cf. Valenzuela et al., 2009). ...
Article
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Self‐customization in online shopping contexts readily offers an abundance of options for consumers. However, the sheer amount of information can quickly become overwhelming. One way to give people the freedom to choose without overwhelming them with information is to simplify the decision process by breaking it down into a series of smaller steps. Contrary to a common assumption that simpler decisions increase choice likelihood, however, this study demonstrates that a simple by‐attribute self‐customization process may activate a maximizing mindset, which increases people's desire to find better options and decreases their satisfaction with the ones available. Consequently, simplifying the self‐customization process can sometimes backfire by decreasing choice likelihood. Three studies suggest that although by‐attribute self‐customization formats are easier to choose from, compared with more complex matrix formats, they may sometimes—paradoxically—increase choice deferral. The findings suggest that a maximizing mindset mediates this effect, casting doubt on information‐based alternative explanations. The findings also suggest that whether by‐attribute self‐customization increases or decreases choice likelihood may depend on the presence of objective quality cues, which indicate that an objectively‐best option can be found. This study furthers the understanding of how decision difficulty and maximizing influence self‐customization decisions.
... David Felipe Villa Bedoya DOI: https://doi.org/10.17533/ udea.rp.v11n2a03 2006; Goodman y Malkoc, 2012); (3) productos duraderos costosos, como teléfonos celulares y computadoras portátiles (Fasolo, Carmeci y Misuraca, 2009;Sela, Berger y Liu, 2009); y, (4) bienes socialmente importantes, como caridades y fondos comunes (Scheibehenne, Greifeneder y Todd, 2009;Morrin, Broniarczyk y Inman, 2012). ...
Article
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Este artículo presenta un análisis de correlaciones entre los indicadores observables de la aversión al riesgo y la sobrecarga en la elección, en una muestra conformada por 120 estudiantes universitarios. Los resultados indican diversas correlaciones en el indicador tiempo, y diferencias significativas por género. El tiempo, al ser interpretado de manera aislada en investigaciones antecedentes, sustentaba explicaciones unidireccionales que tomaban al decisor como causa de las decisiones, en algunos casos, y al entorno, en otros. Se presentan dos niveles de análisis: (1) análisis de lo visible, que incluye consideraciones relacionadas directamente con los indicadores observables medidos y sus resultados, y (2) análisis de lo no visible, donde se establecen preguntas por el nivel de trascendencia del dato visible, se esboza el entendimiento de las situaciones decisorias como sistemas complejos de información sujetos al cambio y se discute la tendencia a explicar unidireccionalmente las causas del comportamiento en determinadas situaciones decisorias o contextos.
... Even if the natural tendency of a person is that of maximising decision options, there is evidence that our ability to process that information is constrained by our limited cognitive capacity, known as the 'too much choice effect' (Iyengar & Lepper, 2000;Scheibehenne et al., 2009). Within the non-profit context, the plethora of NPBs available creates its own challenges. ...
Article
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Many non-profit organisations (NPOs) deliver their services and mission through volunteers. Brand has been shown to be a powerful influence on the decision to volunteer. What was not known was the role that brand plays in volunteer choice between NPOs. Understanding this enables NPOs to be more effective at attracting the volunteers they need, particularly given limited budgets. Using Framework Analysis with a large qualitative sample, this paper contributes to that gap in knowledge. The research identifies three constructs driving volunteer choice of NPOs, sources of Brand Knowledge, level of Brand Engagement, and the behavioural process of choice, labelled Brand Discovery. Through exploring the relationship between these constructs, the study points to significant implications for NPOs for volunteer recruitment, importance of brand presence, and competitive set. The study makes several contributions to theory and practice. It extends volunteer motivation theory to examine non-profit brand choice. It builds on Symbolic Consumption Theory and Decision-Making Theory to define patterns of volunteer decision-making behaviour. It describes automatic, explicit, or considered decision-making despite high-involvement behaviour. As a result, the research calls for a new perspective on non-profit brands when seen through a volunteer lens, described as Business to Volunteer (B2V).
... The vastness of options and information available to users cause overload [23,67], as often experienced while shopping online ("tyranny of choice" [67]). Since overload is not a constant state during everyday situations [65], understanding when it occurs is crucial for creating minimal-overload visual selection catalogs. ...
Preprint
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The act of selection plays a leading role in the design process and in the definition of personal style. This work introduces visual selection catalogs into parametric design environments. A two-fold contribution is presented: (i) guidelines for construction of a minimal-bias visual selection catalog from a parametric space, and (ii) Inbetween, a catalog for a parametric typeface that adheres to the guidelines, allows for font selection from a continuous design space, and enables the investigation of personal style. A user study conducted among graphic designers, revealed self-coherent characteristics in selection patterns, and a high correlation in selection patterns within tasks. These findings suggest that such patterns reflect personal user styles, formalizing the style selection process as traversals of decision trees. Together, our guidelines and catalog aid in making visual selection a key building block in the digital creation process and validate selection processes as a measure of personal style.
... The above-stated quotes are affirmed by the study of Park and Fesenmaier (2014), who argues that although digital technology has significantly increased travellers' flexibility, tourists still face unanticipated uncertainties (Hyde & Decrop, 2011), such as having too many alternatives in their choice sets (Scheibehenne et al., 2009): My last trip was at such a short notice that I had no choice but to avail services of a professional travel agent who booked my family air tickets and accommodation. (Male, 49 years old) ...
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While many people see taking a vacation as a way to rejuvenate, escape and relieve monotonous life to get away from the stress they may experience in other aspects of their lives, but travelling can also be stressful for a lot of people. A total of 15 international tourists hailing diverse origins participated in qualitative semi-structured interviews. It was found that people, in general, do encounter the most travel stress before and on a vacation or trip. Acknowledging that things might go wrong is the first step in making sure they don't. Managerial implications are recommended for travel organizations, airline companies, airport customer dealing staff to assist to make the occasion less anxiety-provoking for the traveller.
... Thus, they experience less confusion and make less price comparisons. On the other hand, Iyengar & Lepper (2000); Iyengar, Wells, & Schwartz (2006); Scheibehenne, Greifeneder, & Todd (2009) put forward that the opportunity of choice which increases above a specific level paradoxically causes the consumers to feel less satisfied regarding the choice they made or not to be able to decide in any way at all. Moreover, when the root of the confusion problem is considered, the quality of the product, which is planned to be purchased, is an important question. ...
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Bu çalışmanın amacı marka performansının kafa karışıklığı ile marka sadakati arasındaki ilişki üzerinde ve belirsizlikten kaçınma ile marka sadakati arasındaki ilişki üzerindeki aracılık etkisinin olup olmadığını test etmektir. Önerilen kavramsal model 437 katılımcıdan elde edilen verilerle test edilmiştir. Yapılan analizler sonucunda marka performansının kafa karışıklığı ile marka sadakati arasındaki ilişki üzerinde tam aracılık etkisinin olduğu ve belirsizlikten kaçınma ile marka sadakati arasındaki ilişki üzerinde ise kısmi aracılık etkisi olduğu sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Ayrıca analizler neticesinde belirsizlikten kaçınmanın marka performansı üzerindeki değişkenliğin %28’ini, kafa karışıklığının marka performansı üzerindeki değişkenliğin %14’ünü ve marka performansının marka sadakatindeki değişkenliğin %81’ni açıkladığı tespit edilmiştir. Diğer taraftan kafa karışıklığının marka sadakatini direk olarak etkilemediği ve kafa karışıklığının marka sadakatini marka performansı üzerinden etkilediği sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.
... In Chernev et al. (2015)'s framework, choice overload can result in both subjective states such as choice satisfaction, decision regret, and decision confidence; and behavioral outcomes, including choice deferral, switching. More specifically, consumers experiencing choice overload may feel less determined and less confident (Chernev, 2003a(Chernev, , 2003bDhar and Nowlis, 1999;Haynes, 2009;Mogilner et al., 2008;Morrin et al., 2012;Scheibehenne et al., 2009). This is because consumers feel uncertain about whether their choice is the best option (Dhar and Nowlis, 1999). ...
Article
Online booking is one of the most popular ways of making reservations for hotel guests. Thus, hoteliers are paying increasing attention to hotel website information presentation and design. The purpose of this study, then, is to examine the joint influence of choice set size and information filtering mechanisms on consumers’ decision confidence towards online hotel booking. Choice set size was operationalized through 3-, 9-, and 30-hotel room choice sets. Through experimental design, this study shows that the presence of an information filtering mechanism reduces consumers’ perceptions of choice overload with a large number of choices (30 choices), whereas its impact is attenuated with smaller choice sets (3 and 9 choices). In addition, choice overload mediates the impact of choice set size on decision confidence. Theoretical contribution and managerial implications are also discussed.
... First, although many previous research has conducted studies in regarding to the assortment size and choice satisfaction, almost all studies allocate 6 options as small assortment size. The unusually small assortment size (binary decision) was never truly analyzed before except for one, mentioned in the meta-analysis paper on choice overload [5], which triggered some other processing mechanisms. Moreover, there are not very many studies focused on people's state after the purchases are made. ...
... Mogilner et al. (2008) did not find choice overload when the options were arranged in categories (a phenomenon known as the mere categorization effect). Scheibehenne et al. (2009) observed choice overload when participants had to justify their choices. Given these important findings, Scheibehenne et al. (2010) suggested that future researchers should continue to search for further possible moderators. ...
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Current research on choice overload has been mainly conducted with choice options not associated with specific brands. This study investigates whether the presence of brand names in the choice set affects the occurrence of choice overload. Across four studies, we find that when choosing among an overabundance of alternatives, participants express more positive feelings (i.e., higher satisfaction/confidence, lower regret and difficulty) when all the options of the choice set are associated with familiar brands, rather than unfamiliar brands or no brand at all. We also find that choice overload only appears in the absence of brand names, but disappears when all options contain brand names—either familiar or unfamiliar. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... This paper sparked a proliferation of related research and considerable debate about the boundaries and replicability of the choice overload effect. While some researchers have replicated the effect (e.g., Chernev, 2003;Shah & Wolford, 2007), others have not (e.g., Scheibehenne, Greifeneder, & Todd, 2009). And ultimately, a meta-analysis of the experiments examining the negative consequences of large choice sets showed no overall choice overload effect (Scheibehenne, Greifeneder, & Todd, 2010). ...
Article
Vosgerau, Scopelliti, and Huh (2020) question the construct validity of the most commonly used measures of self‐control and argue that many studies that claim to be examining self‐control may in fact be examining something else. In this comment, we generalize this argument and propose that this criticism could be leveraged against many other areas of consumer research. Indeed, many studies fail to properly establish the construct validity of their measures. Consequently, they may not be examining the construct they purport to be studying, which can lead to unreliable and conflicting findings.
... Scheibehenne and colleagues (2009) demonstrated the role that personal accountability plays on choice overload in their study, where participants were informed that they could choose to donate to a charity from a group, but that they would have justify their choice of charity. Participants who were presented with the smaller (five option) assortment were more likely to donate than were participants who were presented with the larger (40 option) assortment (Scheibehenne et al., 2009). Without the justification manipulation, the opposite was found: individuals were more likely to donate to a charity if they chose from the larger array. ...
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The paradox of choice leads one to desire more options over fewer options even when there are negative consequences when choosing from larger arrays (choice overload). The paradox of choice may be shared among mammals or it could result from cultural influences relevant to humans. Research with monkeys and young children sheds light on the developmental precursors of the paradox and may highlight the human-uniqueness of this effect. I tested young children (41.5–66.0 months) and monkeys (tufted capuchins, rhesus macaques) to examine choice overload effects. Limited evidence was found that children exhibited choice overload when choosing among six and twelve toys but not when choosing among three toys. No evidence of choice overload was found for monkeys, although this may be due to methodological limitations. Consistent with previous literature on choice and control, monkeys also demonstrated a preference for more options over fewer.
... Scheibehenne et al. [85] performed a meta-analysis of 50 studies voting against and in favor of the overchoice hypothesis, and found that the overall effect size comes close to zero. There seem to be necessary preconditions for a choice set before overchoice occurs [84,85]. One factor is the attractiveness of the choice set plays. ...
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Music streaming services increasingly incorporate different ways for users to browse for music. Next to the commonly used “genre” taxonomy, nowadays additional taxonomies, such as mood and activities, are often used. As additional taxonomies have shown to be able to distract the user in their search, we looked at how to predict taxonomy preferences in order to counteract this. Additionally, we looked at how the number of categories presented within a taxonomy influences the user experience. We conducted an online user study where participants interacted with an application called “Tune-A-Find”. We measured taxonomy choice (i.e., mood, activity, or genre), individual differences (e.g., personality traits and music expertise factors), and different user experience factors (i.e., choice difficulty and satisfaction, perceived system usefulness and quality) when presenting either 6- or 24-categories within the picked taxonomy. Among 297 participants, we found that personality traits are related to music taxonomy preferences. Furthermore, our findings show that the number of categories within a taxonomy influences the user experience in different ways and is moderated by music expertise. Our findings can support personalized user interfaces in music streaming services. By knowing the user’s personality and expertise, the user interface can adapt to the user’s preferred way of music browsing and thereby mitigate the problems that music listeners are facing while finding their way through the abundance of music choices online nowadays.
... Sometimes, large numbers of choices may cause a negative outcome. Too many choices may increase the cognitive cost (MacKie-Mason, Shenker, & Varian, 1996) and make people less satisfied, have greater regret or make no choice at all (Iyengar & Lepper, 2000;Park & Jang, 2013;Scheibehenne, Greifeneder, & Todd, 2009), which is termed "choice overload" (Diehl & Poynor, 2010;Mogilner, Rudnick, & Iyengar, 2008). Thus, future studies should pay more attention to the experimental design and control the number of choices. ...
Article
Social equity consists of opportunity equity and outcome equity. Although numerous studies have used ultimatum games to examine individuals' decision-making behavior in outcome distributions, few studies have explored this behavior in opportunity distributions. Our study used a modified version of the ultimatum game to explore fairness decision-making behavior and the underlying psychological mechanisms of opportunity equity in gain and loss contexts. We found that opportunity equity had a similar influence as outcome equity on people's fairness perception and decision-making behavior, even though the number of opportunities had nothing to do with the outcome. However, we also found that there were some differences between opportunity equity and outcome equity in the behavior pattern of evaluation and reaction processes. Our results provide evidence of inequity aversion for inequality of opportunity and expand inequity aversion theory. These findings may contribute to the reduction of social inequity and promote the development of a more harmonious society.
... input can be processed by the automatic tools (recall) and their output can only be as precise as the task input allows (precision). Additionally, the choice of an appropriate threshold to accept or reject produced results is also a subject of debate in related literature (Scheibehenne et al., 2009;Schwartz, 2004). Another option is to provide the crowd all possible choices in a finite domain -in our case all classes of the DBpedia ontology. ...
Thesis
Microtask crowdsourcing has been applied in many fields in the past decades, but there are still important challenges not fully addressed, especially in task/workflow design and aggregation methods to help produce a correct result or assess the quality of the result. This research took a deeper look at crowdsourcing classification tasks and explored how task and workflow design can impact the quality of the classification result. This research used a large online knowledge base and three citizen science projects as examples to investigate workflow design variations and their impacts on the quality of the classification result based on statistical, probabilistic, or machine learning models for true label inference, such that design principles can be recommended and applied in other citizen science projects or other human-computer hybrid systems to improve overall quality. It is noticeable that most of the existing research on aggregation methods to infer true labels focus on simple single-step classification though a large portion of classification tasks are not simple single-step classification. There is only limited research looking into such multiple-step classification tasks in recent years and each has a domain-specific or problem-specific focus making it difficult to be applied to other multiple-steps classifications cases. This research focused on multiple-step classification, modeling the classification task as a path searching problem in a graph, and explored alternative aggregation strategies to infer correct label paths by leveraging established individual algorithms from simple majority voting to more sophisticated algorithms like message passing, and expectation-maximisation. This research also looked at alternative workflow design to classify objects using the DBpedia entity classification as a case study and demonstrated the pros and cons of automatic, hybrid, and completely humanbased workflows. As a result, it is able to provide suggestions to the task requesters for crowdsourcing classification task design and help them choose the aggregation method that will achieve a good quality result.
... A complexidade do conjunto de opções (choice-set complexity) se refere a como as opções são organizadas, se há uma opção dominante e como a informação é provida a respeito de cada opção. Scheibehenne, Greifeneder & Todd (2009 também ressaltam a importância de que tipo de informação é ofertada sobre as opções -além do tipo de expertise que o indivíduo possui sobre o objeto em questão e a importância subjetiva dada à decisão. No Brasil, temos dispositivos que visam prover informação aos eleitores. ...
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Este livro, em formato digital, reuniu pesquisadores(as) dedicados(as) à pesquisa empírica sobre os políticos profissionais no I Colóquio do Observatório de elites: políticos profissionais em análise, organizado pelo Observatório de elites políticas e sociais do Brasil da UFPR em junho de 2021. O objetivo foi debater assunções teóricas, estratégias metodológicas, técnicas de análise e formas de melhor circunscrever esse velho/ novo tema de estudo.
... Similarly, the emerging evidence suggests that the available COVID-19 vaccine types (e.g., mRNA vs. inactivated) present distinct immunogenicity profiles [45], and this may form the basis of more personalized future vaccination schedules. Core theories in economics, psychology and social marketing underline the fact that decision-makers benefit from having more choice [46] and that having more choice is associated with more positive patient outcomes than having no choice [47]. By recognizing that hesitant patients are amenable to modified interventions, personalization of the standardized immunization schedule and service may reduce non-compliance [48]. ...
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Co-administration of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and seasonal influenza vaccines has several advantages, has been advocated by various public health authorities and should be seen as an opportunity to increase the uptake of both vaccines. The objective of this survey was to quantify the acceptance of concomitant COVID-19/influenza vaccination and to identify its correlates in a representative sample of Italian adults. Of 2463 participants, a total of 22.9% were favorable to vaccine co-administration, while 16.6% declared their firm unwillingness to receive both vaccines simultaneously. The remaining 60.5% of subjects could be dubbed hesitant to some degree. Compliance with the primary COVID-19 vaccination schedule (adjusted proportional odds ratio (aOR) = 7.78), previous influenza vaccination (aOR = 1.89) and trust in public health institutions (aOR = 1.22) were the main determinants of positive attitudes toward vaccine co-administration. Other significant correlates included age, sex, perceived disease severity and vaccination risk-benefit , being offered a more personalized influenza vaccine and recent seeking for influenza-related information. In Italy, hesitancy toward COVID-19/influenza vaccine co-administration is common and appears to be higher than hesitancy toward either vaccine administered alone. This pattern is multifaceted and requires specific and tailored strategies, with public health institutions playing the central role.
... It follows that it is not just the actual assortment size (i.e., the total number of SKUs shelved) but rather the subjective perceptions of assortment size that drives consumer perceptions of the store ( van Herpen & Pieters, 2002). Previous literature challenged the idea that larger perceived assortment sizes always leave consumers more satisfied (Broniarczyk, Hoyer, & McAlister, 1998), explaining this finding on the basis of either cognitive overload (Iyengar & Lepper, 2000), expectation disconfirmation (Diehl & Poynor, 2010), or actual assortment size (Scheibehenne, Greifeneder, & Todd, 2009). When addressing the role of perceived assortment size on the relationship between shopping orientation and satisfaction, one might consider that the relative preference for smaller product assortments may be stronger when consumers are motivated by instrumental rather than experiential goals (Aydinli, Gu, & Pham, 2012). ...
... Increasing individual choice has both advantages and disadvantages. Having multiple choices can lead to the absence of a decision (Botti & Iyengar, 2006;Inesi, Botti, Dubois, Rucker, & Galinsky, 2011;Ratner et al., 2008;Scheibehenne & Greifendeder, 2010;Scheibehenne, Greifeneder, & Todd, 2009) and puts the burden of saving on the worker. There are several types of DC plans, each having a variety of employer monetary contributions. ...
... In this sense sharing was distracting and led to shallower processing (Craik & Lockhart, 1972). Furthermore, there may be an additional cost to having a large number of choices (although the literature is mixed on this point; see Scheibehenne, Greifeneder, & Todd, 2009). ...
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The internet is rapidly changing what information is available as well as how we find it and share it with others. Here we examine how this “digital expansion of the mind”__ changes cognition. We begin by identifying ten properties of the internet that likely affect cognition, roughly organized around internet content (e.g., the sheer amount of information available), internet usage (e.g., the requirement to search for information), and the people and communities who create and propagate content (e.g., people are connected in an unprecedented fashion). We use these properties to explain (or ask questions about) internet-related phenomena, such as habitual reliance on the internet, the propagation of misinformation, and consequences for autobiographical memory, among others. Our goal is to consider the impact of internet usage on many aspects of cognition, as people increasingly rely on the internet to seek, post, and share information.
... Fifth, tourists continue to face unexpected ambiguity (Hyde & Decrop, 2011), including having numerous options available among brands from which to make final choices (Scheibehenne, Greifeneder & Todd, 2009). This phenomenon typically is referred to as "choice overload". ...
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This study proposes and tests a new model of memorable local food experiences by examining the effect of the servicescape, novelty seeking, experience co-creation, choice overload and experience intensification on memories of local food experiences. The study also examines how such experiences impact hedonic well-being. Using an online survey questionnaire, data were gathered from 321 international tourists who tasted local food while visiting Rovaniemi, Finland, in the past year. The present study’s main contributions include the extension of the memorable tourism experience construct and the inclusion of experience co-creation, the servicescape and experience intensification as crucial variables that affect tourists’ memorable local food experiences. This paper also extends the bottom-up spillover theory of subjective well-being by demonstrating that memories of local food experiences allow for the intrusion of the extraordinary into tourists’ residual culture, thereby benefitting them while at home by promoting their well-being.
Chapter
Shoppers undertake a multitude of shopping missions and each retail sector describes these missions in their own ways. However, there are some common denominators in shopping missions such as the level of browsing and public accountability of what the shopper purchased. Berkhout discusses the impact of these aspects on perceived variety and complexity of assortment. Berkhout applies a model on choice overload to determine how elements such as assortment size and shopping mission interact. Arguments are given to highlight that ‘shopping mission’ is the most decisive factor in explaining choice overload.
Chapter
With the rise of online, the role of assortment may have become more important for retailers than location and pricing. When it comes to assortment size, suppliers, retailers and shoppers have sometimes conflicting interests. Retailers need to consider shopper restrictions due to cognitive choice and visual capabilities. Solution could be assortment reduction and Berkhout gives many practical examples to make that work. Key to the solution is that the perceived assortment variety is more important than actual size. Finally, Berkhout discusses academic studies that show the limited impact of space elasticities and the effects of “white” space on product aesthetics.
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Variable pricing is frequently employed by service firms that adopt revenue management practices. This strategy is effective in stimulating and increasing revenue by appealing to customers with different levels of price sensitivity. However, by providing excessive price options, a company may cause choice overload for customers. Within the framework of behavioral economics, this study explores an effective price presentation strategy to mitigate choice overload due to a large assortment size of price options in the context of hotels. The findings of the experimental design study suggest that the number of categories that distinguish and organize price options positively affects consumers' perceived decision difficulty and consequent decision satisfaction when a large assortment size of price options is provided. This research extends the understanding of the effect of variable pricing on consumers' responses and provides marketers with guidance on how to manage variable pricing and its price presentation format.
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This study examines how the number of choices offered on a website influences consumers' internal states (affective and cognitive responses) and their approach/avoidance behavior during online apparel shopping. Focus-group and questionnaire data collection methods with a 3 (number of choices) by 3 (presentation formats) factorial experimental design were employed. The theoretical frameworks, “choice overload” and “online store atmospherics and shopper response,” were applied. A total of 382 usable responses were collected. Although the interaction proposed in the study was not statistically significant, the findings of the study show that the effect of choice overload may not only influence the in-task generated responses but also have a deeper and long-lasting impact on the online consumer behavior. The respondents react to the large choice set on the basis of feelings and emotions (affective responses), and these responses ultimately lead to a subsequent attitude and approach behavior.
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The focus of this paper is placed on the role of emotions in consumer behavior, specifically in the process of purchasing dietary supplements during the COVID-19 pandemic. The theoretical part is based on current knowledge from relevant Croatian and foreign scientific and professional literature on dietary supplements, the COVID-19 pandemic, consumer behavior, decision-making and the impact of emotions on it, while the empirical research portion of this paper details the attitudes of consumers who buy food supplements, the role and importance of different emotions that have a greater or a lesser impact on the purchase of food supplements, with special reference to the timing of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the factors that make consumers decide to purchase food supplements. This research was conducted in the form of a survey that included 257 respondents who were actual users of dietary supplements. It showed that the main drive for buying dietary supplements during the COVID-19 pandemic is the emotion of fear, as the consumers perceived this new disease as a threat to their health and life.
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Are potential contributors more likely to support a prosocial cause when presented with few contribution options or with many options? Across four studies—an analysis of archival contribution data from the crowdfunding site Kickstarter, a field experiment conducted in cooperation with a grocery store and a snack bar company, and two controlled laboratory experiments—we consistently find that when a fundraiser offers more options to potential contributors, the likelihood of contribution initially decreases and then increases. The result is a U-shaped relationship between the number of contribution options and contribution likelihood. We do not find such an effect for non-prosocial choices. With a fifth study, we offer a preliminary and tentative theoretical explanation for the U-shaped relationship, suggesting that the type of information processing by the decision maker (intuitive rather than deliberate) underlies this effect.
Purpose This study aims to identify, within the context of the French fashion industry, the characteristics of multichannel shoppers, that is, consumers who use more than one channel in a single shopping trip. We especially investigate whether consumers' focus on quality versus price affects their multichannel shopping tendency and their flexibilities in their shopping lists (basket flexibility). Design/methodology/approach We surveyed a representative sample of 400 French shoppers regarding fashion apparel purchasing. We use a logistic regression framework to measure the probability of a shopper becoming a multichannel shopper based on the key constructs and a battery of control variables. Findings The analysis shows that, in fashion buying, shoppers focused on quality and those with high basket flexibility have a higher probability of becoming multichannel shoppers. The probability becomes even greater when a shopper is both quality oriented and has basket flexibility. Research limitations/implications We focus on the fashion apparel market for a deeper understanding of multichannel usage of products with both experience and search features. Future research can investigate other industries for higher generalizability. Practical implications Our research provides insights into multichannel fashion companies whose managements aim to effectively manage high-value customers who tend to use more channels when shopping. Specifically, an omnichannel marketing strategy should focus on capturing the quality-oriented and highly basket-flexible segment of consumers. Originality/value Our study provides evidence that for products having high experiential as well as search features, quality-oriented and highly flexible shoppers engage more in multichannel shopping. Because these characteristics are related to the long-term value of customers, we provide the link between multichannel marketing and firm profitability in the context of the fashion industry.
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Aristotle proposed that to achieve happiness and success, people should cultivate virtues at mean or intermediate levels between deficiencies and excesses. In stark contrast to this assertion that virtues have costs at high levels, a wealth of psychological research has focused on demonstrating the well-being and performance benefits of positive traits, states, and experiences. This focus has obscured the prevalence and importance of nonmonotonic inverted-U-shaped effects, whereby positive phenomena reach inflection points at which their effects turn negative. We trace the evidence for nonmonotonic effects in psychology and provide recommendations for conceptual and empirical progress. We conclude that for psychology in general and positive psychology in particular, Aristotle’s idea of the mean may serve as a useful guide for developing both a descriptive and a prescriptive account of happiness and success.
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Purpose Choice overload in e-commerce induces choice difficulty, which is detrimental to shopping decision-making. The purpose of this paper is to provide relatively simple and effective methods and indicators to detect and assess the choice difficulty states of customers during clothing online shopping. Design/methodology/approach In order to find out the behavioral performance of choice difficulty states during clothing online shopping, the authors performed the following steps: at first, the authors conducted an experiment to record the videos of the purchasing process during clothing online shopping. Then, the authors carried out the behavioral analysis of customers, correlating each behavioral index to choice difficulty states. Findings The results of the behavioral analysis in this study have indicated that three types of behavior were significantly correlated to the choice difficulty states of customers. Practical implications It is expected that it would be possible to use the threshold values of behavioral indicators to determine whether and when the customer is suffering from choice phobia disorder. Based on the findings, a recommender system with timely interventions to help customers with choice difficulty to make shopping decisions will be developed in the future. Originality/value This is the first reported study that explores the possibility of using behavioral indicators to detect choice difficulty, which will remain helpful to the scientific community to start further customer-centered research work and development of clothing online shopping.
Article
Purpose Research on choice overload with adult participants has shown that the presence of a brand significantly mitigates the phenomenon. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether these findings can be expanded to a population of adolescents, where it has already been shown that choice overload occurs in a similar way as adults. Design/methodology/approach Studies 1 and 2 aim to test whether the presence of a brand name mitigates the adverse consequences of choice overload in adolescents. In line with prior research on choice overload, in both studies, the authors compared between-subjects differences in the levels of reported dissatisfaction, difficulty and regret in a choice condition where adolescents chose among either 6 or 24 options associated with brand names and in another choice condition where adolescents chose among the same 6 or 24 options but not associated with brand names. Findings This paper presents evidence from two studies that when facing either a large or a small amount of choice options that are associated with brand names, choice overload disappears among adolescents. Conversely, when no brands are associated to the choice options, adolescents report choice overload, that is a greater dissatisfaction, difficulties and regret with larger (versus smaller) assortments. Practical implications Prior research on choice overload has led to recommendations that marketers and other choice architects should simply reduce choice options or assortments to improve consumers’ satisfaction. However, our finding suggests that this recommendation may be invalidated when brands are present, at least for certain age groups. Adolescents cope indeed very well with large assortments of branded products. Originality/value The research adds to the existing understanding of choice overload, demonstrating that the brand is a moderator of the phenomenon for adolescents, who currently represent a large portion of the market. A second important contribution of this work is that it extends prior research on choice overload to real-world consumer scenarios, where consumers choose among products with a brand, rather than among products described only by technical characteristics or nutritional values, as in classical studies on choice overload.
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This paper explores how voice-activated smart home devices (SHDs) like Amazon Alexa and Google Home influence consumers’ retail information seeking and ordering behaviors. The impacts of device utility and hedonic perceptions of voice are examined in an extension of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The authors augment existing principles of technology acceptance theories by adding specific drivers of opinion-seeking behavior to better comprehend consumers’ perceptions of device utility for online retail activity. Both gender and generation were found to influence consumer intentions to use SHDs for online ordering of products. A rationale for future research on consumer interaction with SHDs is offered.
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L'effetto del sovraccarico di scelta è stato finora studiato prevalentemente su adulti. L'unico studio condotto su fasce di età diverse dagli adulti ha fornito una prima dimostrazione del fatto che le conseguenze negative dell'avere troppa scelta non si estendono in egual misura a bambini, adolescenti, adulti e anziani. Il presente lavoro si propone di indagare ulteriormente le conseguenze negati-ve dell'avere troppa scelta su bambini, adolescenti e anziani. I dati suggeriscono che mentre gli adolescenti sono influenzati dal fenomeno in modo simile agli adulti, i bambini e gli anziani sembrano invece esserne immuni. Sono discusse le implicazioni teoriche e pratiche dei risultati e sono forniti spunti per ulteriori ricerche.
Fast fashion trends have led to an enormous local brand proliferation in India. Brand proliferation has further led to an overchoice effect among the Indian consumers due to which, they are now increasingly less satisfied with their apparel purchases. These factors have created immense stress on the small fashion retailers (SFR) which are currently responsible for about 80% of retailing in India. In the pre-COVID times, SFR’s followed the practice of overstocking many brands for capturing the maximum market and then clearing the inventory at the end of the season through heavy discounting. This strategy became ineffective after the COVID-19 disruption. SFR’s must now optimize their brand portfolio to minimize the overchoice effect and maximize the inventory turnover ratio. To this effect, we propose an efficient fuzzy probability-based brand portfolio optimization model, which relies on primary data analysis to classify brands in groups of substitutes. Brands with maximum market share from each group must be included in the portfolio. We demonstrate the efficacy of our model through a case study on SFR. Our results show that the inventory turnover ratio was increased from 2 to 4. We further show that our grouping strategy can be used to identify competitive brands for a local band.
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Are there too many options in online shopping? Although extant studies have largely focused on the effects of choice overload, few shed light on choice overload in online shopping situations. In light of online shopping’s untouchable nature and sorting mechanisms, we argue that choice overload in online shopping is associated with consumer vigilance and assortment desirability. Across four experiments, we found that the size of the online choice set significantly influences consumers’ choice difficulty and choice deferral. We also discovered that consumer vigilance and assortment desirability moderate these relationships. Specifically, high vigilance increases the negative impact of assortment size on consumer decision, whereas assortment product desirability alleviates this consequence. We contribute to the literature by extending prior predictions of choice overload and proposing a framework involving choice overload, vigilance, and desirability for future research.
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Many retailers use seemingly innocuous dividing lines to separate product alternatives on their websites or product catalogs. Although previous research on advertising design has focused on the impact of dividing lines on symbolic meanings or perceived categorization, the present research argues that, beyond symbolic or categorical functions, a dividing line can influence consumers' perceived quantity of the product alternatives displayed. Across 10 studies (including an eye‐tracking study and three additional studies reported in the Supporting Information Appendix), our results show that consumers perceive a smaller number of products displayed on a page when these products are separated by a dividing line compared to when they are not. This effect occurs because the dividing line separates the products into top versus bottom (or left vs. right) segments, such that participants' visual attention is largely drawn to the top (or the left) where their eyes first fixate. Consequently, participants tend to estimate the total number of items based on the subset they pay attention to. In addition, the effect is attenuated when participants' attention is directly drawn to the segment they have previously neglected and can hold regardless of line orientation. Finally, it can have several marketing outcomes, such as higher willingness to buy and lower post‐choice satisfaction.
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Evidence regarding the impact of product line breadth (PLB) on brand performance remains fragmented; the current research proposes an influential effect of product equity in determining PLB success. To test these predictions, Study 1 first identifies heterogeneous effects of PLB on brand performance according to the levels of product equity. Specifically, PLB hinders (improves) the performance of low (high) product equity brands. Then Study 2 identifies two drivers of PLB effectiveness, product attribute differences and competitive intensity, that have contrasting influences for brands with high versus low product equity. These influences exert long-term, cumulative effects (i.e., over 104 weeks). To ensure the generalizability and applicability of the findings, this research effort spans a vast consumer scanner data set, involving 268 brand panels, 14 product categories, and three retailers. Based on this collected evidence, the authors propose a matrix of managerial actions that practitioners can adopt to increase their PLB effectiveness.
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The extent of altruistic giving is influenced by the numbers of givers and recipients available in a group. Two independent lines of research have addressed the effect. On the one hand, research on the bystander effect shows that a person gives less when givers outnumber recipients than if they are equal in number. On the other, studies of congestible altruism have found that a person gives more when recipients outnumber givers than if they are equal in size. An interesting question is whether giving decreases at a different rate when givers outnumber recipients than it increases the other way around. Answering the question helps illuminate whether the two effects of collective giving, which the literature has discussed separately, are governed by the same rule. We conducted a multi-person dictator game experiment to investigate people’s giving behavior in different group sizes of givers and recipients. We found that giving decreases more rapidly when givers outnumber recipients than it increases the other way around. A behavioral economics model is proposed to show how people’s belief about the selfishness of other givers can account for the asymmetry of the two effects.
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The provision of choice in terms of how people use goods and services has been proposed as a vehicle of improvement of social welfare. This article highlights some of the costs and benefits of creating choice, and it discusses how much choice policy makers and other agents (e.g., employers, retailers) should ideally grant and in what form they should grant it.
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The wide range of 401(k) plans offered to employees has raised the question of whether there is such as thing as too much choice. The 401(k) participation rates among clients of the Vanguard Group were studied to verify the assumption that more choice is more desirable and intrinsically motivating. It was found that 401(k) plans that offered more funds had lower probability of employee participation. © Pension Research Council, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, 2004. All rights reserved.
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Hundreds of articles in statistical journals have pointed out that standard analysis of variance, Pearson product- moment correlations, and least squares regression can be highly misleading and can have relatively low power even under very small departures from normality. In practical terms, psychology journals are littered with nonsignificant results that would have been significant if a more modern method had been used. Modern robust techniques, developed during the past 30 years, provide very effective methods for dealing with nonnormality, and they compete very well with conventional procedures when standard assumptions are met. In addition, modern methods provide accurate confidence intervals for a much broader range of situations, they provide more effective methods for detecting and studying outliers, and they can be used to get a deeper understanding of how variables are related. This article outlines and illustrates these results.
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The author reports some empirical results on the strength of the quality-price relation. For many products, the relation between quality and price appears to be very weak; hence, for many products, higher prices appear to be poor signals of higher quality.
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Marketing researchers recently have expended considerable effort to investigate how price influences buyers' decisions yielding a variety of results, some not entirely explainable. This article reviews the relevant research literature, organizes the results, and suggests new research directions.
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Hundreds of articles in statistical journals have pointed out that standard analysis of variance, Pearson product-moment correlations, and least squares regression can be highly misleading and can have relatively low power even under very small departures from normality In practical terms, psychology journals are littered with nonsignificant results that would have been significant if a more modern method had been used. Modern robust techniques, developed during the past 30 years, provide very effective methods for dealing with nonnormality, and they compete very well with conventional procedures when standard assumptions are met. In addition, modem methods provide accurate confidence intervals for a much broader range of situations, they provide more effective methods for detecting and studying outliers, and they can be used to get a deeper understanding of how variables are related. This article outlines and illustrates these results.
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This paper develops a technique for isolating and studying the per- ceptual structures that chess players perceive. Three chess players of varying strength - from master to novice - were confronted with two tasks: ( 1) A perception task, where the player reproduces a chess position in plain view, and (2) de Groot's ( 1965) short-term recall task, where the player reproduces a chess position after viewing it for 5 sec. The successive glances at the position in the perceptual task and long pauses in tbe memory task were used to segment the structures in the reconstruction protocol. The size and nature of these structures were then analyzed as a function of chess skill. What does an experienced chess player "see" when he looks at a chess position? By analyzing an expert player's eye movements, it has been shown that, among other things, he is looking at how pieces attack and defend each other (Simon & Barenfeld, 1969). But we know from other considerations that he is seeing much more. Our work is concerned with just what ahe expert chess pIayer perceives.
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The author reports some empirical results on the strength of the quality-price relation. For many products, the relation between quality and price appears to be very weak; hence, for many products, higher prices appear to be poor signals of higher quality.
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Grocery retailers have been informed that, to remain competitive, they must reduce the number of stockkeeping units (SKUs) offered, in line with consumer demand, or, in other words, adopt "Efficient Assortment." Retailers have resisted this principle on the basis of a fear that eliminating items would lower consumer assortment perceptions and decrease the likelihood of store choice. In two studies, the authors examine how consumers form assortment perceptions in the face of SKU reduction with a particular emphasis on two heuristic cues: the availability of a favorite product and the amount of shelf space devoted to the category. Results indicate that retailers might be able to make substantive reductions in the number of items carried without negatively affecting assortment perceptions and store choice, as long as only low-preference items are eliminated and category space is held constant. Thus, the potential risk inherent in item reduction might be more limited than initially thought. The authors then discuss the implications of these findings for retailers, as well as additional measurement considerations.
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Choice often produces conflict. This notion, however, plays no role in classical decision theory, in which each alternative is assigned a value, and the decision maker selects from every choice set the option with the highest value. We contrast this principle of value maximization with the hypothesis that the option to delay choice or seek new alternatives is more likely to be selected when conflict is high than when it is low. This hypothesis is supported by several studies showing that the tendency to defer decision, search for new alternatives, or choose the default option can be increased when the offered set is enlarged or improved, contrary to the principle of value maximization.
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When unit prices were posted on separate shelf tags in a supermarket, consumer expenditures decreased by 1%. When unit prices were displayed also on an organized list, consumer savings were 3%. In addition, the list format caused a 5% increase in the market shares of store brands. The benefits to both consumers and retailers justify the cost of providing unit price information on a widespread basis.
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In recent years, interest in category management has surged, and as a consequence, large retailers now systematically review their product assortments. Variety is a key property of assortments. Assortment variety can determine consumers' store choice and is only gaining in importance with today's increasing numbers of product offerings. To support retailers in managing their assortments, insight is needed into the influence of assortment composition on consumers' variety perceptions, and appropriate measures of assortment variety are required. This paper aims to extend the assortment variety model recently proposed by Hoch et al. (1999) in Marketing Science. It conceptualizes assortment variety from an attribute-based perspective and compares this with the product-based approach of Hoch, Bradlow, and Wansink (HBW). The attribute-based approach offers an alternative viewpoint for assortment variety. Attribute- and product-based approaches reflect basic conceptualizations of assortment variety that assume substantially different perception processes: a consumer comparing products one-by-one versus a consumer examining attributes across products in the assortment. While the product-based approach focuses on the dissimilarity between product pairs in an assortment, the attribute-based approach that we propose focuses on the marginal and joint distributions of the attributes. We conjecture and aim to show that an attribute-based approach suffices to predict consumers' perceptions of assortment variety. In operationalizing the attribute-based approach, two measures of assortment variety are described and compared to product-based measures. These two measures relate to the dispersion of attribute levels, e.g., if all products have the same color or different colors, and the dissociation between attributes, e.g., if product color and size are unrelated. The ability of product-based and attributed-based measures to predict consumers' perceptions of assortment variety is assessed. The product-based measures (Hamming) tap the dissimilarity of products in an assortment across attributes. The attribute-based measures tap the dispersion of attribute levels across products (Entropy) and the dissociation between product attributes (1-Lambda) in an assortment. In two studies, we examine the correlations between these measures in a well-behaved environment (study 1) and the predictive validity of the measures for perceived variety in a consumer experiment.(study 2). Study 1, using synthetic data, shows that the attribute-based measures tap specific aspects of assortment variety and that the attribute-based measures are less sensitive to the size of assortments than product-based measures are. Whereas HBW focus on assortments of equal size, study I indicates that an extension to assortments of unequal size results in summed Hamming measures that correlate highly with assortment size. The latter is important when assortments of different size are compared. Next, we examine how well the measures capture consumers' perception of variety. Study 2, a consumer experiment, shows that the attribute-based measures account best for consumers' perceptions of variety. Attribute-based measures significantly add to the prediction of consumers' perceptions of variety, over and above the product-based measures, while the reverse is not the case. Interestingly, this study also indicates that assortment size may not be a good proxy for perceived assortment variety. The findings illustrate the value of an attribute-based conceptualization of assortment variety, since these measures (1) correlate only moderately with assortment size and (2) suffice to predict consumers' perceptions of assortment variety. In the final section we briefly discuss how attribute-based and product-based measures can be used in assortment management, and when product-and attribute-based approaches may predict consumers' variety perceptions. We discuss how an attribute-based approach can identify which attribute levels and attribute combinations influence consumers' perceptions of variety most, while a product-based approach can identify influential products. Both approaches have applications in specific situations. For instance, an attribute-based approach can identify influential attributes in an ordered, simultaneous presentation of products, while a product-based approach can assess the impact of sequential presentations of products better. In addition, we indicate how the random-intercept model estimated in study 2 can be further extended to capture the influence of, e.g., consumer characteristics.
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Behavioral decision research: A constructive processing perspective
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Introduction, 99. — I. Some general features of rational choice, 100.— II. The essential simplifications, 103. — III. Existence and uniqueness of solutions, 111. — IV. Further comments on dynamics, 113. — V. Conclusion, 114. — Appendix, 115.
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Proposes a model of the store image formation process and presents results of a study of how environmental cues were used in forming store images by 120 undergraduates. Findings show that Ss utilized different cues in developing different image factors. Ss considered brand name information as the most important cue in forming quality of merchandise impressions; the number of salespersons in each department was the most salient cue in evaluating the quality of service. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Proposed a general model of assortment for describing consumer decision making among assortments or menus of options from which a single option will be chosen at a later time. The model captured both the utility of the items within the assortments and the flexibility the items offered as a group. The model was supported empirically with 2 laboratory experiments. In Exp 1, 41 undergraduates tested the underlying assumptions, and in Exp 2, 12 7th-grade girls and 31 Master of Business Administration students compared the predictive validity of the model with that provided by other models (e.g., a nested logit model by D. McFadden, 1986). In Exp 1, empirical support was found for the assumptions of the model, and in Exp 2, the model performed significantly better than several simpler models in more than half the cases. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Previous research has focused primarily on affect generated from counterfactual thinking after decisions have been made. The current study, in contrast, examined how predecision mental simulations (prefactuals) and feelings of anticipated regret are affected by different marketing strategies. A preliminary investigation found that consumers frequently produce upward prefactuals (e.g., if I buy it today and find it for less next week, I'll regret my purchase) when considering a major purchase. It was hypothesized that providing price guarantees would reduce upward prefactual generation and reduce anticipated regret. The primary investigation supported these predictions. When price guarantees were available, prefactuals were more downward in direction and negative affect was reduced. Also, price guarantees increased long-term satisfaction and happiness even when they were not exercised. Implications for mental simulation, marketing, and judgment and decision making are discussed. © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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This study investigates the influence of bilingual product packaging descriptions on product evaluation. In an experimental study, the evaluation of a product with an English-only package is compared to the evaluation of the same product in a bilingual package. The evaluation of the product in the bilingual package is found to be significantly lower. Ethnocentrism and prejudice are investigated as possible explanations for this differential. The effect of the method of information processing used to evaluate the product (peripheral vs. central) is also explored. Both ethnocentrism and prejudice affect evaluations of a product in a bilingual package in a peripheral processing situation, but not in a central processing situation. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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The goal of this article is to deepen the understanding of the consideration stage in choice processes. The basic questions are: Why do people consider different brands/products in the first place? What cognitive processes lead to the formation of consideration sets? Based on the notion that consumers are volitional decision makers capable of controlling their own behavior according to their goals, a self-regulatory model of consideration-set formation is developed. Goals at different levels of abstraction are hypothesized to determine considerationset formation. In contrast to the notion of congruence, which relates the ideal self to consumer choice, the authors focus on the motivational function of the self. Based on a self-regulatory model, it is shown that the ideal self, as a macrolevel goal, determines desired benefits. Desired benefits, as more specific goals, then determine brand consideration. In contrast to stimulus-based choice approaches, consideration-set composition is investigated in a memory-based, comparable-choice context of real adult consumers considering the purchase of automobiles. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Subjects are reluctant to vaccinate a (hypothetical) child when the vaccination itself can cause death, even when this is much less likely than death from the disease prevented. This effect is even greater when there is a ‘risk group’ for death (with its overall probability held constant), even though the test for membership in the risk group is unavailable. This effect cannot be explained in terms of a tendency to assume that the child is in the risk group. A risk group for death from the disease has no effect on reluctance to vaccinate. The reluctance is an example of omission bias (Spranca, Minsk & Baron, in press), an overgeneralization of a distinction between commissions and omissions to a case in which it is irrelevant. Likewise, it would ordinarily be prudent to find out whether a child is in a risk group before acting, but in this case it is impossible, so knowledge of the existence of the risk group is irrelevant. The risk-group effect is consistent with Frisch & Baron's (1988) interpretation of ambiguity.
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The number of alternatives available to people in many day-to-day decisions has greatly increased in Western societies. The present research sought to build upon recent research suggesting that having large numbers of alternatives can sometimes have negative consequences for individuals. In the present experiment, participants were presented with descriptions of either 3 or 10 prizes and asked to choose one, for which they were to be entered in a drawing. The number of alternatives was manipulated in conjunction with the amount of time people were allotted to make a decision (limited vs. extended decision time). Following their decisions, participants completed measures of decision-related difficulty, task enjoyment, satisfaction, and regret. Participants given a limited amount of time to choose with a larger set of alternatives found their decisions to be more difficult and frustrating than did participants in the other conditions. The larger set of alternatives led to less satisfaction, but not less regret, with people's decisions. Implications for research on the choice overload phenomenon are discussed. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
Decision attitude — an analog of risk attitude — is the propensity to make (or avoid making) a decision: in decision aversion, a person finds it more desirable to receive through fiat the better of two options than to have a choice between them; in decision seeking, the choice is more desirable, even though it can lead to nothing better than the best option. Both decision aversion and decision seeking were found in hypothetical scenarios. Experimental manipulations and subjects' justifications point to anticipated regret, fear of blame for poor outcomes, and desire for equitable distributions as sources of decision aversion. One source of decision seeking (for self) and decision aversion (when deciding for others) appears to be the desire for the self-determination of the affected parties. We consider the implications of our results for personal choice and public policy decisions.
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This research proposes that frustration during the purchase process for high-technology durable goods has a significant effect on the probability that consumers will commit to a technology and make a purchase. In order to explore the effects of consumer frustration on the purchase process, a scale is developed that reveals that frustration in high-technology decision environments is composed of two dimensions, processing frustration and frustration with the pace of technological change. These dimensions of frustration have a significant effect on consumer choice behavior. While processing frustration significantly reduces the probability of commitment to a technology, the probability of making a decision is significantly lower when consumers are frustrated with the pace of technological change. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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People are typically thought to be better off with more choices, yet often prefer to choose from few alternatives. By considering the perceived benefits and costs of choice, it is proposed that satisfaction from choice is an inverted U-shaped function of the number of alternatives. This proposition is verified experimentally. It is further hypothesized that differences in cognitive costs affect the relative location of the function's peak. Specifically, since—in large sets—perceptual costs of processing alternatives varying in shape are greater than for alternatives varying in color, the peak of the satisfaction function for the latter will lie to the right of the former. This prediction is also validated. The paper emphasizes the need for an explicit rationale for knowing how much choice is “enough.” © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Two experiments explored how characteristics of the task environment and the consumer's propensity to a use a hypervigilant coping style interacted to influence ratings of perceived information amount, choice difficulty, decision-process–related satisfaction,choice deferral, and the desire for decision assistance. Results indicate a series of main effects of time pressure on the dependent measures across two different choice scenarios. In addition, the findings suggest that a propensity to use a hypervigilant coping style seems to have little influence on the subjective decision-making experience. Theoretically, this research establishes boundary conditions under which decision-process–related thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are not likely to be influenced by coping style, and extends prior work on the determinants of choice deferral and the desire for decision assistance. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
We report three studies demonstrating the ‘lure of choice’ people prefer options that allow them to take further choices over those that do not, even when the extra choices cannot improve the ultimate outcome. In Studies 1 and 2, participants chose between two options: one solitary item, and a pair of items between which they would then make a further choice. Consistent with the lure of choice, a given item was more likely to be the ultimate choice when it was initially part of a choice pair than when it was offered on its own. We also demonstrate the lure of choice in a four-door version of the Monty Hall problem, in which participants could either stick with their original choice or switch to one of two unopened doors. Participants were more likely to switch if they could first ‘choose to choose’ between the two unopened doors (without immediately specifying which) than if they had to choose one door straightaway. We conclude by suggesting that the lure of choice is due to a choice heuristic that is very reliable in the natural world, but much less so in a world created by marketers. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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As more and more consumers become part of the net population, retailers and manufacturers as well as dot-com storefronts are touting consumers by providing an ever-increasing amount of product information. Their long-term survival and profitability may be determined by how much and how well their product information is presented to and processed by the consumers. By combining both the traditional and structural approaches to the information-overload phenomenon, this study investigates the impact of Web site information on consumer choice and psychological states in an on-line environment. Varying the number of alternatives and attributes (traditional measure) and attribute level distribution across alternatives (structural measure), this study asks subjects to choose the best (dominant) CD player in a given set. Their subjective states such as satisfaction, confidence, and confusion are also measured. Results show that the number of attributes and attribute level distribution are good predictors of the effect of information overload on consumer choice. In addition, the study finds that on-line information overload results in less satisfied, less confident, and more confused consumers. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.