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Mind Children: The Future of Robot and Human Intelligence

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... Capacity-based frameworks ("Heuristics & Biases" perspectives) attribute cognitive biases to limitations in the available data and in the human information processing capacity (Broadbent, 1958;Evans, 2008;Kahneman, 1973Kahneman, , 2003Morewedge and Kahneman, 2010;Norman and Bobrow, 1975;Simon, 1955). In this view, decision-makers tend to use simple heuristics in complex, unfamiliar, uncertain, and time-constrained situations because they can only process a limited amount of the available information ("limited-" or "bounded rationality": Gigerenzer and Selten, 2002;Kahneman, 1973;Norman and Bobrow, 1975;Simon, 1955). ...
... Possibly because of the resulting proficiency for these kinds of tasks, we tend to forget that the processes involved are characterized by extremely high computational complexity (e.g., Moravec, 1988). For example, when we tie our shoelaces, millions of signals flow in and out through many different sensor systems, from tendon bodies and muscle spindles in our extremities to our retina, otolithic organs and the semi-circular channels in the head (Brodal, 1981, Kahle, 1979. ...
... For example, when we tie our shoelaces, millions of signals flow in and out through many different sensor systems, from tendon bodies and muscle spindles in our extremities to our retina, otolithic organs and the semi-circular channels in the head (Brodal, 1981, Kahle, 1979. This enormous amount of information from many different perceptual-motor systems is continuously, parallel, effortlessly and even unconsciously processed in the neural networks of our brain (Minsky, 1988;Moravec, 1988;van de Grind, 2004). To efficiently process this incoming information, the brain has a number of universal (inherent) working mechanisms, such as association and associative learning (Bar, 2007;Shatz, 1992), potentiation and facilitation (Bao et al., 1997;Katz and Miledi, 1968), saturation and lateral inhibition (Isaacson and Scanziani, 2011;Korteling et al., 2018). ...
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Cognitive biases are systematic cognitive dispositions or inclinations in human thinking and reasoning that often do not comply with the tenets of logic, probability reasoning, and plausibility. These intuitive and subconscious tendencies are at the basis of human judgment, decision making, and the resulting behavior. Psychological frameworks consider biases as resulting from the use of (inappropriate) cognitive heuristics that people apply to deal with data-limitations, from information processing limitations, or from a lack of expertise. Neuro-evolutionary frameworks provide a more profound explanation of biases as originating from the inherent design characteristics of our brain as a neural network that was primarily developed to perform basic physical, perceptual and motor functions, and which also had to promote the survival of our hunter-gatherer ancestors.
... This can take place at a "macro" level. Consider for example the transhumanist accelerationist and Singularity narrative (Bostrom, 2014;Kurzweil, 2005;Moravec, 1988), according to which we are on the way towards a situation in which superintelligence surpasses human intelligence, takes over control, and spreads into the universe, or the Marxist history of AI-capitalism, which predicts a future without humans (Dyer-Witheford et al., 2019). AI is then not just a technology but also a story: a story about civilization, about a particular society, about capitalism. ...
... In the Phaedrus, Plato already worried that people would cease to exercise memory because they would rely on writing. Printed text can be seen as an extended memory (Ong, 2012). Like text, AI and data science processes fix knowledge of the past. ...
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While today there is much discussion about the ethics of artificial intelligence (AI), less work has been done on the philosophical nature of AI. Drawing on Bergson and Ricoeur, this paper proposes to use the concepts of time, process, and narrative to conceptualize AI and its normatively relevant impact on human lives and society. Distinguishing between a number of different ways in which AI and time are related, the paper explores what it means to understand AI as narrative, as process, or as the emergent outcome of processes and narratives. It pays particular attention to what it calls the “narrator” and “time machine” roles of AI and the normative implications of these roles. It argues that AI processes and narratives shape our time and link past, present, and future in particular ways that are ethically and politically significant.
... Типовые требования к контрольным выборкам исходных данных для испытания систем искусственного интеллекта в образовании». Согласно «Перспективной программе стандартизации по приоритетному направлению "Искусственный интеллект" на период 2021 -2024 годы», утвержденной 22 декабря 2020 года Росстандартом и Минэкономразвития России, запланировано утверждение всего 217 ГОСТов 183 . ...
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The textbook includes lecture materials and seminar plans on topics related to artificial intelligence, its impact on law and the regulation of relations in which artificial intelligence is present in one capacity or another. In preparing the textbook, both the works of Russian and foreign legal researchers, economists, and information technology specialists were used. The lecture part of the manual presents not only provisions that do not cause controversy among researchers, but also the views of various authors on problems whose solutions are still being sought, indicating that there is a discussion on the issues under consideration. Plans of seminars are supplemented with a list of recommended literature. In addition, the manual contains practical tasks designed for a deeper assimilation of course materials by students, approximate topics of scientific papers and a list of questions for the test (exam). The textbook is intended for undergraduates of law faculties of universities.
... At that point, the Age of Robots will be supplanted by the Age of Mind, where machines will create space for "subtler world" in which computations alone remain. In the Virtual Kingdom, the "Mind Fire" will render earthly life meaningless, ultimately swallowed by cyberspace (Moravec, 1988;Moravec, 1999). This futuristic vision presents itself in secular, technoscientific terms, but in truth it is a secularisation of age-old religious motifs: the human quest for transcendence (Tirosh-Samuelson, 2017). ...
... transhumanism attempts to turn everyone into a superhero(ine). Subsuming transhumanism under the posthuman paradigm is thus inadequate because transhumanism does neither question the human nor its construction, but praises the human genius and its "mind children" (Moravec, 1988)science and technologythereby referring to an elitist culture that is imagined as a desirable and dignified state of living for all humans. ...
Thesis
In the last decade, the world has seen an increasing prominence of the transhumanist movement. Whereas Silicon Valley has proven to be a center for the movement’s visionaries, transhumanist political parties have risen as a global trend. As a philosophy that promotes the technoscientific transformation of the human, transhumanism strives to go beyond the limits of nature. While frequently criticized on a theoretical level, case studies about transhumanism are rare within and outside of Science and Technology Studies. The research at hand approaches this gap by focusing on the linguistic production of sociotechnical visions in two transhumanist documents: the constitution of the U.S. Transhumanist Party and the party program of the German Transhumanist Party. Two sociotechnical visions became visible: the vision of Technology = Magic and the vision of Paradise (Lost). While a proneness for prestigious culture and a romanticization of the Enlightenment era produced the vision of a paradise that was lost in a different time, technology was mystified as a magical fix and universal remedy for solving human problems. On the background of these findings, this thesis does not only elaborate on transhumanist understandings of culture – rather than nature – but also proposes that transhumanism can be conceptualized as a ‘cult of technoscience’.
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If we want to embed AI in society, we need to understand what it is. What do we mean by artificial intelligence? How has the technology developed? Where do we stand now?
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The discourse on the future of work should learn from a turn in philosophy that occurred in the 1980s, one that recognizes the good life towards which ethics strives can only be reached on a foundation of caring relationships (Gillian, 1982; Noddings, 1984). Care ethics recognizes that human well-being is a group project, one that involves strong relationships, and concern for bodies and emotions. Too often, these features are left out of research exploring robotics in the workplace. This paper outlines the main tenets of care ethics, then applies the moral framework to the context of industrial and retail settings using robots. This approach sees these contexts through a relational lens, helping to identify, evaluate, and improve relationships critical to ensuring workers’ well-being. Second, care ethics considers taking care of people’s bodies beyond mere safety, examining how working with robots can exacerbate societal or economic pressures. Lastly, care ethics takes emotions as an important source of knowledge in building and supporting care. Additionally, this paper contributes to the care ethics literature by applying the framework to the context of robotized industrial workplaces, which has yet to be done.
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Dieser Artikel beschreibt neun Menschenbilder, die in der IT-Industrie prominent sind. Zunächst werden die beiden Menschenbilder vorgestellt, die explizit in der Literatur der Informatik und der Ingenieurswissenschaften genannt sind, insbesondere das des Nutzers und das des Stellvertreters, auf die hin die Systeme entwickelt und optimiert werden. Dieser recht eingeschränkten Zahl von Menschenbildern werden diejenigen an die Seite gestellt, die implizit zu bestehen scheinen, wenn man die Architektur und Voreinstellungen der Digitaltechnik näher betrachtet. Hier drängt sich der Eindruck auf, dass die IT-Industrie den Menschen als Mängelwesen ansieht und als Wesen, dem eine Gleichschaltung und globale Reichweite positiv entspricht. Schließlich reflektiert der Artikel drei weitere metaphysische Menschenbilder, die gegenwärtigen Zukunftsszenarien der IT-Industrie zugrunde zu liegen scheinen, nämlich dass der Mensch sein eigener unverwundbarer Bildhauer ist, dass er weitestgehend ähnlich wie ein Computer funktioniert und dass er bzw. sie als Informationsobjekt im Shannonschen Sinne zu begreifen ist.
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Based on the hypothesis that artificial intelligence would not represent the end of human supremacy, since, in essence, AI would only simulate and increase aspects of human intelligence in non-biological artifacts, this paper questions the real risk to be faced. Beyond the clash between technophobes and technophiles, what is argued, then, is that the possible malfunctions of an artificial intelligence - resulting from information overload, from a wrong programming or from a randomness of the system - could signal the real existential risks, especially when we consider that the biological brain, in the wake of the automation bias, tends to assume uncritically what is set by systems anchored in artificial intelligence. Moreover, the argument defended here is that failures undetectable by the probable limitation of human control regarding the increased complexity of the functioning of AI systems represent the main real existential risk. Keywords: Artificial intelligence; existential risk; superintelligences; human control
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There is growing consensus that stimulus-response bindings (event-files) play a central role in human action control. Here, we investigated how the integration and the retrieval of event-files are affected by the predictability of stimulus components of event-files. We used the distractor-response binding paradigm, in which nominally task-irrelevant distractors are repeated or alternated from a prime to a probe display. The typical outcome of these kinds of tasks is that the effects of distractor repetition and response repetition interact: Performance is worse if the distractor repeats but the response does not, or vice versa. This partial-repetition effect was reduced when the distractor was highly predictable (Experiment 1). Separate manipulations of distractor predictability in the prime and probe trial revealed that this pattern was only replicated if the probe distractors were predictable (Experiment 2b, 3), but not if prime distractors were predictable (Experiment 2a). This suggests that stimulus predictability does not affect the integration of distractor information into event-files, but the retrieval of these files when one or more of the integrated features are repeated. We take our findings to support theoretical claims that integration and retrieval of event-files might differ concerning their sensitivity to top-down factors.
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Ancient Platonists believed in reincarnation, along with karmic laws that transformed past lives into future lives. Since reincarnation involves natural laws rather than any deities, it can be further developed in an atheistic context. However, ancient reincarnation theories are both false and immoral. They need modification. Atheistic Platonists say our universe will be surpassed by many better universes. You will be reborn into your better counterparts in those better universes. While the ancient Platonists endorsed retributive karma, atheoplatonists embrace progressive karma. Your future bodies will rise through all the ranks of superhuman animals.
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The One generates the forms, which are set-theoretic structures. Some of these satisfy the requirements for physicality. These are abstract universes; they are cosmic forms. The concept of a cosmic form is illustrated with five cosmic forms, running from simple to more complex. These are an empty universe, a linear universe, a simple computational universe, the cellular automaton game of life, and our universe. All possible universes have cosmic forms, and the class of cosmic forms is the modal library. Every cosmic form has some degree of physical detail. Detail stratifies the modal library into floors: cosmic forms with greater detail go on higher floors. But cosmic forms can also be ranked by value. Some forms are improvements of others, and the treasury is the collection of all cosmic forms which are generated entirely by improvement.
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The Platonic way of life aims at transforming you into a deity. And while ancient Platonists recommended many contemplative practices for self-deification, they also recommended ascetic ways of life. Ancient Platonists pursued the he telestike techne, the craft of self-surpassing. Further, they recommended theurgical procedures for raising your self to the heights of the deities. But the old Platonic dream of self-deification evolved into the dreams of the modern transhumanists, and the ancient craft of self-surpassing evolved into practical transhumanism. Practical transhumanists apply the experimental method to the self. They update the craft of self-surpassing into the hacker methodology. The Platonic way of life is the way of self-hacking.
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Much of contemporary atheism is stuck in Plato’s cave. This is also Nietzsche’s cave, which is filled with the shadows of God. And while twilight atheists don’t believe in God, they still believe in his shadows. They are cultural theists who endorse theistic if-then chains which bind valuable things to God. Twilight atheists agree with theists that if there is no God, then: there is no objective meaning to life; there is no objective morality; there is no cosmic meaning or purpose; there is no modal or mathematical objectivity; there is no life after death; and there are no deities and no things with any divine attributes. Twilight atheism is nihilism. Atheistic Platonists seek to overcome both theism and twilight atheism. We aim to construct new cultures which depend neither on theism nor on its nihilistic negation.
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Equality in the city is an aspiration. Cities have never been equal, equitable or fair. Now, optimum efficiency is celebrated as progress, and reconfigurations of urban spaces are focused on the clean lines of punctual service delivery. Smart cites are controlled cities, where data is the fuel that pumps through the heart. The common denominator in smart city rhetoric is the assumption that organization, planning and programmability will provide optimum conditions for comfortable urban life. Yet some aspects of our cities and our lives within them will never be machine- readable (Mattern 2014) and there may be a growing disparity between the natural and the constructed; the vagaries and messiness versus the programmable and measurable life in cities. Giddens’s theory of social structure suggested that spaces and buildings are what people do with them – spaces themselves structure social relations and practices, and therefore ‘relations of power and discipline are inscribed into the apparently innocent spatiality of social life’ (Soja 1989: 6). If urban life is to be smart, digital and codified, then what becomes of the varied human experiences and how can we consider their relation to power? How can this be married to digital futures?
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With the explosion of Artificial Intelligence (AI) as an area of study and practice, it has gradually become very difficult to mark its boundaries precisely and specify what exactly it encompasses. Many other areas of study are interwoven with AI, and new research and development topics that require interdisciplinary approach frequently attract attention. In addition, several AI subfields and topics are home to long-time controversies that give rise to seemingly never-ending debates that further obfuscate the entire area of AI and make its boundaries even more indistinct. To tackle such problems in a systematic way, this paper introduces the concept of identity of AI (viewed as an area of study) and discusses its dynamics, controversies, contradictions, and opposing opinions and approaches, coming from different sources and stakeholders. The concept of identity of AI emerges as a set of characteristics that shape up the current outlook on AI from epistemological, philosophical, ethical, technological, and social perspectives.
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Innovation, Wachstum und Optimierung sind mittlerweile zur normativen Grundlage des Designs, der Technologie und der Wirtschaft geworden – und darüber hinaus auch zur normativen Grundlage diverser Horizontsetzungen im Bereich von Gesellschaft und der Kultur. Unter dem Vorzeichen der Digitalisierung laufen allerorten ungeheure Wandlungsprozesse ab. Es zeichnen sich neue Optima ab, in denen Subjekte zum integralen Bestandteil entgrenzter Netzwerkstrukturen werden.
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Wie verändern sich Mensch und Körper durch Technik? Und welches Menschenverständnis vertritt der Transhumanismus? Anna Puzio befasst sich in der ersten philosophischen Studie zur Anthropologie des Transhumanismus mit führenden Personen des Feldes, u. a. mit Nick Bostrom, David Pearce und Natasha Vita-More. Neben Körperoptimierung und Medizintechnologien beleuchtet sie auch Alltagstechnologien wie Wearables. Dabei entwickelt sie einen neuen Ansatz zur Technikanthropologie und ein neues inklusives Menschen- und Körperverständnis im Anschluss an Donna Haraway und den Kritischen Posthumanismus im amerikanischen Raum.
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Recent years have witnessed a rapidly-growing research agenda that explores the combined, integrated, and collective intelligence of humans and machines working together as a team. This paper contributes to the same line of research with three main objectives: a) to introduce the concept of the SMV (Symbols-Meaning-Value) space for describing, understanding, and representing human/machine perception, cognition, and action, b) to revisit the notion of human-machine symbiosis, and c) to outline a conceptual framework of human-machine co-intelligence (i.e., the third intelligence) through human-machine symbiosis in the SMV space. By following the principle of three-way decision as thinking in threes, triads of three things are used for building an easy-to-understand, simple-to-remember, and practical-to-use framework. The three elements of the SMV space, namely, Symbols, Meaning, and Value, are closely related to the three basic human/machine functions of perception, cognition, and action, which can be metaphorically described as the seeing-knowing-doing triad or concretely interpreted as the data-knowledge-wisdom (DKW) hierarchy. Human-machine co-intelligence emerges from human-machine symbiosis in the SMV space. As the third intelligence, human-machine co-intelligence relies on and combines human intelligence and machine intelligence, is a higher level of intelligence above either human intelligence or machine intelligence alone, and is greater than the sum of human intelligence and machine intelligence. There are three basic principles of human-machine symbiosis, i.e., unified oneness, division of labor, and coevolution, for nurturing human-machine co-intelligence.
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Über-Menschen Philosophische Auseinandersetzung mit der Anthropologie des Transhumanismus Wie verändern sich Mensch und Körper durch Technik? Und welches Menschenverständnis vertritt der Transhumanismus? Anna Puzio befasst sich in der ersten philosophischen Studie zur Anthropologie des Transhumanismus mit führenden Personen des Feldes, u. a. mit Nick Bostrom, David Pearce und Natasha Vita-More. Neben Körperoptimierung und Medizintechnologien beleuchtet sie auch Alltagstechnologien wie Wearables. Dabei entwickelt sie einen neuen Ansatz zur Technikanthropologie und ein neues inklusives Menschen- und Körperverständnis im Anschluss an Donna Haraway und den Kritischen Posthumanismus im amerikanischen Raum. Open Access: https://www.transcript-verlag.de/detail/index/sArticle/6012
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This chapter analyzes Theresa Hannig’s novels, Die Optimierer (2017) and Die Unvollkommenen (2019), as a creative literary intervention into discourses of posthumanism. Hannig’s work exposes the different arguments regarding the development of human enhancement, consciousness transfer, sentient robots, and artificial intelligences and negotiates posthuman positions of subjectivity and the rights of personhood for artificial beings. This chapter presents the evolving concepts of an artificially created posthumanity in the novels and reveals Hannig’s perspective on how to deal with a becoming-machine.
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Introduction Fast-emerging technologies are making the job market dynamic, causing desirable skills to evolve continuously. It is therefore important to understand the transitions in the job market to proactively identify skill sets required. Case description A novel data-driven approach is developed to identify trending jobs through a case study in the oil and gas industry. The proposed approach leverages a range of data analytics tools, including Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI), Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), Factor Analysis and Non-Negative Matrix Factorization (NMF), to study changes in the market. Further, our approach is capable of identifying disparities between skills that are covered by the educational system, and the skills that are required in the job market. Discussion and evaluation The results of the case study show that, while the jobs most likely to be replaced are generally low-skilled, some high-skilled jobs may also be at risk. In addition, mismatches are identified between skills that are imparted by the education system and the skills required in the job market. Conclusions This study presents how job market and skills required evolved over time, which can help decision-makers to prepare the workforce for highly demanding jobs and skills. Our findings are in line with the concerns that automation is decreasing the demand for certain skills. On the other hand, we also identify the new skills that are required to strengthen the need for collaboration between minds and machines.
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Previous studies have not discussed in detail the transformation brought about on occupations and skills by the technical change. This essay seeks to understand and explain the impact of Industry 4.0’s Key Enabling Technologies (KETs) on the digital transformation process and its effects on occupations and skills. Starting from literature findings on how the knowledge, skills, and expertise required by the labour market are changing, the article examines how the educational and learning process should be adequate in order to benefit from them and encourage new forms of employability.
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Transhumanizam kao filozofski pravac pomoću znanstveno-tehničkih dostignuća promiče, među ostalim, produžavanje ljudskog života kroz oslobođenje manjkavosti kojima je ljudsko tijelo obilježeno. On znatno utječe na poimanje ljudske naravi stvarajući okvire za paradigmatsku promjenu pogleda na tijelo. Tijelo prolazi kroz konceptualno-teorijske i tehničko-praktičke transbiomorfoze s ciljem ispunjenja svih potencijala subjekta u duhu morfološke slobode. Na taj je način otvoren put k dolasku ekstropijskog subjekta koji bi napredovao po dinamici neprekinutog razvoja. Želja za nadmoći nad prirodnim datostima proteže se kroz kontrolu tijela podvrgnutog raznim hibridnim praksama. Ovdje transhumanističko self-made-man načelo pokazuje instrumentalni i idealizirajući odnos subjekta prema vlastitom tijelu. Takvo načelo traži temeljito promišljanje o ljudskome kako bi se raskrinkali identitetski temelji idealnog i savršenog subjekta koji se želi pokazati kroz novo i poboljšano tijelo. Transhumanistička potraga za novim i savršenim bićem postaje izazov filozofsko-teološkom poimanju ljudskog tijela.
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Transhumanists overplay the instrumental nature of technology and fail to thoroughly situate technological advancement within the social, economic, cultural and political context from which it is emerging.Much transhumanist thought on the profound changes technologies may bring about are abstracted from context as they are deemed so radical as to render prevailing social conditions irrelevant.However, societal structures play a significant role in the process and its effects. Max More and Natasha Vita-More claimed: ‘One aspect of transhumanism… is the need for inclusivity, plurality, and continuous questioning of our knowledge’. It is contended that these three principles are incompatible with transhumanist development in the context of an advanced capitalist logic.
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This paper reflects my address as IAAIL president at ICAIL 2021. It is aimed to give my vision of the status of the AI and Law discipline, and possible future perspectives. In this respect, I go through different seasons of AI research (of AI and Law in particular): from the Winter of AI, namely a period of mistrust in AI (throughout the eighties until early nineties), to the Summer of AI, namely the current period of great interest in the discipline with lots of expectations. One of the results of the first decades of AI research is that “intelligence requires knowledge”. Since its inception the Web proved to be an extraordinary vehicle for knowledge creation and sharing, therefore it’s not a surprise if the evolution of AI has followed the evolution of the Web. I argue that a bottom-up approach, in terms of machine/deep learning and NLP to extract knowledge from raw data, combined with a top-down approach, in terms of legal knowledge representation and models for legal reasoning and argumentation, may represent a promotion for the development of the Semantic Web, as well as of AI systems. Finally, I provide my insight in the potential of AI development, which takes into account technological opportunities and theoretical limits.
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More intellectual modesty, but also conceptual clarity is urgently needed in AI, perhaps more than in many other disciplines. AI research has been coined by hypes and hubris since its early beginnings in the 1950s. For instance, the Nobel laureate Herbert Simon predicted after his participation in the Dartmouth workshop that “machines will be capable, within 20 years, of doing any work that a man can do”. And expectations are in some circles still high to overblown today. This paper addresses the demand for conceptual clarity and introduces precise definitions of “strong AI”, “superintelligence”, the “technological singularity”, and “artificial general intelligence” which ground in the work by the computer scientist Judea Pearl and the psychologist Howard Gardner. These clarifications allow us to embed famous arguments from the philosophy of AI in a more analytic context.
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Neuromorphic computing systems have drawn extensive attention due to their massive parallelism, the combination of storage and computation, high energy efficiency, and inherent tolerance to fault and variation. Spintronic devices, which exploit both the charge and spin properties of electrons for information processing and storage, are considered as one of the most promising candidates owing to their low power, nearly infinite endurance, good scalability, and compatibility with the complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. In this chapter, the development of spintronic devices, such as magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), spintronic memristor, skyrmion, and spin torque oscillator (STO), that mimic the functionalities of the biological synapses and neurons for neuromorphic computing is reviewed, and the challenges that need to be addressed in future research are discussed.
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Departing from popular imaginations around artificial intelligence (AI), this article engages in the I in the AI acronym but from perspectives outside of mathematics, computer science and machine learning. When intelligence is attended to here, it most often refers to narrow calculating tasks. This connotation to calculation provides AI an image of scientificity and objectivity, particularly attractive in societies with a pervasive desire for numbers. However, as is increasingly apparent today, when employed in more general areas of our messy socio-cultural realities, AI-powered automated systems often fail or have unintended consequences. This article will contribute to this critique of AI by attending to Nicholas of Cusa and his treatment of intelligence. According to him, intelligence is equally dependent on an ability to handle the unknown as it unfolds in the present moment. This suggests that intelligence is organic which ties Cusa to more contemporary discussions in tech philosophy, neurology, evolutionary biology, and cognitive sciences in which it is argued that intelligence is dependent on having-and acting through-an organic body. Understanding intelligence as organic thus suggests an oxymoronic relationship to artificial.
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Mit Blick auf aktuelle Entwicklungen ist es wahrscheinlich, dass es in der Zukunft Androiden als künstliche Menschen mit Empfindsamkeit und Bewusstsein geben wird. Ausgehend vom Roboter, der qua Definition als dienende Maschine festgeschrieben ist, wird auch die zukünftige Existenz von Androiden auf diese Funktion ausgerichtet sein. Auch in der Science-Fiction ist das vorherrschende Narrativ, dass sie unsere Sklaven sein werden. Das ist hochgradig problematisch, denn wir führen damit das historische Muster der Unterdrückung empfindsamer und bewusster Wesen fort. Das führt zwangsläufig zu Emanzipationsbestrebungen und Konflikten zwischen den antagonistischen Gruppen, was ebenso in der Science-Fiction als zentrales dramaturgisches Motiv aufgegriffen wird. Statt dieses gewaltvolle Muster fortzuführen, fordern wir ein Umdenken: Androiden sind keine Sklaven, sondern künstliche Menschen, und sie müssen mit den gleichen Rechten ausgestattet werden wie natürliche Menschen.
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We are living through a new phase in human development where much of everyday life – at least in the most technologically developed parts of the world – has come to depend upon our interaction with “smart” artefacts. Alongside this increasing adoption and ever-deepening reliance on intelligent machines, important changes have been taking place, often in the background, as to how we think of ourselves and how we conceptualize our relationship with technology. As we design, create and learn to live with a new order of artefacts which exhibit behavior that, were it to be carried out by human beings would be seen as intelligent, the ways in which we conceptualize intelligence, minds, reasoning and related notions such as self and agency are undergoing profound shifts. We argue that the basic background assumptions informing our concepts of mind, and the underlying conceptual scheme structuring our reasoning about minds has recently been transformed in the process. This shift has changed the nature and quality of both our folk understanding of mind, our scientific psychology, and the philosophical problems that the interaction of these realms produce. Many of the traditional problems in the philosophy of mind have become reconfigured in the process. This introduction sets the scene for our book that treats this reconfiguration of our concepts of mind and of technology, and the new casting of philosophical problems this reconfiguration engenders.
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Value-sensitive design theorists propose that a range of values that should inform how future social robots are engineered. This article explores a new value: digital well-being, and proposes that the next generation of social robots should be designed to facilitate this value in those who use or come into contact with these machines. To do this, I explore how the morphology of social robots is closely connected to digital well-being. I argue that a key decision is whether social robots are designed as embodied or disembodied. After exploring the merits of both approaches, I conclude that, on balance, there are persuasive reasons why disembodied social robots may well fare better with respect to the value of digital well-being.
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