Article

The Ecology of Place: Planning for Environment, Economy, and Community

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Abstract

Current patterns of land use and development are at once socially, economically, and environmentally destructive. Sprawling low-density development literally devours natural landscapes while breeding a pervasive sense of social isolation and exacerbating a vast array of economic problems. As more and more counties begin to look more and more the same, hope for a different future may seem to be fading. But alternatives do exist.The Ecology of Place, Timothy Beatley and Kristy Manning describe a world in which land is consumed sparingly, cities and towns are vibrant and green, local economies thrive, and citizens work together to create places of eduring value. They present a holistic and compelling approach to repairing and enhancing communities, introducing a vision of "sustainable places" that extends beyond traditional architecture and urban design to consider not just the physical layout of a development but the broad set of ways in which communities are organized and operate. Chapters examine: the history and context of current land use problems, along with the concept of "sustainable places" the ecology of place and ecological policies and actions local and regional economic development links between land-use and community planning and civic involvement specific recommendations to help move toward sustainability The authors address a variety of policy and development issues that affect a community -- from its economic base to its transit options to the ways in which its streets and public spaces are managed -- and examine the wide range of programs, policies, and creative ideas that can be used to turn the vision of sustainable places into reality.The Ecology of Place is a timely resource for planners, economic development specialists, students, and citizen activists working toward establishing healthier and more sustainable patterns of growth and development.

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... While there remains a lack of concurrence and adoption of a standardized measuring and reporting tool, there are a variety of models that have been proposed as a means of promoting a more robust understanding of sustainability and encouraging appropriate action among public sector organizations. Six models (or paradigms) are revealed by the literature which are (1) Sustainable Places - Beatley and Manning (1997) placed sustainability squarely in the realm of planning the physical places of regions, cities, and towns; (2) The Planner's Triangle - Campbell (1996) illustrated the conflicts experienced among participants and priorities when engaging in that planning process; (3) The Sustainability/Livability Prism -Godschalk (2004) ...
... In the formative book, The Ecology of Place: Planning for Environment, Economy, and Community, Beatley and Manning (1997) called for a new vision for America that "recognizes that questions of ecological sustainability are fundamentally and inextricably tied to patterns of human settlement -to metropolitan regions, cities, towns, and villages". According to The World Factbook (CIA, 2010), there are more people living in urban settings than in rural settings worldwide and in the U.S. Roseland et al. (1998) stated that "cities provide enormous, untapped opportunities to solve environmental challenges and local governments must and can pioneer new approaches to sustainable development and urban management. ...
... According to The World Factbook (CIA, 2010), there are more people living in urban settings than in rural settings worldwide and in the U.S. Roseland et al. (1998) stated that "cities provide enormous, untapped opportunities to solve environmental challenges and local governments must and can pioneer new approaches to sustainable development and urban management. Beatley and Manning (1997) also stated that developments in cities and urban areas have tremendous ecological impacts, and the seriousness of the environmental crisis to which they contribute suggests the need for a fundamentally new governance and management approach -one that acknowledges and implements a new ecological paradigm". This paragraph clearly displays the negative side of urbanization where all the developing countries are getting suffered. ...
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Sustainability Reporting (SR) becomes a predominant reporting framework over the last few decades before integrated reporting is peeing into the window and submerging the reporting landscape. The sensation is that the users are tired off numbers and they want to see new dimensions and dreams in reports. Private sectors of Bangladesh have demonstrated an envious progress in this regard not only within the country but also in South Asian region. Undoubtedly, SR begins its journey with corporate sustainability reporting, however, by the time we observe a successful journey of SR from private to public sectors globally. Public sectors are directly involved with the process of ensuring ecological, environmental and social sustainability. This paper theoretically explores the potentials of public sector organizations for SR under New Institutional Sociology (NIS) Theory of DiMaggio and Powell (1983). The graduation of Bangladesh to developing nation and the target to become developed nation by 2041 brings additional strain mostly on public sector to achieve all the targets set in Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It is the motivation of this paper to give some policy insights so that public sector organizations can start SR for ensuring long term sustainability amid of economic, political and social instability.
... Recently, the field of ecological design has intentionally shifted its worldview and paradigm to one that is more holistic in approach, one which more accurately reflects how nature works and provides healthier patterns of relationships between humans and between humans and nature. When practiced from an ecological worldview, design has the potential to shift thinking, practices, and lifestyles to more sustainable ones [19,26,[28][29][30][31][32][33]. ...
... Recently, the field of ecological design has intentionally shifted its worldview and paradigm to one that is more holistic in approach, one which more accurately reflects how nature works and provides healthier patterns of relationships between humans and between humans and nature. When practiced from an ecological worldview, design has the potential to shift thinking, practices, and lifestyles to more sustainable ones [19,26,[28][29][30][31][32][33]]. ...
Chapter
Although the integration of science, practice, culture, and spirituality is recognized as necessary to move toward sustainability, most transdisciplinary frameworks are not inclusive of the necessary worldviews, paradigms, aims, processes, and components. Landscape sustainability science focuses on a pivotal level for scientific, practitioner, and stakeholder efforts toward sustainability, yet collaboration and progress have been slow. Regenerative development, a development and design methodology based on a holistic worldview, has potential as an integrating and transformational methodology to fill these gaps. A new paradigm of regenerative landscape development could shift the aim from sustainable social–ecological systems to thriving living systems in which health, well-being, and happiness increase continually across scales. This potential of regenerative landscape development in practice is with two case studies of projects in Viña del Mar, Chile and Juluchuca, Guerrero, Mexico. Finally, recommendations moving forward in constructing regenerative landscape development as a new paradigm are proposed. If fully understood, embraced, and realized, regenerative development holds incredible potential for a future that is not just sustainable but is thriving (This text is adapted with permission from Gibbons et al. in Sustainability 10:1910, 2018).
... talen (2006) emphasizes the importance of diversity on equality, as investments to diverse enclaves would be much higher compared to segregated low-income enclaves. according to Beatley and Manning (1997), stimulating diversity can have a positive effect on urban sustainability by preventing segregation social groups. on the contrary, McDowell (1999) and Fraser (1990) claim that since not everyone has equal access to public space, the citizenship idea that is derived from equality actually creates exclusions and segregation in public space. ...
... Diversity has the potential to lead to conflict (tasan-Kok et al 2014) and decrease social capital (Putnam 2007). In order to overcome these potential outcomes, it is necessary to focus on local policies to decrease conflict (tasan-Kok et al 2014), promote inclusivity and solidarity (Putnam 2007) and provide equal access to basic services and facilities (Beatley and Manning 1997). this process could be accelerated if the benefits of diversity were perceived by the communities in question. ...
Article
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NEW DIVERSITIES an open-access journal published by the Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity It is important that contemporary global cities provide opportunities for increasingly diverse communities to thrive. These cities, and particularly their local governments, have to adapt and reassess their provision of services for changing expectations and requirements, as well as bear the responsibility of redefining their role for both new and established residents. This paper examines the policies and initiatives that Istanbul’s local municipalities have adopted in districts that have historically served diverse communities. The paper demonstrates that inclusive national regulations are required for the adoption of inclusive planning, governance and service provision in local administrative and economic centers. These efforts could be supported by international recognition of diversity policies through transnational policy networks. Full text: https://newdiversities.mmg.mpg.de/?page_id=4658
... Sustainability paradigms challenge the modernist belief in the benefits of limitless growth and the capacity of scientific methods to counterbalance the detrimental effects of modern urbanization on the environment (Breheny, 1992). Scholars argued that increasing urban density, encouraging mixed-use developments, and improving public transit would decrease energy and land consumption and generally create more sustainable and livable communities (Fowler, 1992;Roseland, 1992;Ewing, 1997;Beatley et al., 1997;Bernick et al., 1995). The leapfrog suburban development, which is typical of the modern metropolis, consumes massive natural regions, leaving in-between large swaths of underutilized and denaturalized lands. ...
... The leapfrog suburban development, which is typical of the modern metropolis, consumes massive natural regions, leaving in-between large swaths of underutilized and denaturalized lands. This development disrupts the ecological harmony and affects the biodiversity required for various natural processes and life cycles of water, animals, plants, and other living organisms (Beatley et al., 1997;Nassauer, 2011Nassauer, , 2012Walter, 1992). The sustainability and livability strands of thoughts provide a major impetus for the reassembly urban paradigms that currently permeate urban planning, architecture, and culture literature. ...
Article
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This study offers a multifaceted perspective on the history and theory of North American urban development. It extends a framework that deconstructs the complex urban evolution process into the three stages of assembly, disassembly, and reassembly. Urban development is explained through planning, architectural and critical theoretical perspectives. This study examines the inextricable links among land use regulations, public policies, transportation, urban economics, and communication technologies and underlines their impacts on shaping suburbia and downtown redevelopments. It argues that today's revived traditional cores and medium-to-high-density mixed use developments are not mere incarnations of historic urban models. Despite responding to certain real-market demands for livable and vibrant urban environments, these quasi-traditional developments are driven by globalization forces and facilitated by cutting-edge technological advancements. Using combined evidence from theoretical investigations and interviews with experienced professionals, this research demonstrates the complexity and multidimensionality of urban development processes that require in-depth understanding of current global socioeconomic and technological transformations.
... Walkability reduces air and noise pollution and promotes green areas; thus, contributing to creating healthier, more livable communities [3][4][5][6]. Moreover, it increases interactions with people while reducing cars on the streets, making it safer for people; thus, walkability improves the cities' sociability [7][8][9][10]. Additionally, as mentioned above, developing the foundations for pedestrian areas is much cheaper than developing public transit networks, as the space required for pedestrians is smaller than that required for cars [3]. ...
... Nevertheless, measuring walkability is not as simple as it seems. For instance, walkability definitions differ depending on the given built environment under analysis [10]. Elements such as the existence of alternative modes of transportation and the landscape in question have been proven to have a strong influence on walking behavior, which demonstrates that walking and built environments have a complicated relationship; further, lifestyle also plays an influencing role in this regard [4,[11][12][13]. ...
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Identifying the appropriate criteria for neighborhood walkability is crucial to improve walkability. This paper aims to identify the proper criteria set for neighborhood walkability using the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process model (FAHP) for the case of Jeddah city, a fast-growing city in Saudi Arabia. This paper strives to highlight the criteria and factors that influence Jeddah’s walkability with its populations’ help. A survey questionnaire was used first to gather data regarding people’s reasons for walking and the elements that encourage them to walk. Then the criteria were derived using the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) method. Results indicate that mosques were the most visited destinations, with over a 30% rate. Eighty-six percent of the criteria that determine a walkable neighborhood in Jeddah were physical environments alone. It was also revealed that the residents regarded walking as a leisure activity rather than a utilitarian. The results show the proposed method’s capability in providing proper neighborhood walkability criteria related to Jeddah’s context. The FAHP proves its use in various urban studies fields in transportation and validation of the walkability index; this paper proves it can also help develop new criteria for walkability measures.
... Much like other literature that engages with design at the street and ground level, Gehl also described how urban edges and the lower floors of buildings, which he refers to as soft edges, have a strong influence on life in the city. Certeau (1984) talks about how "the act of walking is to the urban system what the speech act is to language or to the statements uttered" and that it is the chance to experience events and encounters that produces the excitement of urban life (Beatley and Manning 1997;Solnit 2001;Pinder 2005). ...
... Street network features, such as distance to places of residence and employment (Atash 1994;Hess 1997;Bauman et al. 1999;Saelens et al. 2003a;Frank et al. 2005;Curry et al. 2009), public transportation stops (King et al. 2003;Frank et al. 2005), distance to retail outlets and shopping malls (Handy 1996;Ball et al. 2001; Mangham and Viscount (1997), Sallis and Owen (1997), Bauman et al. (1999), Booth et al. (2000), Ross (2000), Ball et al. (2001), Berrigan and Troiano (2002), Donovan (2002, 2003), Deforche et al. (2003), Saelens et al. (2003b), Leslie et al. (2005), Humpel et al. (2002), Addy et al. (2004), Duncan et al. (2005) Geographical proximity, high rise residential areas, land use mix, connectivity and accessibility, aesthetics, and safety are important Theme: Walkability and urban planning Subtheme: How people perceive, feel, use, and interact with their surroundings Theoretical 1960-1990s Lynch (1960, Jacobs (1961), Appleyard et al. (1964), Whyte (1980), Gehl (1980), Rapoport (1987) Walkability is supported by the urban environment and its perceptual characteristics Subtheme: The art of walking Theoretical 1980-2010s Certeau (1984, Beatley and Manning (1997), Solnit (2001), Pinder (2005) Walking as a chance for events and encounters, social interactions, and excitement Subtheme: Pedestrian level of service Theoretical 1990-2000s Sarkar (1993, Khisty (1994) Accessibility, feasibility, safety, comfort, pleasurability, interesting scenery, land use mix, presence of stores, and street environment are important Addy et al. 2004), recreation facilities (Chad et al. 2005), and parks and open spaces (King et al. 2003;Foster et al. 2004;Li et al. 2005) have all been found to be positively correlated to walking and walkability. The characteristics of sidewalks, such as presence, continuity, and quality, and their influence on walkability were also studied. ...
Article
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One of the most common activities among tourists is walking, providing visitors with a range of different experiences of the places they visit. These experiences can vary, depending on the time of the year, weather, and, most importantly, the motivations of the individual. Much attention has gone into understanding the ways in which built and natural environments create opportunities for people to walk. However, the motivations and walking behaviors of tourists can differ from those of local residents. This paper explores walkability by adopting a systematic review of literature on different databases. The descriptive theme is focused on the general importance of walkability and four major themes on tourist walking studies are identified. The findings from the studies and their limitations point toward a need for further study, with a focus on local residents and tourists in order to understand whether there are differences and to understand the attributes that may affect their walking behaviors and experiences.
... The term of sustainability has been shining in every kinds of area in human life. Recently, sustainable development takes part in every countries (Strowbridge, 2012) as a main issue because of the truth that the survival is related with sustainable and green civilization in the long term (Meadows et.al., 1972;WCED, 1987;Beatley and Manning, 1998;Berke & Conroy, 2000;OECD, 2008;Puppim de Olivera, 2012;Bostancı &Albayrak, 2017;Yıldırım, Yıldırım & Gedikli,2016). The need of sustainable development came to the literature by study of Meadows, Meadows and Randers (1972) which was called as "The limits to grow" and determined that there should be balance between economic growth and earth's resources (Meadows et.al., 1972). ...
... It has been indicated by recent studies on greenways that greenways comprise an inseparable whole with sustainability and the principles set forth by the World Commission on Environment and Development; that these areas should be planned in a well-balanced manner with their economic, environmental and social characteristics [1,2]. Beatley and Manning [3], Fábos and Ahern [4], Flink and Searns [5] have suggested greenways frequently during urban planning stage for greener, healthier and more livable urban spaces [1]. ...
... As part of a larger global movement to become sustainable, the ICSP is a product of the current era where there exists the concern and awareness of the impacts of human activities on the environment within policy and politics. As such, there has been advocacy for sustainable land use practices and sustainable development has been considered a new planning agenda at all levels of government ( Vitousek et al., 1997;Beatley andManning, 1998, Raco, 2005). This is evident through the creation and implementation of environmental policies, from local municipalities developing sustainability related planning policies to international environmental agreements. ...
Chapter
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The majority of the world’s population live in cities (54 % according to UN data: 2014); and the global-south is the main territory of this population explosion. The largest urban growth has been located in medium-sized cities with less than 1 million inhabitants, particularly in Asia and Africa. Facing the current scenario and trend-line, it is necessary to re-think the way we plan and live in our cities. The challenge is twofold: to review the structures of current cities; and to plan how and where we will build the future ones.
... In the past 20 years, city management has been one of the primary challenges when integrating sustainability efforts (Alberti et al., 2007;Beatley & Kristy, 1997;Bibri & Krogstie, 2017;Jabareen, 2006;Sev, 2009). Cities around the world present different conditions and challenges for sustainable development. ...
Article
Free Download until August 3, 2019 from:https://authors.elsevier.com/c/1ZDof7sfVYuOZ1 .The notion of smart cities needs to be broadened beyond the fascination with technology to incorporate an approach that invests in the growth of human, social, and environmental capitals to generate ‘smart sustainable cities’. One of the most recent debates in this context is digital citizen participation. This study aimed to identify the potential role of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in citizen participation as a major contributor towards ‘smart sustainable cities’. A systematic and exhaustive literature review, coupled with critical content analysis, was conducted. The focus was on a central research question: What kind of relationship is fostered in the literature between sustainability and digital citizen participation, and how can ICT contribute to social sustainability through digital citizen participation (DCP)? The results suggested a connection between smart sustainable cities and DCP. This article is concluded by emphasizing the role of ICT in citizen participation processes and its significant contribution to social sustainability and the creation of more-than-human smart cities.
... Environmental concerns have raised global awareness that urban planning can promote more sustainable land use practices [2]. Sustainable development centres on three main tenets, environmental, social and economic factors and sustainable development strategies focus on five aspects: ecological sustainability, social sustainability, economic sustainability, cultural continuity and sustainable spatial development [3,4]. ...
... Some have proposed alternative models of urban governance and economies rooted in community and democracy (Imbroscio, 2010). While there is a robust literature on planning strategies for more environmentally sustainable cities (Beatley, 2011;Beatley & Manning, 1997), there are typically few explicit links to environmental or climate change concerns in scholarship on the just city (Carmin, Roberts, & Anguelovski, 2009;Mazmanian & Kraft, 2009). This is an area to seriously explore in thinking about JUT, because it is possible that climate action could become a vehicle for realizing a just city. ...
Article
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While there are excellent policy and academic foundations for thinking about and making sense of urban climate action and questions of justice and climate change independently, there is less work that considers their intersection. The nature and dynamics of, and requirements for, a just urban transition (JUT)—the fusion of climate action and justice concerns at the urban scale—are not well understood. In this review article we seek to rectify this by first examining the different strains of justice scholarship (environmental, energy, climate, urban) that are informing and should inform JUT. We then turn to a discussion of just transitions in general, tracing the history of the term and current understandings in the literature. These two explorations provide a foundation for considering both scholarly and policy‐relevant JUT agendas. We identify what is still needed to know in order to recognize, study, and foster JUT. This article is categorized under: • The Carbon Economy and Climate Mitigation > Benefits of Mitigation • Climate, Nature, and Ethics > Climate Change and Global Justice
... What might be regarded as 'simple' in comparison to other farming methods, the ecosystem of aquaponics systems is nevertheless dynamic and requires care. Developing an "ecology of place", where context is intentionality and carefully engaged with can serve as a creative force in research, including scientific understanding (Thrift, 1999, Beatley andManning, 1997). ...
Thesis
Reinventing a life of dignity for all humans in a finite and disrupted Earth has become the master issue of our time, the Anthropocene (Hamilton et al., 2015a), a ‘bipolar’ moment (Haraway et al., 2016), where the hope of scientific renewal through multidisciplinary collaboration glints on the doom laden horizon of deepening ecological catastrophe. Against this backdrop, this thesis asks what the Anthropocene means for science and the scholarship of science, through the exploration of ‘Aquaponics’. A food-system innovation that seeks to combine aquaculture and hydroponics in novel ecosystems, ‘Aquaponics’ is thought to hold potential for responding to the impending risks that mark late-industrial food systems in the Anthropocene. The thesis presents material from various ethnographic movements inside the field of Aquaponics, documenting what matters and what comes to matter for researchers and practitioners of this emergent field. The first movement is an engagement in the scientific labs of an agricultural research facility in the south of Belgium. Eschewing the usual terms of interdisciplinary activity, particularly the critical security of distanced observation, the researcher takes up a key role within an aquaponic experiment that seeks to test the possibilities of novel aquaponic ecologies for the agri-food sector. Experiencing the multispecies experiment as a space of both uncertainty and responsibility, political possibility becomes entangled within the aesthetic-material conditions and practices of science (Stengers, 2000). This ethnography discusses the potential and risks of affirming ontological proximity, more-than-human sensitivity, and a politics of care within technoscientific apparatuses. In a second line of ethnographic enquiry, the thesis documents my movements over 3 years within a European network of Aquaponic researchers, innovators and entrepreneurs. Following this ‘field-in-themaking’ (Swanson et al., 2015) the thesis develops an appreciation of knowledge politics involved in emergent fields, exploring the way urgent concerns become channelled down predictable disciplinary lines, complex issues like sustainability become side-lined for more attainable research targets, and technical problems get favoured over those of deliberation. In response to this, the thesis presents the outcome of a collaborative project in which the authors experiment with a shared aquaponic narrative and introduce the need for concepts that allow for types of negotiation that unsettle disciplinary boundaries. The thesis reclaims an idea of sustainability as a concept fitting for aquaponics in the Anthropocene. What follows is not a sparkling methodological blueprint that secures aquaponic solutions, but a collaborative experiment in the art of ‘paying attention’ (Stengers, 2016) that problematizes the experimental objectives of aquaponic research; a form of care for the academic milieu, one of many that increasingly sediment our troubled earth.
... Essentially, this definition presents the notion of inter-generational equity, requiring that the present generation make efficient and judicious use of contemporary resources for the benefit of posterity. Beatley and Manning (1997) further elaborated on the concept of sustainability by expanding on sustainable development normative principles. These approaches, implemented through smart growth strategies, are summarized in Table 1. ...
Article
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Slum conditions associated with squatter settlements pose major challenges in African cities. In the city of Accra, Ghana, municipal officials traditionally addressed squatter settlements through demolition and evictions. Despite these evictions, Old Fadama/Agbogbloshie, an illegal squatter settlement in Accra, continues to flourish. Within the context of sustainable principles, this study explores why this slum became embedded. Results are based on a survey of 100 slum residents, 20 city officials and 20 city opinion leaders. Findings suggest that community participation in concert with municipal authorities can potentially lead to slum improvements sensitive to the social and economic needs of residents.
... Cities develop strategies independently for each level, although they are all interrelated, and there is no predefined order. Over the last decades, the concept of sustainable development has slowly struggled and emerged within urban planning via strategic actions at levels one and two [32][33][34][35]. ...
Article
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There are three strategic levels for successful energy planning in cities: 1) Integration strategy for integrating energy planning into urban planning institutions; 2) Practice strategy for developing suitable energy planning practices in urban planning institutions, and 3) Vision strategy for the creation and integration of energy visions and scenarios required for long-term decarbonisation. The vision strategy is critical but not well researched and is the focus of this article. Using Strategic Energy Planning (SEP) as an analytical framework, the vision strategy of eight forerunner European cities are analysed. Some critical elements of SEP include the use of long-term targets, holistic energy system thinking, and retention of scenarios. The results indicate that the level of understanding and practice of the vision strategy is still deficient in the cities. Cities often use the practice of urban planning, which does not fit very well with energy planning, particularly with the vision strategy. The energy planning in the cities mostly focuses on shorter-term goals and actions, and they often abandon energy scenarios once extracted. However, through trial and error, some cities are finding ways forward. The article concludes with several recommendations, particularly that cities need to see scenarios as retainable long-term servants providing information desired by the planner, rather than serving as a guide to the planner.
... Investment in heritage buildings and heritage designation has a positive relationship with value (Brennan & Tomback, 2013). As noted by Beatley, Timothy, and Manning (1997), investments in heritage and historic places can increase a destination's competitiveness and influence a sense of place which is an important aspect of sustainable places and local identity. In some cases, a building can become a key attraction of a destination; an iconic symbol that attracts tourists (MacCannell, 2000). ...
Article
Designing places that yield high quality of life (QOL) for residents is a foundation of planning and community development. A focus on sustainability is increasingly important in design thinking and implementation. At a community level, the consideration of sustainable planning and management can create policies and investments targeted at improved community outcomes. Sustainability management is viewed as a solution to many of the negative impacts that mass tourism can bring. A discussion on a new framing around place value incorporates design features of a community as a way of enhancing QOL. A destination example is featured to show the praxis of theory to practice for efforts to use sustainability to shape positive QOL. The article finishes with a discussion of the role that sustainability management can play in strengthening design and QOL.
... Texts about sustainability highlight the importance of social diversity as a principle for promoting spatial equity, where all social groups have equal access to basic services and resources [22,26,27] Emily Talen mentions how the policies of socioeconomic group mixing in the USA began in the 19th century with the explicit objective of building a fair city [8]. For this author, social diversity fosters vitality and spatial equity. ...
Article
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This paper seeks to evaluate the public space potential of riverbanks in the case of the city of Valdivia. The main goal of this research is to understand the relationships that promote or hinder the equitable enjoyment of watercourses and riverbanks. In the case of river access, spatial equity will be considered as the possibility for all inhabitants to access the benefits and resources of the river in their daily lives. Different analytical techniques and quantitative data were used to explore the relationships between socioeconomic characteristics, like socioeconomic groups and land value in the riverbank urban area. This evaluation will be applied by river edge transects. This article is a contribution to the theoretical discussion of social equity in urban riverfronts as an application in the case study since there are few studies on river banks from this perspective. Lack of a comprehensive shore planning in waterfront neighborhoods and of diverse public spaces impedes due public riverside and water use, as well as neglects ecological deterioration processes and social vulnerability.
... Typically, the short length and incredible stature moderate the vehicle. They are typically introduced in territories with high person on foot traffics like private spots, parking areas, school zones and so forth (Beatley and Manning 1997). ...
... It is their unique contribution to public policy and a mandate of the profession. If planners wish to change the world for the better, social equity should be their highest priority, even if it clashes with other impor tant values (Beatley and Manning 1997). ...
... The idea of retrofitting and reimagining cities to make them more environmentally friendly, socially just, and economically competitive is a recurring theme in the history of cities, especially in the past few decades (13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18). Although the current manifestation of net-zero carbon cities is new, ancient civilizations around the world, including in India, China, and the Middle East, have a long history of maintaining ecological balance and systemic links between cities and hinterlands, for example, through the recycling of urban "night soil" for agriculture. ...
Article
This article provides a systematic review of the literature on net-zero carbon cities, their objectives and key features, current efforts, and performance. We discuss how net-zero differs from low-carbon cities, how different visions of a net-zero carbon city relate to urban greenhouse gas accounting, deep decarbonization pathways and their application to cities and urban infrastructure systems, net-zero carbon cities in theory versus practice, lessons learned from net-zero carbon city plans and implementation, and opportunities and challenges in transitioning toward net-zero carbon citie across both sectors and various spatial fabrics within cities. We conclude that it is possible fors cities to get to or near net-zero carbon, but this requires systemic transformation. Crucially, a city cannot achieve net-zero by focusing only on reducing emissions within its administrative boundaries, particularly in how it can enable sequestering of carbon from the atmosphere. Because of carbon lock-in, and the complex interplay between urban infrastructure and behavior, strategic sequencing of mitigation action is essential for cities to achieve net-zero. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Environment and Resources, Volume 46 is October 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
... Their take on sustainability development implies competitiveness-and an organization's competitiveness-is partly dependent on their quality management practices. Sustainability is a new tool in company planning (Beatley & Manning, 1997) and a fundamentally important concept that should influence all policy developments within a firm (Loffler, 1998). ...
Article
The growing economic pressures, rising awareness of the importance of environmental protection, and stringent global regulations are leading to more integration of sustainability initiatives into corporate strategies across multiple industries. These sustainability initiatives can alter organization cultures and affect employee perceptions and organizational outcomes. In this study, 331 respondents from a wide variety of industries in the South were surveyed. Results showed that companies’ overall green/sustainability orientation is related to organizational culture, quality management maturity, and companies’ performance. The findings implied that it is imperative to develop an organizational culture that is supportive of quality and sustainability to ensure the success of the green initiatives.
... Keterlibatan masyarakat tersebut terjadi karena adanya kepentingan untuk melestarikan sense of place, demi mendukung keberlanjutan identitas lokal yang dimiliki masyarakat. Beatley & Manning (1997) menyatakan bahwa konektivitas masyarakat terhadap masa lalu serta bagaimana konektivitas tersebut memengaruhi sense of place merupakan sebuah dimensi penting dalam penguatan identitas lokal dan dalam mempertahankan keberadaan masyarakat. Menurut Williams (2014), konteks dan kondisi lokal memang merupakan hal penting untuk membentuk makna terhadap sebuah tempat. ...
Article
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Urban heritage conservation planning seeks to produce place experience with historical characteristics to bring sense of place that is a relation between human and place. However heritage urban planning that focuses on the sense of place actually gets criticized for being stuck in place-making purposes only and ignores the human dimension. The study of the sense of place potential in the urban heritage conservation is indeed still limited even though this potential needs to be studied futher because urban heritage place have cultural significant values which should be conserved by involving human dimensions. This paper is a literature review that intends to explore others sense of place potential related to human dimensions that can be used to successfully urban heritage conservation. In urban heritage conservation, besides being beneficial for place-making, it was found that the sense of place also has the potential as guidance information in the urban heritage spatial planning, factors that influence the participation of local residents to be involved in urban heritage planning and factors related to heritage conserving behavior.
... The definition of sustainable development, officially recorded in the Brundtland Report 1987, describes sustainable development as one that guarantees people's welfare in the present without compromising the possibilities of people's welfare in the future [7]. The emergence of this definition was a push for discussions on the form of cities and encouraged researchers and practitioners in various disciplines to look for ways to improve the usual urban planning practices, which are perceived as the major source of environmental problems [8,[1][2][3][4]. The resolutions of the UN's World Commission on Environment and Development were and continue to be criticized mainly for two loopholes: firstly, the ideology of economic growth is not questioned and consumption culture is not challenged [9,1741], [10]; secondly, the sustainability criteria have not been formulated and, as a result, the advocates of economic growth and materialism are able to use ideas of sustainable development for their own purposes [5,[142][143][144][145][146][147][148][149][150][151][152][153][154][155]. ...
Article
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The changing concept of sustainable development is changing the practice of designing sustainable urban forms. The article presents a variety of concepts of a sustainable urban form and their ambiguous assessment – the model of a compact city, if applied in all cases, can cost the quality of one’s environment and the quality of life. New bottom-up trends are emerging in theory and in practice of the 21st century, which focus on the urban planning process which is more inclusive in terms of society. The article discusses examples of the creation of a sustainable urban narrative for the development of a relationship with the community.
... It should take inconsideration: the impact of development activities on the environment and combining development requirements with environmental requirements. Through [27]: ...
Egypt has many new areas, most of which are found outside the boundaries of urbanization in the valley and delta. Such areas contain capabilities and ingredients with special natural and environmental features that differ from the built-up areas. As development areas have been recently created by the development policies and strategies which were put forward by the country to accommodate sustainable development processes. There is an Availability of suitable areas for development according to resources and without limitations, which amount to 24% of the total area. There are, also, suitable areas for development according to resources with the presence of some limitations, which amount to an area of 16% of the total area. Sustainable development captures the world's attention during the past 15 years, at the level of the global economic, social and environmental field. Thus, development sustainability has become a global school of thought that spreads in most of the countries of the world, All UN member states adopted the Sustainable Development Goals in 2015 as the main umbrella for balancing social, economic, and environmental sustainability by 2030. And also the plans put forward in Egypt The research discusses what are the Requirements for reaching the sustainable goals of development to plan new areas in Arab Republic of Egypt. By using qualitative methods Because these areas have a shortage of statistical data. To can reach, foundations and indicators for sustainable development, adopting a national sustainable development strategy that includes all entities, institutions, members of society and those affected by its results in the short and long term.
... Localizing the sustainable development goals The concept of "sustainable development" or "sustainability"-two words that are often used interchangeably-has become an overarching paradigm for scholars and government professionals over the last decade. Although a laudable holistic vision, it remains a very broad principle (Andrews, 1997;Beatley and Manning, 1998;Campbell, 1996) that requires translation into management practice (Connelly, 2007;Zeemering, 2012). ...
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Purpose This article investigates how Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) can be integrated into the strategic planning and management processes of local governments (LGs). It draws from the classic strategic planning and control framework developed in management studies and elaborates some propositions for adapting, implementing and monitoring the SDGs at the city level. Design/methodology/approach As a first step in the assessment of the ways the principles of sustainable development can be integrated into LG management, this research scrutinizes the incorporation of sustainability goals in the strategic plans of all medium-to-large capital cities of provinces in Italy, a context in which there has been a National Strategy for Sustainable Development (NSSD) since 2016. Findings The focus on SDGs at the LG level in Italy is in its initial stage, and few capital cities have started to integrate sustainable development concerns into their comprehensive strategic plans. SDGs are used mainly as a reference framework in the strategic plans to demonstrate the contribution of LG strategies to global concerns on sustainable development. Practical implications The paper offers insights for political leaders and public managers to rethink their strategic management systems, including the continuous process of evaluating and updating of strategic plans, in accordance with the multidimensional perspective of sustainability. To this end, the study has identified possible patterns of actions that public managers elsewhere will find useful. Originality/value The managerial approach behind the proposed conceptual framework might contribute to effectively localize the SDGs in multilevel government settings and to integrate the concept of sustainability as a guiding principle into organizational routines.
... Based on the now widespread acceptance of the concept of sustainability, urban planning has over the years sought to incorporate the tenets of sustainable development in various ways. Environmental concerns like global warming have raised awareness globally that urban planning, as a planning goal, can promote more sustainable land-use practices (Beatley & Manning, 1997;Vitousek et al., 1997). Today, numerous national and city plans incorporate the concept of sustainability both at their core and in principle (Berke & Conroy, 2000;Del Campo et al., 2020;Shamout et al., 2021). ...
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Flooding is the most widespread environmental disaster in Nigeria and flooding impacts are exacerbated by poor urban planning. Flooding is a direct impediment to Nigeria achieving its sustainable development goals (SDGs). While urban planners are responsible for implementing policy changes to address the issue of flooding, there is very little research that explores their views on the linkages between urban planning, flooding, and public policy. Using the city of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, as a case study, this paper presents data from interviews with practicing urban planning professionals. It argues that Port Harcourt’s urban planners have a sound understanding of principles of sustainability and are fully aware of the connections between poor urban planning and flooding. They do however see widespread public non-compliance with planning laws and improper building approvals, rather than systemic failures of governance, as the main issues that undermine the city’s legal and planning architecture put in place to control floods.
... Sustainable development is based on the perceived need to address environmental deterioration and to maintain vital functions for the well-being of all generations. It has been perceived as a new tool in company planning (Beatley & Manning, 1998) and a fundamentally important concept which should influence all policy developments within a firm (Loffler, 1998). Zairi and Liburd (2001) defined sustainability development as the ability of an organization to adapt to change in the business environment to deploy best contemporary methods to achieve and further maintain superior performance. ...
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Today’s global awareness of environmental risks and the pressing needs to compete through efficiency have led to stronger initiatives in the green movement across industries. We examine organizations’ annual revenue levels and their connections to organizational green orientation and impact, quality management programs, and employee perceptions of cultural practices and organizational performance. Results indicate high-revenue organizations use quality management tools more extensively with greater green impact and low-revenue organizations have a more informal and decentralized organizational culture
... To address these needs and contribute with concrete initiatives for redevelopment and revitalization of cities, old towns and areas once prestigious for business, meeting, socializing, have sprung the Natural Shopping Centres, modern forms of association and cooperation of all traders of the city center (trade, public services, handicrafts, tourism, services, professional activities), aimed at achieving common policies marketing and communication (Paparelli & Del Duca, 2010). Currently there is a gap in the procedures for spatial transformations, which aim to promote the conservation and development of traditional crafts as a motor for urban regeneration processes (Beatley & Manning, 1997;Esposito De Vita et al., 2013b). ...
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Changes in consumer lifestyle strongly affect the retail demand, forcing the distribution system to reorganize and reposition its offer. Shopping proves to be a differentiating “activity”, given that buying behavior is even more characterized by psychological and emotional factors, thus the purchased goods and the stores patronized become lifestyle symbols. However, a dualism between the retail dynamic needs and the existing spatial conditions exists. The former, especially in the case of fashion and shopping goods, requires a strategic position as close to customers as possible, namely huge spaces, attractive locations where the consumer need for experience and entertainment is met. The latter could be modified gradually and partially, determining a location hierarchy that results from wider changes in politics, economy and society. Consequently, all cities are experiencing a renewal process in their shopping “spaces”; retailers are competing for a front space on the streets in order to gain more visibility – through huge and sparkling stores - and “label” their products through values, symbols, and emotional/entertaining experience. This paper investigates the spatial/territorial dimension of consumption, analyzing the concentration phenomenon among shops from the same sector or complementary ones. By exploiting agglomeration economies shops can be positioned in the consumers’ mind, firstly, with the street’s collective image and then with the shop’s specific image. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which shopping streets (also referred to as the high street, downtown or city centre) provide retail concentration.
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With the publication of Design with Nature—50 years ago—what Ian McHarg did was open up a new door; he established a “new rule” to guide planning and designing our towns, cities, and regions that would embrace human ecology. Influenced by the intellectual guidance of his mentor, Lewis Mumford, McHarg can be credited with advancing ecohumanism in planning and design, both in practice and in education. The connection between human systems and natural systems lies at the foundation of ecohumanism and that becomes both a theory and a method to accomplish designing with nature. This alone would be the underlying thesis of Design with Nature. Just as important McHarg’s dual roles as a practitioner of landscape architecture and regional planning and as an educator have, along with Design with Nature, secured a legacy that has stood the test of time—and remains so for the future.
Thesis
Urban green space has risen up the policy and research agendas, buoyed by a heightened awareness of the role nature plays in addressing contemporary urban challenges, such as climate change, chronic health conditions and waning biodiversity. Lauded for their economic, environmental and social benefits, urban green spaces are presented as a policy and planning panacea as urbanisation continues at a rapid pace. In practice, however, urban green spaces do not realise this full potential. Instead of being managed as essential elements of a multifunctional, interconnected system of green infrastructure, green spaces are conceptualised as an ornamental afterthought, detached from the city around them. This is because green space planning adheres to an institutional and cultural focus on a form and function of publicly accessible green space established nearly 200 years ago in Victorian England. As such, a gap between the theoretical way urban green space is discussed and the practical way it is delivered leads to missed opportunities to address the impacts of urbanisation. Using qualitative research conducted in three Inner London boroughs, this thesis shows that, despite recognition that urban green spaces can provide vital contributions to the contemporary city, a conceptualisation of green space based on heritage has become institutionalised. This has led to planning, governance and funding processes that further embed a path-dependent way of thinking about green spaces as conduits to the past rather than as assets to address present and future needs. Yet, this research identifies three processes of change that, collectively, may break the path dependency: changes in the understanding of environmental systems, changes in population, demographics and preferences, and changes in governance. Together, these forces may open the door to reconceptualising green space as critical urban infrastructure that grows and changes with the city and makes essential contributions to urban life.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize a model for sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) that integrates the antecedents, practices and performance measures of sustainability. It also examines if lean management (LM) and supply management (SM) are antecedents of SSCM. Design/methodology/approach A systematic review of literature was undertaken across multiple streams, including operations management, SCM, sustainability, business ethics and performance management. Articles relevant to SSCM published over a span of 31 years (1988–2018) were searched using keywords and specific selection criteria. Findings From the literature, three dependent constructs – motivators of sustainability, LM and SM – and three independent constructs – environmental practices in SCM, social practices in SCM and SSCM performance – are identified and defined. Linkages between these constructs are hypothesized to develop a theoretical framework called the “integrated lean/supply management with sustainability motivators, practices and performance model.” Research limitations/implications Built on the principles-practices-outcomes framework proposed earlier, this model is comprehensive in its coverage of sustainability antecedents, practices and performance. Further, it covers the SCM triad – the supplier, the focal firm and the customers – as well as the roles they play in sustainability performance. Originality/value By identifying LM and SM as additional antecedents of SSCM, this study suggests that sustainability may be realized through LM and SM principles. Further, the proposed model presents a novel integration of literature from diverse domains.
Chapter
‘The Anthropocene’ has emerged as a unique moment in earth history where humanity recognises its devastating capacity to destabilise the planetary processes upon which it depends. Modern agriculture plays a central role in this problematic. Food production innovations are needed that exceed traditional paradigms of the Green Revolution whilst at the same time are able to acknowledge the complexity arising from the sustainability and food security issues that mark our times. Aquaponics is one technological innovation that promises to contribute much towards these imperatives. But this emergent field is in an early stage that is characterised by limited resources, market uncertainty, institutional resistance and high risks of failure—a developmental environment where hype prevails over demonstrated outcomes. Given this situation, the aquaponics research community potentially holds an important place in the development path of this technology. But the field needs to craft a coherent and viable vision for this technology that can move beyond misplaced techno-optimist accounts. Turning to sustainability science and STS research, we discuss the urgent need to develop what we call a ‘critical sustainability knowledge’ for aquaponics, giving pointers for possible ways forward, which include (1) expanding aquaponic research into an interdisciplinary research domain, (2) opening research up to participatory approaches in real-world contexts and (3) pursuing a solution-oriented approach for sustainability and food security outcomes.
Chapter
The extensive investigation conducted on the theory and empirical evidence of biophilic urbanism and regenerative development suggests that integrating these social-ecological approaches into urban planning and design may lead to sustainable regenerative outcomes in cities. Having in mind this assumption, this chapter presents the development of a framework for regenerative sustainable urbanism that combines biophilic and regenerative development principles. This integrated framework aims to contribute design strategies and guidance to promote transformative change in the current way urban environments are thought about, designed and built. Thus, the framework was developed to assist urban planners and design practitioners of the built environment field by providing meaningful direction for the implementation of regenerative sustainable urbanism as a foundational and practice-oriented concept for the vision of urban settings, where healthy communities and ecosystems can thrive together. The nature of this framework is developmental; therefore, it is flexible and provides a guide to observing the emergence of regenerative practices in cities. This chapter also presents the analytical strategy used to assess the framework’s performance in two case studies, the cities of Curitiba and Singapore. It is organised in three phases; first, the consideration of local urban planning traditions and processes; second, the application of the framework to planning initiatives existing in both cities; and finally, the cross-case analysis. The analysis of each city involves the two first phases (Chaps. 6 and 7) and the third one is developed in Chap. 8.
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This chapter sets out the major features of two social-ecological design approaches to the built environment, Biophilic urbanism and Regenerative development. Through the analysis of the theory of each of these perspectives, it explores how they can contribute to the design of cities that enable solutions to repair damage and help regenerate both natural environments, ecosystem services and social systems. Biophilic urbanism appears to be an appropriate means for the reconnection of humans to nature. Biophilic interventions facilitate access to nature through the creation of abundant green environments in cities and between and onto buildings providing health and wellbeing to users and residents. This reconnection occurs particularly when the design interventions are based on the ordered complexity of natural structures and adapted to human sensibilities. Regenerative development fosters a substantial advance in the understanding of sustainability because they seek to promote conditions that are conducive to life, helping living systems to recover their capacities of re-organising and regenerating themselves leading to the regeneration of built environments and communities. The convergence of biophilic and regenerative approaches’ standpoints detected in many principles opened the opportunity to develop an integrated approach to urbanism, named Regenerative Sustainable Urbanism that combines the key characteristics of both approaches to enhance potential and performance in urban transformations.
Chapter
Sustainable cities have been the leading global paradigm of urbanism. Undoubtedly, sustainable development has significantly positively influenced city planning and development since the early 1990s. This pertains to the immense opportunities that have been explored and, thus, the enormous benefits that have been realized from the planning and development of sustainable urban forms as an instance of sustainable cities. However, the existing models of such forms, especially compact cities and eco-cities, are associated with a number of problems, issues, and challenges. This mainly involves the question of how such forms should be monitored, understood, and analyzed to improve, advance, and maintain their contribution to sustainability and hence to overcome the kind of wicked problems, intractable issues, and complex challenges they embody. This in turn brings us to the current question related to the weak connection between and the extreme fragmentation of sustainable cities and smart cities as approaches and landscapes, respectively, despite the great potential of advanced ICT for, and also its proven role in, supporting sustainable cities in improving their performance under what is labeled ‘smart sustainable cities.’ This integrated approach to urbanism takes multiple forms of combining the strengths of sustainable cities and smart cities based on how the concept of smart sustainable cities can be conceptualized and operationalized. In this respect, there has recently been a conscious push for cities across the globe to be smarter and thus more sustainable by particularly utilizing big data technology and its applications in the hopes of reaching the optimal level of sustainability. Having a twofold aim, this chapter firstly provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-art review of the domain of sustainable urbanism, with a focus on compact cities and eco-cities as models of sustainable urban forms and thus instances of sustainable cities, in terms of research issues and debates, knowledge gaps, challenges, opportunities, benefits, and emerging practices. It secondly highlights and substantiates the real, yet untapped, potential of big data technology and its novel applications for advancing sustainable cities. In so doing, it identifies, synthesizes, distills, and enumerates the key practical and analytical applications of big data technology for multiple urban domains. This study shows that sustainable urban forms involve limitations, inadequacies, difficulties, fallacies, and uncertainties in the context of sustainability, in spite of what has been realized over the past three decades or so within sustainable urbanism. Nevertheless, as also revealed by this study, tremendous opportunities are available for exploiting big data technology and its novel applications to smarten up sustainable urban forms in ways that can improve, advance, and sustain their contribution to the goals of sustainable development by optimizing and enhancing their operations, functions, services, designs, strategies, and policies across multiple urban domains, as well as by finding answers to challenging analytical questions and transforming the way knowledge can be developed and applied.
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Urbanization coupled with the lack of space has led to soil sealing and encroachment upon stream corridors in many cities the world over. This has caused not just the degradation of the riparian ecosystem, but has also increased the frequency and intensity of flash flooding. India is one of the countries worst affected by urban floods. To manage flood risk, especially in the case of rain-fed urban streams, not just the government but also the public needs to be engaged in the management of the stream corridor. In this context of flood risk management, the resilience concept is increasingly being applied. It revisits some fundamental notions conventionally associated with viewing and managing floods, beginning by acknowledging that floods are natural and unavoidable, and resilience, not stability is the desirable quality. This research aims to study how governance attributes like public participation can enhance flood resilience. To this end, relevant literature on resilience and governance has been studied followed by a study of the events surrounding the flooding of the Ramnadi stream corridor in Pune city through policy analysis, data derived from documents and maps, and through semi-structured interviews with stakeholders like locals, experts, activists and civic authorities. Categorization and meaning interpretation of relevant data has enabled an analysis of the governance structure for the Ramnadi corridor using a causal loop diagram. The nodes, linkages and feedback loops in this diagram have been studied to understand how public participation affects resilience characteristics. Findings of this investigation along with draft recommendations for specific actors were presented to stakeholders in a validation workshop. Implications of the results on the theories of flood resilience, governance and public participation have been examined which has enabled their analytic generalization. General policy recommendations have been based on this. Subsequently, recommendations which promote systems approach based public participation and systems thinking in the governance of social-ecological systems have been made.
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The study deals with the issue of sustainability in cities, which is achieved in light of the three elements of sustainability (economic, social and environmental) to help them improve the performance of their urban function and to address the problems of the city and thus improve the
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This chapter introduces ecoregional green roofs by discussing the development of native plant communities, the history of modern green roofs, and some observations about ecoregional green roofs. It examines the development of the natural vegetation in the western U.S. and Canada and the kinds of plant communities that make up ecoregions appropriate for different forms of green roofs. The history of green roof origins and the development of ecoregional green roofs provide insight into the growth of the modern green roof industry in Europe and North America. Original intentions for green roofs can be misguided, as design decisions or maintenance practices can be out of line with the vegetation selected, or the microclimate of the roof. Several early examples of built ecoregional green roofs highlight successes and lessons learned. Although the conceptual framework laid out in Chap. 1 (and Chap. 2) can be applied anywhere, the climate characteristics for green roofs growing west of the 100th meridian provide background and rationale for the targeted regions of this book. Our knowledge and research literature is only beginning to include the analysis of ecoregional green roofs located in cities where plants experience prolonged exposure to heat and drought, or both.
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The article describes the advanced experience of the USA which have been developing investment zones in modernizing the economy and the planning structure of cities using the example of Chattanooga (Tennessee). The initial state of the economic and social decline of Chattanooga in the early 1980s is described. The results of the analysis of social groups that initiated the process of modernization of the urban economy in the first half of the 1980s are presented. The importance and role of urban planning and new land management policies implemented in Chattanooga are identified. The initial and strategic aspects of the economic growth which have become drivers of the urban development are identified. The role and importance of tourism, new tourist attractions and a new network of natural parks, which became the basis for the tourist flow at the national level, are described. The types of new investment zones are determined and their connection with the development of the planning framework of the city is described.
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Urban rivers and waterfronts in Europe have a long industrial history. From ancient to the medieval periods and throughout the industrial revolution they were heavily used for transportation, bulk delivery, navigation, and industrial dumping. Particularly, this industrial past combined with urbanization and agricultural practices in the drainage basin have contaminated water, natural habitat, and biota throughout the urban river. Above all, visual connectivity of the river with people and the city fabric was lost and led to a visual and spatial devaluation of the river in urban landscapes through urban development. Today, in many cities and towns the river flows across impermeable urban surfaces, is perceived as a desolate and dangerous place, and viewed as 'straitjacketed' in rigid form. Phenomenal characteristics of a river such as sinuosity, light, sign, sound and sequential experience flowing through cities now become a reliquary, a rare place. The water's built environment waits to be found by a grounded affected force of inhabitants.