Article

Imagining Serengeti: A History of Landscape Memory in Tanzania from Earliest Time to the Present

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Abstract

Long before the creation of the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania, the people of the western Serengeti had established settlements and interacted with the environment in ways that created a landscape we now misconstrue as natural. Western Serengeti peoples imagine the environment not as a pristine wilderness, but as a differentiated social landscape that embodies their history and identity. Conservationist literature has ignored these now-displaced peoples and relegated them to the margins of modern society. Their oral traditions, however, provide the means for seeing the landscape from a new perspective. Imagining Serengeti allows us to see the Serengeti landscape as a book of memory that preserves the ways in which western Serengeti peoples have actively transformed their environment and their societies. Moreover, it strengthens the case for involving local communities in conservation efforts that will preserve African environments for the future. Using a new methodology to analyze precolonial oral traditions, Jan Shetler identifies core spatial images, which are then recontextualized into historical time periods through the use of archaeological, linguistic, ethnographic, ecological, and archival evidence. Imagining Serengeti reconstructs a socioenvironmental history of landscape memory of the western Serengeti spanning the last eighteen hundred years.

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... Periodic deficits in forage are therefore unavoidable in semi-arid savannah ecosystems, and pastoralists have developed strategies to cope with such challenges. Mobility is embraced to maximize production in areas that have spatially and temporally uneven resource distributions (Western 1982;Shetler 2007). Livestock breeds favoured by pastoralists in highly seasonal and drought prone rangelands are able to adjust physiologically to food and water deprivation (Nkedianye et al. 2011). ...
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Article
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Article
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... The Natta community are a Bantu ethnic group inhabiting the vast semi-arid savannah ecosystem of the western Serengeti (Shetler, 2007;Kideghesho, 2008) where they engage in agro-pastoralism [also some in tourism] for their subsistence (Shetler, 2007). The Natta community members are estimated to be over 50,000 in the periphery of Serengeti National Park, Ikorongo-Grumeti Game Reserve, and Ikona Wildlife Management Area (WMA). ...
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Article
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... Isto tem sido comum em lugares como, por exemplo, o continente africano onde paisagens culturais foram transformadas em parques nacionais cujo acesso é controlado pelos órgãos governamentais e/ou organismos mundiais (p.ex. MESKELL, 2009;MASUKO van DAMME, 2008;PIKIRAY, 2007;SHEPHERD, 2003;SHETLER, 2007). ...
... Autore(a)s mostram que quando um mesmo sítio é apropriado e contestado por distintas comunidades, isso pode resultar em desavenças políticas e administrativas que, com o tempo, podem afetar a continuidade dos projetos colaborativos. RYANO 2016;MESKELL, 2008MESKELL, , 2009SHETLER, 2007 BESPALEZ, 2009;SILVA et al. 2010;; 2) pesquisar etnorqueologicamente os processos culturais de formação do registro arqueológico (p.ex. ; 3) atender demandas referentes à demarcação, manutenção ou CABRAL, 2014aCABRAL, , 2014bGREEN et al., 2003;HECKENBERGER, , 2003; JÁCOME; J. WAI WAI, MACHADO, 2013J. ...
Thesis
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Esta tese de Livre-Docência visa demonstrar a importância do dado etnográfico e da prática etnográfica na construção do conhecimento arqueológico, desde o século XIX, até a atualidade. Trata-se de uma revisão bibliográfica sobre este tema, contemplando majoritariamente, a produção científica das arqueologias anglo-americana e brasileira sobre analogia etnográfica, etnoarqueologia, etnografia arqueológica, arqueologia do/no presente, etnografia da arqueologia, arqueologia etnográfica. O trabalho também busca mostrar algumas características e tendências da disciplina arqueológica, ao longo do tempo.
... conflation, unknown time depth (Fourshey 2002: 226;Shetler 2007: 22ff). Shetler's (2007) work seeks to contextualize South Mara's history within the theoretical frame of landscape memory to alleviate these difficulties. "Historical changes in ways of seeing the landscape are reconstructed by identifying core spatial images in oral traditions that can then be reinserted into historical contexts identified by other kinds of sources" (Shetler 2007: 5). ...
... Local histories by community members form the foundation of both works by Shetler on the Mara communities (Shetler 2003(Shetler , 2007. Shetler examines historical anthropological elements such as descent systems, clan names, kinship, and age-set systems (2003: 10ff). ...
Book
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Ikoma and Ngoreme are two closely-related, endangered Bantu languages in northwestern Tanzania. The tense/aspect (T/A) systems in Ikoma and Ngoreme are relatively unusual for Bantu in that tense marking is severely limited. Tense function is shown to be a largely emergent phenomenon in Ikoma and Ngoreme. With this in mind, I argue that perfective and imperfective aspect reflect completion and non-completion of the situation nucleus, respectively (Crane 2011), and form the core of the Ikoma and Ngoreme temporal systems. Ikoma, however, also has a Vká- formative which functions as a pseudo-perfective and progressive. I analyze this form as a nucleative, a form which encodes the situation nucleus itself. Despite being relatively rare on the African continent (Aikhenvald 2004), this nucleative Vká- in Ikoma manifests firsthand/eyewitness evidentiality. The central aim of this dissertation is to provide a description and analysis of aspect in Ikoma and Ngoreme. This work includes data obtained from fieldwork in Musoma with multiple speakers from both languages, collected over the course of three two-week-long trips in 2014, 2016, and 2018. My analysis includes both form and function, and a focus on the interface between lexical and grammatical aspect. Along with the perfective/imperfective contrast, Ikoma and Ngoreme are shown to have a foundational contrast between punctive and durative verbs (Kershner 2002), with canonical stative verbs behaving as transitional punctives. Domains theory (Botne and Kershner 2008) is used to visually model the TAM distinctions. This study is also comparative, demonstrating that even if closely-related Bantu languages have similar T/A morphology (and systems) in form, the functional elements of their lexical and grammatical aspectual interface can still be quite different. Understanding this type of microvariation hopefully leads to a better understanding of the historical evolution of these T/A systems. The historical evidence leads to the possibility that the reduced-tense systems of Ikoma and Ngoreme are not the result of the expansion and later retraction of tense, but are retentions from Proto-Bantu. The fact that Ikoma and Ngoreme are located near Lake Victoria, an area of considerable interest as it relates to the Bantu expansion, is intriguing in this regard.
... However, in Tanzania, vast areas such as the Serengeti, which are often considered "wildernesses" by conservationists and conservation authorities alike and upon which the country's tourism depends, have essentially never been devoid of people (Adams and McShane 1996;Miller 2016;Shetler 2007). Historically, people lived in these areas before they were violently relocated by colonial and post-colonial governments to form national parks (Neumann 2001;Ngoitiko et al. 2010;Shetler 2007). ...
... However, in Tanzania, vast areas such as the Serengeti, which are often considered "wildernesses" by conservationists and conservation authorities alike and upon which the country's tourism depends, have essentially never been devoid of people (Adams and McShane 1996;Miller 2016;Shetler 2007). Historically, people lived in these areas before they were violently relocated by colonial and post-colonial governments to form national parks (Neumann 2001;Ngoitiko et al. 2010;Shetler 2007). Although Tanzania gained independence on 9 December 1961, and user rights for most land previously taken by the colonial authorities was generally transferred to locals, land designated as protected areas remained under state control (Bluwstein 2018). ...
Article
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This paper examines the ways in which Tanzanian conservation authorities utilise biodiversity "extinction narratives" in order to legitimise the use of violence in redrawing protected areas' boundaries. Militarisation and violence in conservation have often been associated with the "war on poaching". Drawing on the history of conservation and violence in Tanzania, and using an empirical case from Loliondo, the paper suggests that violence in conservation may be legitimised when based on extinction narratives and a claim that more exclusive spaces are urgently needed to protect biodiversity. It argues that the emerging militarisation and use of violence in Tanzania can be associated with both global biodiversity extinction and local neo-Malthusian narratives, which recently have regained predominance. When combined with "othering" of groups of pastoralists by portraying them as foreign "invaders", such associations legit-imise extensions of state control over contested land by any means available, including violence.
... Settlement systems include medium to large towns, rural villages, and isolated homesteads; additional land use types include designated Protected Areas, wildlife migration corridors, linear infrastructure (roads and powerlines), livestock grazing, and hunting and gathering areas [54][55][56]. Environmental challenges relevant to public policy and land management decision-making across the region include: climate variability [48], soil erosion [57], deforestation [58], water distribution [59], woody plant encroachment, invasive species [60,61], defaunation patterns [62], pest management [63], human-wildlife conflicts [64], population pressure on resources [65,66] and competing demands for access to land for livelihoods or cultural practices [67][68][69][70]. ...
... No wonder stakeholders wished there were no droughts, water scarcity, or pollution in 2030. Calls to address land use, resource availability, and climate variability in eastern Africa [68,122], and in the NCA in particular [123], have been made. Recently, invasive species management initiatives have been developed and integrated into the management policy of the NCA. ...
Article
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Rapid rates of land use and land cover change (LULCC) in eastern Africa and limited instances of genuinely equal partnerships involving scientists, communities and decision makers challenge the development of robust pathways toward future environmental and socioeconomic sustainability. We use a participatory modelling tool, Kesho, to assess the biophysical, socioeconomic, cultural and governance factors that influenced past (1959-1999) and present (2000-2018) LULCC in northern Tanzania and to simulate four scenarios of land cover change to the year 2030. Simulations of the scenarios used spatial modelling to integrate stakeholders' perceptions of future environmental change with social and environmental data on recent trends in LULCC. From stakeholders' perspectives, between 1959 and 2018, LULCC was influenced by climate variability, availability of natural resources, agriculture expansion, urbanization, tourism growth and legislation governing land access and natural resource management. Among other socio-environmental-political LULCC drivers , the stakeholders envisioned that from 2018 to 2030 LULCC will largely be influenced by land health, natural and economic capital, and political will in implementing land use plans and policies. The projected scenarios suggest that by 2030 agricultural land will have expanded by 8-20% under different scenarios and herbaceous vegetation and forest land cover will be reduced by 2.5-5% and 10-19% respectively. Stakeholder discussions further identified desirable futures in 2030 as those with improved infrastructure, restored degraded landscapes, effective wildlife conservation, and better farming techniques. The undesirable futures in 2030 were those characterized by land degradation, poverty, and cultural loss. Insights from our work identify the implications of future LULCC scenarios on wildlife and PLOS ONE
... One of the main contextual factors thought to be important is a poacher's economic resources, or household economy. Household economies in many societies worldwide have long been affected by the presence of large protected areas (Knapp 2015;Shetler 2007). ...
Article
Illegal hunters in Africa may be making rational decisions about the hunting activities they partake in. These decisions could be linked to their socioeconomic status and the livelihood opportunities available to them. In particular, poverty is widely considered the leading driver that causes a household's inhabitants to take up poaching in protected areas. Programs aiming to protect vulnerable wildlife populations by mitigating poaching have historically relied upon income-based poverty metrics in efforts to reduce regional poverty and incentivise local inhabitants to discontinue poaching activities. Because such data sets that deal with poachers directly are rare, assumptions about the role of poverty, and the extent of poverty, that drives poaching have been hard to test. This study uses a unique sample of 173 self-admitted poachers living in villages adjacent to Ruaha National Park in Tanzania to explore the influence of poverty on poaching. Results indicated high demographic and household economy heterogeneity among poaching households. Capability deprivation examined more subjective measures of poverty and revealed that poachers are strongly motivated by the need to improve their incomes, but are not necessarily the poorest of the poor.
... Global conservation is but one example in which African landscapes are externally defined as wilderness to benefit the West, while African peoples forced from lands such as the Serengeti still hold significant memories of it as a social landscape. 13 In earlier periods of disaster and stress caused by environmental change and colonialism, elders of the Serengeti evoked memories through the landscape for healing, whereas global conservation creates hegemonic perspectives coupled with outbound migration that disconnect people from the land, resulting in decreased reliance on landscape memories as a source for healing. Inevitably, such changes ramify and significantly transform how indigenous histories are kept, related, and represented. ...
Article
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Several trends in the historical scholarship of Africa require recognition and remediation. The first is a quickly shrinking interest in African history of the past two millennia, with a shift in emphasis to early hominins and to the modern period. The precolonial history of Africa, once a subject of considerable excitement for historians, historical linguists, and archaeologists, is fading from interest. The high cost of interdisciplinary research is one reason, but a deeper, more alarming cause is the rapid erasure of oral traditions by globalization, disease, and demographic changes. Archaeologists and heritage experts are faced with a need to find innovative means to investigate and recover historical information. One proven path is partnerships with communities that want to initiate research to document, recuperate, and preserve their histories. Community approaches in other world regions have shown important research results. Adapting some of the philosophy and methods of other experiments as well as innovating their own approaches, archaeologists and heritage managers in Africa are increasingly involved in community projects that hold out significant hope that the quickly disappearing oral and material history of Africa can be preserved and studied into the future. Two case studies-one from the Haya people of Tanzania and the other from the Boreda Gamo of Ethiopia-illustrate that long-term and trusting partnerships with local groups lead to important historical observations and interpretations. Such collaborations also lead to thorough documentation and preservation of historical sites and information that otherwise would be lost to posterity. Moreover, they account for the ability of local groups to initiate and to conduct their own research while recognizing local control over heritage and history.
... Understanding traditional views of wildlife and the basis of coexistence is key to the success of community-based conservation programs that have taken root in Africa in the last few decades (Western et al. 1994;Brosius et al. 2005). Despite changing views and conservation policies and practices, there remains a deep divide between the wide public support for national parks and wildlife conservation nationally and negative views of communities marginalized by conservation (Yeager and Miller 1986;Akama et al. 1996;Neumann 1998;Shetler 2007). Several studies show that negative attitudes improve when communities are directly engaged in wildlife conservation benefits (Gadd 2005;Romañach et al. 2010;Roque de Pinho et al. 2014), and with conservation education (Ali 2005). ...
Article
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Surveys conducted across sections of the pastoral Maasai of Kenya show a wide variety of values for wildlife, ranging from utility and medicinal uses to environmental indicators, commerce, and tourism. Attitudes toward wildlife are highly variable, depending on perceived threats and uses. Large carnivores and herbivores pose the greatest threats to people, livestock, and crops, but also have many positive values. Attitudes vary with gender, age, education, and land holding, but most of all with the source of livelihood and location, which bears on relative abundance of useful and threatening species. Traditional pastoral practices and cultural views that accommodated coexistence between livestock and wildlife are dwindling and being replaced by new values and sensibilities as pastoral practices give way to new livelihoods, lifestyles, and aspirations. Human-wildlife conflict has grown with the transition from mobile pastoralism to sedentary livelihoods. Unless the new values offset the loss of traditional values, wildlife will continue to decline. New wildlife-based livelihoods show that continued coexistence is possible despite the changes underway.
... Historically, wild animals have been hunted in African forests with diverse "traditional" tools, including crossbows, nets, spears, and snares made of vegetal materials. Wire snares were introduced to Africa after the Second World War (Shetler, 2007;Yasuoka, 2014;Dounias, 2016). To date, the use of "traditional" hunting tools has considerably reduced in Central African rainforests whereas most productive tools, namely metallic snares and shotguns become widespread (Noss, 1998(Noss, , 2000Wilkie and Carpenter, 1999;Fa et al., 2005); (Kümpel, 2006). ...
Article
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Sound wildlife management requires an awareness about the trends in animal composition and abundance by all stakeholders, including local peoples. Hunters (n = 255) from two adjacent community hunting zones (CHZ) in southeast Cameroon were interviewed about the species composition of the animals killed using snare traps between 1952 and 2015-2016 and the drivers of change. The comparison of the perceived spatial and temporal trends in game composition to those from transect surveys and bushmeat records conducted in the area since the nineties evidenced the followings: (1) hunters are aware of the coarse changes in prey abundance, even for the species for which population density is difficult to estimate using more conventional survey methods; (2) in southeast Cameroon and in forests regions with similar fauna, the bay duiker (Cephalophus dorsalis) and the Peter's duiker (C. callipygus) are clearly more abundant than the white-bellied duiker (C. leucogaster) and black-fronted duiker (C. nigrifrons); (3) the two sites surveyed are at different stages of prey depletion, and (4) perception of prey composition is consistent with village-based bushmeat records and is likely to reflect more the species compositions in anthropogenic forest mosaics, where hunting is more frequent. Hunters' interviews constitute a valuable means to rapidly assess the status and trends in animal populations. However, the discrepancies between perceptions and prey composition in remote forest areas, combined with the assumption that shifting baseline syndrome is operating, highlight the need of caution when using local knowledge to generalize trends in fauna assemblages over large geographical and temporal scales.
... The conception of national parks as land 'devoted to wildlife under alien control' (Western 1982, 303) was the direct result of colonial-era environmental ideologies, in particular Western notions of wilderness that viewed nature as pristine and untouched by humans (Neumann 2002). This points to the failure of policy-makers and conservationists at the time to recognize how these landscapes were created through the joint action of humans, livestock and wildlife, and through complex interactions between fire and herbivory that are both anthropogenic and natural (Butt 2014;Butt and Turner 2012;Niamir-Fuller et al. 2012;Shetler 2007). Game laws further eroded pastoralist rights over natural resources, while increasing their economic ...
Article
The dynamics of customary land rights and displacement among east African pastoralists have been the subject of extensive scholarly inquiry. Displacement to make way for other land uses, government-led privatization schemes, endogenous subdivision to defend land against outsiders, and progressive enclosure of private land in the context of the recent 'land rush' are some of the documented trajectories of land tenure change. Less explored is how exogenous authority systems gain traction within common property regimes to reshape the contours of property. Laikipia, Kenya presents an ideal context for this research given the uniquely ambitious effort to conserve globally significant wildlife on private land. We focus on a group ranch owned collectively by Maa-speaking pastoralists for whom formal title was secured with the support of outside actors vested in conservation, and coupled with efforts to provide financial incentives for conservation. Findings suggest the new governance structure established in the context of land titling has become a pathway through which outside authority gains traction – with consequences for property, sovereignty and the traction of green agendas. Findings deepen understanding of how shifting authority shapes processes of alienation and legitimation, and contribute to ongoing debates about land grabs, tenure formalization and neoliberal approaches to conservation.
... These efforts were a response to human needs, and not an altruistic concern for wild fauna and fl ora (Western & Wright, 1994 ) . In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, a "fortress conservation" model emerged based on a preservationist view of separating people from wildlife (Nash, 1967 ;Shetler, 2007 ). In colonies such as Kenya, the preservationist view, combined with the need to generate income, encouraged the removal of ownership of and access to wildlife and natural resources by local communities. ...
Chapter
Our aim in this book was to encourage balanced, empirically based assessments of primate tourism’s strengths and weaknesses as a primate conservation tool. Such assessments are increasingly called for, since nature tourism has not proven to be as low impact or as strong a conservation tool as previously hoped (Higham, 2007a; Knight & Cole, 1995). In this chapter we review primate tourism’s positive and adverse effects on primate conservation, primarily from the perspective of our contributors’ assessments of the species and sites they study. We focus on the primates and habitats visited and, where possible, weigh tourism’s adverse against positive effects. Insofar as this approach improves understanding of primate tourism’s impacts, it can serve as a basis for developing ways to operate primate tourism to the net benefit of primate conservation. Assessing the benefits and costs of primate tourism for primate conservation is complicated by the many factors and the long timeframes typically involved. Important complexities are that primate tourism is often only one of several activities at a site; primates are not necessarily the main tourist attraction; humans other than tourists may visit a site’s primates, such as researchers, conservationists, park employees, and local people; conservation may not be the main focus of primate tourism at a site; and patterns associated with primate tourism can also correlate with broader economic, socio-political, and natural events. It is not always possible to isolate which of these factors is responsible for changes relevant to primate conservation. An important case in point is disease transmission: human diseases have infected primates that tourists visit, but there is no evidence that tourists are more likely than non-tourists to have spread the diseases (Muehlenbein & Wallis, this volume).
... The fundamental drivers of illegal take of wildlife are often simplified down to economically depressed, uneducated, and often local community members who have few other livelihood options (Knapp 2012). However, human behaviour is complex and varied, and illegal hunting has also been linked with desires as skill development, identity formation, opposition to authorities, boredom and thrill seeking (Forsyth and Marckese 1993, Shetler 2007, Knapp 2009). Insights from social aspects of SSF may help to explain the prevalence of intentional or opportunistic take and use of turtles and their products. ...
Thesis
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Five of the world’s seven species of sea turtles have been documented to use Mozambican habitats. While they are thought to be extensively distributed throughout Mozambican coastal waters, and the offshore waters of the Mozambican Channel, little is known about these populations. Specifically, information about the state and structure of sea turtle populations (population size estimates, species composition, age class distribution, movements of animals into and out of the study area, residency, habitat use and preferences) was scarce or non-existent for Mozambique. Therefore, my research adopted several complementary research techniques to increase knowledge on sea turtles in their foraging grounds and their exposure to human impacts. The major research aim of my thesis is to understand factors related to the distribution, abundance and use of sea turtle populations within the Inhambane region, Mozambique, and use this knowledge to inform and improve conservation and management efforts. In Chapters 2 and 3, I explore the use of citizen science and photo- identification (photo-ID) as tools to facilitate the collection of data on turtles encountered in-water. I found that citizen science is a useful tool for collecting basic biological information, particularly when coupled with photo-ID encounters. While the quality of dive log records was improved by having a few well-trained and consistent contributors, the photo-ID database benefitted from broadened public involvement. Results from the generalised linear modelling of the dive log data (Chapter 3) suggested that sightings and abundance of turtles were influenced by environmental conditions. It was also evident that factors such as visibility and diving depth lead to availability and perception bias in the citizen scientists’ records. It is important to be aware of such biases since they reflect physical environmental diving conditions rather than habitat or behavioural predictors that influence sea turtles. Overall, citizen science coupled with photo-ID datasets provided the first details of Mozambique’s foraging sea turtle populations. In Chapter 3, I described the use of coastal reefs by green and loggerhead sea turtles in Inhambane, Mozambique. Based on population models from the photo-ID dataset, both green and loggerhead populations were small but present year-round. Regardless of species, sea turtles favoured coastal nearshore waters and relatively shallow reef systems, which make them vulnerable to interaction with small scale fisheries (SSF). Impacts of SSF is unlikely to be consistent between species or age-classes. My findings suggest that the long-term residency of late-stage juvenile greens in these nearshore and shallow habitats make them most vulnerable to interactions with SSF. In Chapter 4, I investigated the prevalence of illegal take of sea turtles in a coastal region of Mozambique – the Tofo area, Inhambane Province - and conducted a national-scale literature review. Transect- based sampling in the sand dunes demonstrated that the Tofo area and greater Inhambane peninsula are a hotspot for take of sea turtles. The literature review documented year-round take of sea turtles to occur through much of Mozambique. Use of sea turtles focused on their meat, and it was rare to detect more than an empty carapace or old bones. Small scale fisheries interact with turtles in their favoured habitats (close to reefs systems) in coastal waters, particularly in the south of the primary study area, between Praia do Tofinho and Praia de Rocha. Based on interviews with fishers, the opportunistic take of turtles is prevalent and widespread (Chapter 5) in Inhambane Province. A targeted marine megafauna multi-species fishery exists in the study area. Widespread use of gillnets and long-lines occurs and these fishing gears are favoured because of their non-selectivity and ability to capture turtles and other species. Sea turtle capture in these fisheries is neither bycatch nor accidental. Interviews with fishers (Chapter 5) indicated that the motives and drivers influencing fishers to illegally take sea turtles were variable between communities and individuals. In the two fishing communities surveyed, opportunities for alternative livelihoods were lacking or insufficient to supplement or replace their reliance on fishing activities. Five of the six major drivers identified in Chapter 5 reflect Mozambique’s low socio- economic status. Similarities were evident between the drivers and motives of illegal take of turtles and the terrestrial mammal bushmeat hunting and trade. The majority of fishers had multiple motives for participating in illegal take of sea turtles. Awareness of turtle protection laws amongst fishers was high, although compliance was low. This suggests that simple campaigns to increase awareness of turtle legislation will have little impact in deterring illegal take. Future conservation efforts will need to address food security, livelihoods options and aim to minimise the number of motives an individual fisher or community may have to participate in illegal take. I solicited opinions from local experts to quantitatively rank threats and investigate the context of conservation and management efforts underway in Mozambique (Chapter 6). Consensus of expert opinions revealed the most pressing threats to sea turtles were fisheries-related (bycatch from commercial trawling, SSF bycatch and hunting of nesting turtles). The top- ranking threat, bycatch within the commercial shallow-water prawn trawl industry, could be easily mitigated with effective implementation of pre- existing Turtle Exclusion Device legislation. This is not the case for the other two threats, which given their nature are likely to involve extensive changes/improvements to living standards and Mozambique’s overall socio-economic status. Compliance with sea turtle legislation was weak throughout the country and experts identified improving enforcement efforts as critical. Parallels are evident among the issues that hamper the conservation and management of terrestrial megafauna and marine megafauna. A holistic process will be required to solve large-scale issues (e.g. governance, corruption, compliance) and strengthen overall biodiversity conservation. Given the extremely limited funding allocated to the conservation of sea turtles, the marine environment and limited access to skilled people and resources, a prioritised list of management actions for sea turtle hotspot areas is necessary. I conclude this study by discussing my key findings relating to the sea turtle populations using the Tofo area, the impacts they face and how and where conservation management efforts could be strengthened. I also suggest specific priorities for future research to enhance knowledge of sea turtle populations, socio-economic understanding of SSF and alternative livelihoods. A balance needs to be struck between the environment, economic development and social and cultural values of coastal people in order to achieve sustainable growth whilst preserving marine biodiversity and improving living standards.
... These efforts were a response to human needs, and not an altruistic concern for wild fauna and fl ora (Western & Wright, 1994 ) . In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, a "fortress conservation" model emerged based on a preservationist view of separating people from wildlife (Nash, 1967 ;Shetler, 2007 ). In colonies such as Kenya, the preservationist view, combined with the need to generate income, encouraged the removal of ownership of and access to wildlife and natural resources by local communities. ...
Book
Primate tourism is a growing phenomenon, with increasing pressure coming from several directions: the private sector, governments, and conservation agencies. At the same time, some primate sites are working to exclude or severely restrict tourism because of problems that have developed as a result. Indeed, tourism has proven costly to primates due to factors such as disease, stress, social disruption, vulnerability to poachers, and interference with rehabilitation and reintroduction. Bringing together interdisciplinary expertise in wildlife/nature tourism and primatology, experts present and discuss their accumulated experience from individual primate sites open to tourists, formal studies of primate-focused tourism, and trends in nature and wildlife tourism. Chapters offer species- and site-specific assessments, weighing conservation benefits against costs, and suggesting strategies for the development of informed guidelines for ongoing and future primate tourism ventures. Primate Tourism has been written for primatologists, conservationists and other scientists. It is also relevant to tourists and tourism professionals.
... Such processes are aimed at reshaping the relationships between people and resources. Through the park, landscapes and seascapes are "re-imagined" (see Shetler, 2007;Brockington et al., 2008a, 571) as sites of global importance for marine biodiversity conservation. As shown by close reading of the GMP, this manner of reclassifying space is based on a specialized way of 'seeing' resources and representing nature, through the lens of marine conservation. ...
Article
The Mnazi Bay-Ruvuma Estuary Marine Park (MBREMP), a multiple-use marine protected area in southeastern Tanzania, is publicly framed as a project that benefits coastal villagers and marine biodiversity. In reality, villagers are politically excluded from park governance, though geographically included inside of park boundaries. While the stated aim of the park is to protect the ecological integrity of the marine environment, I argue that the MBREMP constitutes a contested and inconsistent process of territorialization characterized by boundary-making, zoning, and regulating resource-use inside of a geographically-defined area. Through the Marine Parks and Reserves Unit, the park extends the reach of the state apparatus to a rural locality that would otherwise be situated on its geographic and political periphery. However, disconnects exist between territorialization on paper and in practice due to the on-the-ground politics of conservation. Practical management constraints, political complexities related to state-private partnerships, and bottom-up resistance create barriers to territorialization. Nonetheless, park management practices constrain local livelihoods and negatively impact villagers’ everyday lives. The reclassification of Village Land as Reserve Land undermines customary rights to resources and renders customary occupancy rights ever more precarious. Citing their lived experiences of subjugation, some villagers perceive the park as a political instrument for securing state resource control. Rather than a ‘fortress’ model of conservation that physically displaces villagers, I maintain that circumscription of coastal communities creates new social and political terrains of territoriality.
... Although Boreda elders wanted us to produce the maps as we walked the landscape with them, their knowledge was critical to this project because many of the historically important forests and trees lack obvious cultural features or artifacts and would have been missed in an archaeological survey. Other scholars have had similar experiences asserting that "natural spaces" were "memory places" in peoples' cultural landscapes (Brockington 2002;Dowie 2009;Flexner 2014;Shetler 2007). ...
Article
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The Boreda elders of southern Ethiopia requested that we create maps highlighting the locations of their historic settlements and sacred groves. Community elders led us along winding footpaths that ascended to nine mountaintops that had been occupied since the early thirteenth century and were abandoned nearly 100 years ago. Surrounding these historic communities are Boreda sacred groves with springs, caves, and boulders that are physical evidence in their Indigenous religion of the animation of the non-human world. Yet, the tree canopies also harbor walls, berms, and trenches that suggest a history of conflict. Thematic maps of these places and their landscapes illustrate the strategic alignment of Boreda sacred-fortified forested monuments, which spatially correspond to their oral traditions and histories recounting their resistance against neighboring slave raiders and the Northern Ethiopian state. By integrating precise spatial relationships with community knowledge of places and histories, we demonstrate the power of this knowledge in documenting precolonial histories.
... Phonological and morphological evidence show more variation, and tonal systems in these varieties vary considerably (Aunio 2013). Historical evidence does not lump these three varieties into a single branch of Eastern Mara Bantu languages (Shetler 2007), and thus lexical similarities are likely to be at least partly a result of long term contact. Further, recent findings seem to point to the facts that Ikoma and Nata are more similar to each other and that Isenye varies more from the other two (Smith et al. 2008). ...
Article
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Ikoma is a Bantu language spoken in the Mara Region (Western Tanzania). This paper describes the verbal tone system of Ikoma with the goal of widening our understanding of Bantu tonal grammars. Ikoma verbs do not show lexical tonal contrast, but the tense-aspect-mood system makes extensive use of melodic Hs, i.e. grammatical tones that are assigned according to specific rules to either the verbal stem or the inflectional morphemes of the verb. These melodic Hs, together with segmental formatives, mark tense-aspect-mood forms of Ikoma verbs. Although Ikoma has many tonal features common to other Eastern Bantu languages, some of its assignment rules for melodic Hs could be local innovations.
... Relatively 'liberal' aspects pertaining to land and resource control remained in place throughout much of British colonial rule, because subsistence livelihoods were not seen as a threat to the environment (Neumann 1998: 100;Shetler 2007: 183). The 1921 Game Ordinance prohibited African hunting, yet it was hardly enforceable and was interpreted as not restricting access to game for subsistence (Shetler 2007). As late as 1928, British colonial officers seemed in "favour" of re-arming "all natives" in Tanganyika with firearms so that they could protect their farms against wildlife (Henfrey 1928: 118). ...
Article
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Drawing on critical debates in political ecology and biopolitics, the article develops a "biopolitical ecology of conservation" to study historical shifts in how human and nonhuman lives come to be valued in an asymmetric way. Tanzania and the so-called Tarangire-Manyara Ecosystem illustrate how these biopolitical shifts became entangled with conservation interventions and broader visions of development throughout colonial and post-colonial history. Colonial efforts to balance seemingly competing domains of human and nonhuman species through spatial separation gave way to the development of the post-colonial nation through the nurturing of its wildlife population. This shift from human-nonhuman incompatibility towards human dependency on wildlife and biodiversity conservation culminated in the contemporary biopolitical ecology and geography of landscape conservation. Landscape conservation seeks to entangle human and nonhuman species. Through conservation, human populations are rearranged and fixed in time and space to allow wildlife to roam free across unbounded spaces. This conservation governmentality is tied to global environmentalist concerns and political economies of neoliberal conservation, as well as to a domestic agenda of tourism-based economic growth. It secures land tenure for some, while imposing a biopolitical sacrifice on the rural population as a whole. This forecloses alternative rural futures for a land-dependent and increasingly land-deprived population.
... Landscapes in this case may be defined according to watersheds or other biophysical criteria, follow pre-existing administrative or customary boundaries, or result from negotiations among participating stakeholders (ibid.). Other modes of conservation governance include the 'fortress' strategy, which is basically a command and control model in which capitalist markets have long influenced the disciplining of people through law enforcement, livelihood and landscape, and market-oriented conservation governance orders were evoked to ensure the protection of biodiversity (Homewood and Rodgers, 1984;Peluso, 1993;Duffy, 1999;Neumann, 2001;Shetler, 2007). ...
Thesis
Decisions regarding the management of natural resources in the northern rangelands of Kenya have traditionally been made collectively through leadership offered by customary institutions. However, the evolution of Kenya as a flexible environmental state has had implications for natural resource management and institutions in arid and semi-arid rangeland (ASAL) ecosystems. As a result, the rise of collaborative natural resource management has been characterized by the growth of public-private conservation partnerships (PPPs). Ecotourism and payments for ecosystem services have thus evolved as flexible forms of environmental governance through which challenges in natural resources management can be addressed. This study was motivated by the lack of documented empirical research on the effects of PPPs as hybridized modes of natural resource management. Specifically, this study aims to characterize the partnerships in terms of their evolution, actors’ interactions and power dynamics, as well as examine their efficiency, effectiveness and equity implications of natural resource governance. Four conservancies under the umbrella of the Northern Rangelands Trust (NRT) in the ASALs of Samburu County were purposefully selected for study. Key informant interviews, focus group discussions, household interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire and researcher’s observation of field conditions were used to gather data. Data was analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The findings show that the existence of wildlife on communal lands outside protected areas is the key condition for creating these partnerships. Furthermore, the partnerships are characterized by various kinds of exchanges between stakeholders, such as the provision of political support, physical security, legitimacy and finances. Additionally, the rolling back of the state under neoliberalism has led to the rise to power of the NRT whose influence has been magnified by ties with international organizations such as The Nature Conservancy. The results of financial cost-benefit analyses of the conservancies revealed their operational inefficiency. As a result, there exists an over-reliance on donor-funding, rendering the practice of conservation unsustainable in its current form. As support for conservation initiatives strongly hinges on a local community’s acceptance and collaboration, the PPPs undertake investments in communal projects, such as the provision of physical security which is critical to conservation initiative’s success. Considerable effort is also geared towards shrewd environmental stewardship. However, in working towards their objectives, conservation PPPs are characterized by inequities in access, decision-making and outcomes. This finding, I argue, is a result of the failure to fully acknowledge and incorporate the contextual aspects of equity. Overall, the implications of this thesis suggest that public-private conservation partnerships have the potential to be effective modes of natural resource governance if: (i) the devolved county system of government takes charge to empower local communities more, and, as a consequence avert tendencies to assert dominance within partnerships by other stakeholders; (ii) a renegotiation of favourable conservancy-investor partnership agreements occurs, as a way of financially empowering conservancies, thereby reducing the donor-dependency tendency; (iii) more effort is geared towards ensuring a fair distribution of benefits to individual households. This can be achieved, for instance, by linking communities directly to local and external markets in the framework of the NRT’s BeadWORKS and LivestockWORKS programs, and by shifting the perception of marginalized social groups such as women and morans. Based on the findings of this study, it is thus expected that key policy initiatives should become visible in improving the practice of conservation and securing the rights and livelihoods of pastoral communities dependent on conservation as a form of land use in Kenya and beyond.
... In such ways, people filter the memories of the collective past though the material aspects of local landscapes (Walley, 2004;Shetler, 2007). In framing history in this manner, an individual removes oneself as the subject of the narrative, elevating instead the landscape as the protagonist of history. ...
Book
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"In this remarkable blend of ethnography, landscape history, and economic botany, Sarah Osterhoudt invites readers to understand the 'happy landscapes' of carefully cultivated vanilla-producing agroforests in northeast Madagascar. Drawing on the author's five years in the coastal village of Imorona over a twelve-year period, this is also a unique and extended study in landscape epistemology and narration.It explores how local residents of various social positions, external conservation/development agents, a resident anthropologist, and biophysical scientists each come to know and to describe the culturally imbued land and forests of Madagascar." From book review in Journal of Political Ecology, by Laura M. Yoder
... Colonial ideals of what an African landscape should look like placed landscapes in binary terms; those of "wilderness" and those of "domestication", with many places deemed "degraded" or as spaces of "unfulfilled potential" when occupied by Africans (Atieno-Odhiambo and Cohen, 1989;Shetler, 2007;Davis, 2010). Thus, colonial governments, settlers, and eventually independent states complied with these constructs of use, misuse, and degradation of Africa. ...
Article
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One Health perspectives are growing in influence in global health. One Health is presented as being inherently interdisciplinary and integrative, drawing together human, animal and environmental health into a single gaze. Closer inspection, however, reveals that this presentation of entanglement is dependent upon an apolitical understanding of three pre-existing separate conceptual spaces that are brought to a point of connection. Drawing on research with livestock keepers in northern Tanzania, in the context of the history of livestock policy in colonial and postcolonial East Africa, this demonstrates what an extended model of One Health - one that moves from bounded human, animal and environmental sectors to co-constitutive assemblages - can do to create a flexible space that is inclusive of the multiplicity of health.
... However, every protected area has a history of unsettled attempts and negotiations to create a conservation territory through acts of territorialization. At the advent of such struggles, the spaces to be taken up by protected areas are inhabited by people with different ideas and stories-or imaginaries-about their values and purposes (Neumann, 1998;Shetler, 2007). The push to create a conservation territory implies the unsettling of existing socio-natural configurations by new orders, producing new regimes of access and authority. ...
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In this paper we argue that historically emerging frontiers of conservation pave the way for continuous top–down territorialization. Drawing on a concrete case in the Selous–Niassa Corridor in Southern Tanzania, we show how a frontier emerged in the form of community-based conservation. Decades of consecutive and continuous territorialization projects, based on mapping and boundary making, have ensured that conservation is beyond questioning, despite failures in the processes of demarcating, controlling, and managing this large-scale socio-spatial intervention. Although these failures produce territorial conflicts and confusions on the ground, we argue that in the context of a conservation frontier the gap between the envisioned ideal and the messy reality is used to legitimize continuous conservation interventions that rely on technical expertise rather than political dialog. While such top–down territorialization by community-based conservation inevitably remains partial and contingent, this is nonetheless a powerful and resilient project that gradually transforms communal landscapes into conservation territories with little room for public debate.
... Underlying social constructions and land uses in a rather implicit manner, these imaginaries can nevertheless have wide-reaching implications. Environmental imaginaries and their constructions of unused and 'empty' lands, environmental crises, or 'boom frontiers' sustained the establishment of European colonial order, and were powerful narratives used to justify the imperial goals of intervention, settlement, and control (Davis 2007;Shetler 2007;Mitchell 2011). Studying these notions about land through, for example, narratives, paintings, archival documents, or maps helps to understand how the relationship between society and land has been constructed by different people across time and space, and how land is valued within these contexts. ...
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Over the past decade land has again moved to the centre of resource conflicts, agrarian struggles, and competing visions over the future of food and farming. This renewed interest in land necessitates asking the seemingly simple, but pertinent, question ‘what is land?’ To reach a more profound understanding of the uniqueness of land, and what distinguishes land from other resources, this symposium suggests the notion of ‘land imaginaries’ as a crucial lens in the study of current land transformations. Political-economy, and the particular economic, financial, or political interests of various actors involved in land projects do not directly result in, or translate into, outcomes, such as dispossession and enclosure, increased com- modification, financialization, and assetization, or mobilization and resistance. All these processes are informed by different imaginaries of land—the underlying understandings, views, and visions of what land is, can, and should be—and associated visions, hopes, and dreams regarding land. Drawing on a variety of case studies from across the world, crossing Global North/ South and East/West, and including contemporary and historical instances of land transformation, this symposium addresses the multifaceted ways in which implicit, explicit, and emergent understandings of land shape current land transformations.
... In fact, painted colonial landscapes were locally used as a description of future engineering plans where the government and its investors modified the urban and rural sites, or as storytelling for the motherlands in Europe. The landscape therefore becomes a human construction, a projection of imagination that historically transforms the lands into a kind of dreamscape (Shetler 2007;Delle 2014;Dillman 2015). ...
Article
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This article aims to investigate the subjective, cultural value of landscapes behind the representations of the landscapes themselves, in a conversation with the Caribbean artists Nadia Huggins and Richard Fung.
... Também queríamos apreender, como nesta vivência, a tradição oral e a memória se articulam na apreensão da T.I. Kuatinemu como um território que se constitui a partir da paisagem e dos seus lugares significativos(Shetler 2007, Zedeño & Browser 2009).Silva et al. 2011). Para os Asurini, os registros arqueológicos e os lugares não falam apenas de acontecimentos no passado, mas eles também dão sentido às realidades vividas no presente. ...
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Neste trabalho apresentaremos os primeiros resultados do projeto Território e Memória dos Asurini do Xingu: Arqueologia Colaborativa na T.I. Kuatinemu, Pará. Trata-se da continuidade da pesquisa arqueológica colaborativa que vem sendo realizada com os Asurini do Xingu, desde 2009. Descreveremos o trabalho de campo e as características dos sítios arqueológicos localizados na área. Além disso, faremos uma reflexão sobre a relação entre paisagem e memória neste contexto amazônico de pesquisa. Palavras-chave: Arqueologia colaborativa, Asurini do Xingu, paisagem, memória.
... Early on in the history of the national park, ungulate migration, the "synchronous large-scale return movement" of the Serengeti wildebeests, zebras, and Thomson's gazelles across wide distances, played a crucial role in strategies to protect Tanzanian and Kenyan environments (Hopcraft, 2010: 7;Msoffe et al., 2019). Environmental historians have shown how East African landscapes, the Serengeti especially, have come to epitomize wild nature for both the international science community and popular audiences, particularly those from the global North (Mitman, 2012;Shetler, 2007). Evoking in Western visitors images of how other vast landscapes, such as the North American plains, must have looked before the introduction of commercialized hunting in the mid-19th century, the Serengeti has been under protection in one form or another since late 19th-century German colonial rule (Gissibl, 2016). ...
Article
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Drawing on the concept of technological mediation, this article examines the spatial politics of observation technologies and associated practices that have been used to monitor the movement of migratory wildebeests in the Serengeti from the 1950s until the 2000s. It shows that key technologies, and the types of research collaborations they sustained, mediated notably different normative ideas about human-wildlife interaction and the sharing of space in and around protected areas. During the 1950s and 1960s, observations of animal migration were conducted by airplane. Direct observation was characterized by the study of movement of migratory ungulates, such as the wildebeest, and humans across space in real time. Aerial observations depended on a close cooperation between scientists and park authorities, and on the knowledge and observational skills of game wardens. The experience of the movement of animals and people in real time allowed, to some degree, for experimentation with forms of human land-use. During the 1970s, many small-scale and short-term projects shifted the research focus toward data recording by camera. Aerial photographs created supposedly complete spatial overviews of inhabitation, which supported interpretations of spatial conflicts between humans occupying the park's surrounding areas and animal populations inside the park. From the 1980s onward, computer technology allowed for long-term calculations of past and future trends in population densities of individual species. The understanding of the wildebeest as a keystone species and the Serengeti as a baseline ecosystem turned communities of local pastoralists and agriculturalists into a future threat. As observation technologies are here to stay, it remains important to pay attention to technologies' potential roles in creating additional distances between researchers and research subjects. Historical insights, such as the ones presented in this article, can help reflect on how various
... Moreover, because "vernacular landscapes" of lived experience are only ever seen "out of the corner of one's eye" (Jackson, 1984), the subjects of alternative narratives of change are not necessarily populations articulating them but material aspects of local landscapes through which people rework their collective past (Walley, 2004;Shetler, 2007). What matters less than people accurately remembering a place's history is how the conditions of "accuracy" are defined and redefined as the contexts in which memory is deployed change. ...
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China's Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) exploits increased permeability of all kinds of boundaries even as old rhetorics of sovereign space are reanimated. This paper examines a very local example of impacts in Kibwezi, Kenya. Regarding more than a century of local land disputes, BRI's “dreamscape” (Jasanoff and Kim, 2015) can be repurposed especially given persistence of sacred geographies of wood and water access. These mathembo landscapes are less refuges for emasculated traditional customs and institutions than resources that are as much affective as they are material in their revitalization to meet the contexts of changed times. Such “socionatures” (Swyngedouw, 1996) energize multiple answers to questions of who gets to imagine the future and how much latitude others have to participate in particular designed futures as they see fit. As it turns out, dreamscapes may be opposed not only by equally grandiose alternative narratives but also by more localized imaginaries, and while dreamscapes are future-oriented, alternatives referencing the past can compete well.
... This book builds on the excellent works on Kaoko by Miescher and Henrichsen (2000), Rizzo (2012), Friedman (2011), and Van Wolputte (2007. It is also situated within larger African literature dealing with localized environmental histories (Bolaane 2013;Bender Shetler 2007;Brockington 2002;Carruthers 1995). Bollig's study is especially interesting as it covers the Kaoko region in its entirety rather than focusing on a single Protected Area (PA), as is typically the case in much of the above literature. ...
Chapter
Whales are a common property and a potential natural resource for the taking. Of the many resources they can provide humans, their flesh, or “whale meat,” has become controversial in the past three decades. The controversy lies largely with the whale as a prominent charismatic mega fauna. Whales have become a symbol and source of environmental activism, floating in the middle of a highly contested political and ideological struggle. Japan stands at the center of the international whaling dispute, refusing to accept the global anti-whaling norm. Since the 1982 moratorium, Japan has put in an annual request to the IWC each year to create an exception of the moratorium for a number of small coastal whaling villages to carry out traditional practices. They are continually denied, despite the centrality of the whale in these cultures. As conservation efforts, dams, and other modern alterations relocate humans from their traditional lands or prevent humans from interacting with key species, we are increasingly discovering that affected communities lose more than access to natural resources, but that key parts of the culture itself is forced to be left behind, if not forgotten entirely over time. This chapter explores what is lost when whaling is removed from small coastal whaling villages of Japan—addressing how global anti-whaling discourse may save whales, but harm human-whale relations in Japan.
Thesis
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Conservation and rural development are at an impasse in sub-Saharan Africa. Protected areas attract global tourism and generate foreign exchange, while rural people living around parks and reserves continue to be dependent on land and land-based resources for their livelihoods. At this impasse, conservation professionals are reconfiguring conservation interventions to protect wildlife beyond the boundaries of parks and reserves to ensure its survival as a genetically diverse population. This attempt to rescale wildlife conservation from protected area management towards ecosystem management has been coined ‘landscape conservation’. In the last years, conservation through the landscape approach has gained remarkable traction in academic and policy debates, donor and NGO circles, and on-the-ground initiatives. ‘Landscape conservation’ seems to be a new depoliticizing buzzword, similar to ‘sustainable development’ and ‘good governance’. This thesis offers a critical corrective by interrogating the biopolitical ecology of landscape conservation. Drawing on the analytic of governmentality, I conceptualize landscape conservation initiatives as biopolitical projects of human population management and control to enable wildlife to roam free across unbounded spaces. I show how - underpinned by a biopolitical rationality of wildlife being under threat by human activities - rural livelihoods are problematized by state- and non-state conservation authorities as incompatible with conservation objectives, unless human behaviour and subjectivities are changed, and rural livelihoods are fixed in time and space. Ultimately, this thesis demonstrates that biopolitical landscapes advance an asymmetric valuation of human and nonhuman lives, rendering wildlife worthy of protection and care, while demanding from rural people a sacrifice of their present and future needs and aspirations. Thus, instead of working towards an overcoming of the conservation and rural development impasse, landscape conservation intensifies it.
Chapter
The need for sustainable interpretation of cultural and heritage resources is heightening due to the resources’ growing use in socio-political as well as socio-economic forums. Contestations for the resources are bound to surface in situations where multiple identities belonging to multiple stakeholders from multiple historical frameworks exist. Balanced interpretation therefore becomes important. Interpretation can be approached from both a scholarly perspective and a management perspective – the former when knowledge production is a target and the latter when knowledge packaging is the main focus. Preceding chapters of this book have illustrated some conservation and management dichotomies that already exhibit multiple identities. These include amongst others the nature-nurture divide in Chap. 1, tangible-intangible dichotomy in Chaps. 1 and 2, African-European in this chapter and governor-governed in Chap. 3. To illuminate on approaches to interpretation, this chapter uses a site imbued with multiple cultural meanings and values and brings out potential issues to discuss and critique in search of sustainable interpretation. The ‘Livingstone Memorial’ site in Botswana is a landscape constituting of local (native) and foreign (missionary) components of heritage, therefore conflated with multiple cultural meanings. The case study characteristics invoke questions such as: Whose heritage? Selected by whom? The name of the site denotes a singular identity brand, but the chapter analysis will show that other identities exist and even go beyond historical stativity of missionary brand as they extend to current descendants of natives that shared the site with the missionary. In Africa, sites denoting David Livingstone ’s heritage are found in Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Madagascar, RSA, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
Chapter
Wildlife conservation in Tanzania is informed by the perceived inadequacy of protected areas relative to wildlife habitats and migration routes. It is important to note, however, that the creation of modern protected areas has been part of the ongoing processes of ecosystem fragmentation, with which conservationists are appropriately concerned. This chapter considers these concerns through the creation of Tarangire National Park and related protected areas between the 1950s and 1980s and the subsequent rise of NGO-driven conservation interventions in the 1980s and 1990s. It highlights the ongoing legacies of these histories, their implications for ecosystem fragmentation and human-wildlife coexistence, as well the challenges and opportunities they present for more holistic and equitable conservation alternatives. Its framework and object of analysis is a conservationist political ecology.
Article
This article explores the transforming meanings of kaya forests in coastal Kenya during first half of the twentieth century. It focuses on the deployment of the kaya–indicating lowland coastal forests with a linguistic connotation of “home” – as discursive tool in the political practices of elder Mijikenda men in their interactions with the colonial state. From the mid-nineteenth- to early-twentieth century, kaya forests were assigned a variety of meanings, including as historical settlements, ancestral graveyards, and ritual sites. By the late-colonial period, the forests and forest authorities – or kaya elders – were central categories of political practice on the Kenya coast. The article argues that elder Mijikenda men and colonial officials generated novel ideas about the significance of the kaya forests as they collaborated to establish bodies of legitimate authority and demarcate lands for colonial forestry projects and development schemes. In the process, they reworked and standardized the meanings attached the forest groves which became a setting for – and symbols of – political action.
Article
The essay analyses a set of the landscape photographs of Walther Dobbertin that were taken in the German East Africa highlands before the First World War. The concept of locality binds the discussion of three settler enclaves – A Trappist monastery, a Evangelical Lutheran mission station, and a government-leased farm. One exclusively indigenous site, the Mlalo Kaya, adds as well to the conceptual discussion. The photographs are high-resolution scans of the original negatives, and enlargements reveal much information about land husbandry and the ecological consequences of the implementation of colonial power in particular places. The analysis also suggests that the nature of locality formation has long lasting consequences.
Chapter
This chapter examines the figurative play of birds in two works that illuminate the colonial and neo-colonial collusion of wildlife conservation and Big Game politics in Africa. The historical backdrop for Yvette Christiansë’s Unconfessed (2006), set during the transfer between Dutch and British systems of slavery in Cape Colony, coincides with the transformation of certain animal species into “Game.” The chapter examines how the figurative play on seagulls (and bird-shit) articulates, as postcolonial critique, the interrelation between discourses of slavery and Big Game conservation. Turning then to the documentary film Serengeti Shall Not Die (1959), the chapter examines how its vision of wildlife conservation depends on a technological projection of spectral bird and animal forms that perpetuates colonial regimes of enslavement and big game politics through a neo-colonial displacement of human populations in the name of conservation. Tracing the effect of Derrida’s “animot” (and Lippit’s “animetaphor”) through both of these works, the chapter reads the postcolonial critique of the one (in the bird-shit of its seagulls) and the neo-colonial technology of the other (in the bird’s-eye view of the aircraft camouflaged with zebra-stripes) as illustrating the ongoing agonistic struggle between colonial and neo-colonial forms of wildlife conservation and big game politics.
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The authoritarian regime in Angola seeks to control every dimension of life in the country interfering with a set of fundamental rights such as the freedom of assembly, of movement and of expression. However, by their very fluid nature, by the inherent massing and anonymity, the contexts of mobility not only offer a set of social interactions rarely allowed in the current political panorama, but also provide an escape to effective surveillance and monitoring from authorities. Furthermore, the multidirectional encounters that mobility enacts — with people, situations, events, spatial mnemonics — create the conditions for the acknowledgement of an individual and collective plight. The absence of a likely public space for the discussion of certain compelling issues transforms the contexts of mobility into ephemeral moving assemblies, into unconventional sites of resistance where a sociopolitical culture is hatching. Collective transport's ambiguous anthropological qualities configure a highly productive ethnographic setting for the surreptitious researcher and an inescapable context if one is to assess Angola’s current reality. By depicting the social life of Angola’s public transport I will unveil the several mechanisms and possibilities behind these moving assemblies examining how mobility and sociopolitical mobilization intertwine.
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Gorongosa: a history of an African landscape, 1921-2014, focuses on changes in the Gorongosa ecosystem, in central Mozambique, southeastern Africa. Environmental changes result from natural, non-human causes and from the activities of humans. I describe four socioecological events: African and Portuguese interactions, Gorongosa National Park, the effects of Mozambique’s civil war, and the Park’s restoration in the aftermath of the civil war. Prior to European partition of Africa in 1884-85, Mozambique did not exist as clearly a demarcated territory as it is now. Today, the sense of Mozambicanhood bears traces of Portuguese colonial era experience. The demarcation of Mozambique’s boundaries and the reshaping of the colony until 1975 was a painful process that both the Africans and Portuguese colonialists endured; these physical and social separations from the rest of southern Africa represented the first human-induced changes. The endeavors to reshape Mozambique did not end with political boundaries. Painful processes, including the reshaping of Gorongosa National Park in the Gorongosa ecosystem, continued after border demarcations. Countless Mozambican and Portuguese lives were lost in the long trajectory within the colony as the Africans and the Europeans all developed a sense of unity in diversity while reshaping their attitude of and about Mozambique. After independence in 1975, internal transformations and wars continued reshaping Mozambique and Mozambicans, as different nationalists sought to maintain their colonial experience. These dynamics marked the environmental history of the Mozambican and Portuguese peoples and are often reflected in the prevalence of high sympathy, which the two peoples share toward one another. GORONGOSA: A HISTORY OF AN AFRICAN LANDSCAPE, 1921- 2014, critically celebrates these collective achievements.
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This chapter outlines a historical political ecology of conservation initiatives in the Tarangire Ecosystem (TE). First, I turn to chronological history to highlight the origins and the evolution of key stages in the making and expanding of conservation initiatives in the TE. Through attention to chronological history, I show how dominant ideas about people and nature changed over time in the study area. Second, I revisit the TE as a site of contested histories to show how two environmental history narratives compete with each other – a statist narrative which is embraced by public authorities in government and conservation bureaucracies, and a people’s history which represents lived experiences and bottom-up conservation practices of human-wildlife coexistence. I argue that by dismissing and marginalizing locally meaningful narratives, experiences and representations of the TE, a statist narrative continues animating conservation conflicts in the present. Drawing on these insights from the TE’s environmental history and historical political ecology, the chapter concludes with an outlook on how people-wildlife coexistence in the region could be fostered through convivial conservation.
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This article explores themes of morality and capitalist exploitation within the context of the East African ivory trade. Through an interdisciplinary lens that incorporates object-based, archival analysis and critical heritage studies, this article traces how morality-tinged, Western-driven narratives concerning the ivory trade mobilize asymmetrical relationships of capitalist exchange in both the past and present. In the late 19th century, the abolitionist movement conflated the East African ivory and slave trades by narrating the forced coercion of Africans made to carry ivory tusks in the interior, only to be sold into slavery upon reaching the coast. This discursively erased histories of active African engagement with mercantile capitalism as well as emerging labor culture among professional porters of the caravan trade. The vilification of “Arab” slave traders through stories of extreme cruelty within the ivory trade was used to justify formal British colonialism in the region, which led to more expansive capitalist integration and extraction. In a circuitous fashion, contemporary Western conservation activists blame African corruption, Islamic extremism, and Asian consumption for rampant elephant and rhino poaching across East Africa, making way for neoliberal appropriation of East African heritage under the guise of moral interventionism. In both cases, moral (and Orientalist) arguments advocating liberation, heritage preservation, and economic development veil processes by which unequal exchange is facilitated and maintained.
Article
Through an account of the ephemerality and durability of brands’ meaning and materiality in rural Tanzania, this article expands the semiotic scholarship on brand with an analysis from the world of international development—where branding operates in similar but also different ways. By using an abandoned brand fraction to name contemporary interventions, residents of Tanzania’s East Usambara Mountains aggregated what, from another perspective, were distinct activities, institutions, and goals. In this biodiversity hotspot, residents thus constructed a chronotopic framing that countered the marketing efforts of more powerful actors shaping the region’s landscape through conservation. Such framings allowed residents to bundle and estrange successive, short‐term interventions, thereby emphasizing the continuity of foreign influence and reinforcing a social distance between conservation authorities and village residents—a distance that Tanzanian foresters tried to overcome.
Article
From the mid-1970s to the early 1990s, Tanzania experienced an unprecedented crisis characterized by high inflation, unemployment and the shortage of basic commodities. Interviews with contemporaries and the scanty documentary evidence available show that this crisis did not impede small-scale gold mining industry in Nyamongo, Tarime District. On the contrary, mining in Nyamongo boomed during this period, largely because the price of gold on the international market rose exponentially during this period. In the inflationary environment of Tanzania in the 1970s and 1980s, gold not only acted as a hedge against inflation; it also enabled small miners to have access to foreign currency and basic commodities that were in short supply in the country. But the gold riches of Nyamongo remained largely “local” because the gold economy developed as a clan-based enclave economy with few linkages to the national economy.
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From coal to oil, from wind to uranium, the American West has long been an important node of American energy extraction. This has become increasingly true over the last few decades, as thermodynamic havens such as the Bakken oil fields and the Gillette area coal mines have entered onto the global stage. Nevertheless, there has been little scholarship on the role that such energy production has played in the history of the region. This dissertation addresses this absence by taking one small slice of the West—the Powder River Basin, a geological declivity that spans across parts of northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana—and using it as a spatial lens through which to examine the region’s thermodynamic past. Employing a bioregional framework, it examines the basin through a deep time scale, homing on particular energy sources and transitional moments. Each chapter takes as its subject a formative event in the history of the American West and the basin more specifically. It begins with the rise and fall of the nineteenth-century Crow, examining the tribe’s unrecognized role as protectors and benefactors of a thermodynamic utopia in the midst of one of the most unforgiving environments on the continent. It then moves to the paradigmatic range conflict of western lore, the Johnson County War, revealing the deep energetic roots of the quarrel. Next, it analyzes the greatest political scandal in American history, the Teapot Dome affair, showing its complex imbrication in the region’s early oil industry and its broader thermodynamic past. Finally, it addresses the modern Gillette coal empire—since the 1970s the largest energy producer in the world—unearthing a history of attempts to market the region’s unique low-sulfur coal that reaches back to the early-twentieth century. By analyzing diaries, newspaper articles, oral histories, company records, environmental reports, and government documents, this work challenges current beliefs about the role of energy in the history of the region. Using a thermodynamic lens through which to view that past, it overturns the long-accepted paradigm of boom and bust as a model for understanding historical development in the American West, replacing it with one of continuity and cyclical change. Instead of a region of aridity and romanticized conflicts, it presents the West as one of the energy capitals of the world, thereby establishing a new paradigm for its place in American history.
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When hidden in the dark corners of global scholarship and used sporadically at national and community levels, African cultural heritage resources become illusive, non-traceable and at most irrelevant, a situation that makes them vulnerable. This book brought out aspects of cultural heritage resources that give them a vantage point in conservation theory and practice. To achieve this, discussions of the diverse topics are anchored within a theme of sustainability. The book shows that sustainability in cultural heritage resources management is an aggregate of assessment of all the chapters in the book as follows: environment and historic environment, national and international legal framework, politics of the past, community-based conservation, cultural heritage interpretation, standard setting in cultural heritage (certification), cultural heritage tourism development and mainstreaming of human development aspects.
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INTRODUCTION The attention that has been devoted to Sukumaland, Tanzania, by development specialists has been attributed by De Wilde (1967) to the rapid expansion of livestock and cotton production in ways which have been the despair of professional agriculturalists and veterinarians. Cycles of drought, famine and disease have recurred at intervals of five to seven years while soil erosion has been an ever present phenomenon. Administrative responses to these problems have followed a cycle of education, persuasion, resettlement and coercion, to little avail. A number of studies, spanning many scientific disciplines, have sought to understand, change, or merely criticize, the existing state of affairs.
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The rise of the Zulu power in the early nineteenth century has conventionally been treated as the outstanding example of a contemporary southern African process of ‘state-formation’, which was associated with revolutionary social changes. This paper advances an alternative view, that there were strong continuities with established forms of chieftaincy in the region, and in particular that the Zulu political system was based on a traditional, pan-Nguni homestead form of organization. The Zulu homestead was divided into right and left sections, each with its own identity and destiny. This opposition was mapped into the layout of ordinary homesteads and royal settlements. It was carried through into the organization of regiments. The homestead and its segments provided both the geographical and the structural nodes of the society. The developmental cycle of the homestead ideally followed a set pattern, creating a fresh alignment of units in each generation. The points of segmentation were provided by the ‘houses’, constituted for each major wife and her designated heir. Each of these houses represented the impact, within the homestead, of relationships sealed by marriage with outside groups, whose leaders threw their weight behind particular factions in the political processes within the family.
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In Africa, the movement away from traditional protectionist conservation to community-based approaches is partially related to postmodernist influences. Proposed transfrontier conservation areas will incorporate local communities, and a clearer understanding of the limitations of community-based conservation is thus needed. The sustainability of community-based conservation projects is questioned on economic and other grounds, and many African countries lack the prerequisites (ecological, demographic and sociological) for successful programmes. The romanticisation of pre-colonial societies gives undue weight to traditional systems of resource management, and we challenge the postmodernist notion that traditional peoples practised sustainable harvesting of natural resources. It is suggested that this will occur only under unlikely conditions of low human population density, lack of access to modern technology, and limited exposure to consumerism. In agriculture, postmodernists interpret the overstocking of livestock as a rational socioeconomic response, thus giving the practice unjustified legitimacy. The allied proposition that peasants enjoy a rich diversity of farming practices is largely unfounded, at least in some parts of Africa. We conclude that postmodernist thinking has had a significant negative impact on conservation science in Africa, largely by marginalising the central issue of human population pressure. Towards more effective African conservation, we suggest roles for the ecologist, for the social scientist, and for the donor community.
Article
Forms the background against which the ecological events will be set. The Serengeti is spatially-heterogeneous in climate, geology, soils, and vegetation. There is variation on an evolutionary time scale which underlies the short-term events. The evolutionary history of the ecosystem dictates the way in which it may respond to present-day disturbances, so information on the paleoecology of the region is reviewed.-Author
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This chapter discusses regional economic systems. Scholars concerned with the economy as a cross-cultural institution traditionally approach it from one of the two very different perspectives. Some proceed inductively to describe and explain economic relations as they exist in a particular observable context, which in practice is almost always a relatively narrow context—a community or a market—and then devise models showing patterns of economic relations in it—relations that are necessarily specific rather than general. Some proceed deductively to define the basic or inherent constraints in all economic systems and then devise models showing patterns of economic relations in them— relations that are necessarily ideal rather than real. A central place is a settlement or an aggregation of economic functions that is the hub of a hierarchical system, which includes other settlements or communities relating to it on a regular basis; that is, a central place becomes the hub of a region because goods, people, and information flow primarily between it and its less differentiated hinterland. A complex regional system includes more than a single central place.
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This text provides an introduction to the interaction of culture/society with the landscape/environment. It offers a broad-based view of this theme by drawing upon the varied traditions of landscape interpretation, from the traditional cultural geography of scholars such as Carl Sauer to the 'new' cultural geography which has emerged in the 1990s. The book comprises three interwoven strands. First, fundamental factors such as environmental change and population pressures are addressed in order to sketch the contextual variables of landscape production. Second, the evolution of the humanized landscape is discussed in terms of processes such as clearing the wood, the impact of agriculture, the creation of urban-industrial complexes, and it is also treated in historical periods such as the pre-industrial, the modern and the postmodern. From this we can see the cultural and economic signatures of human societies at different times and places. Finally, examples of landscape types are selected in order to illustrate the ways in which landscape both represents and participates in social change. The authors use a wide range of source material, ranging from place-names and ancient woodland to creative literature and heritage monuments.
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To represent the rebellion as a struggle between African and European man ignores the initiatives of women by concealing the harmful effects of colonialism on women and their status, and by devaluing their protests against cultural and economic changes. Furthermore, to ignore the political activism of women obscures the processes which widen political participation and permit the inclusion of women politicians in modern Kenya. This article makes a critique of current studies of Kikuyu nationalism, revealing the hidden but powerful forces of independent and parallel women's nationalism. It examines the importance of the role of women in militant nationalism and suggests that these activities have given way to the struggle for women's leadership in post-Mau Mau Kenya. -J.W.Cooper from French summary
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Cet article examine dans quelle mesure les programmes de conservation de la nature en Afrique servent les interets de l'Etat par dela les objectifs affiches de decentralisation et de democratie locale. L'A. etudie le cas du programme CAMPFIRE au Zimbabwe. Il effectue un parallele avec la gestion des parcs naturels sous l'administration coloniale, qui offrait une occasion d'appropriation des terres et des ressources locales
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This article describes a correspondence between population pressures, political systems and modes of land tenure in societies of the lake region of east Africa as observed in the mid-twentieth century. In this area, agrarian systems organised on the basis of segmentary lineages were found mainly in areas of land shortage, whereas agrarian systems organised on the basis of territorially defined chiefdoms and communities with political hierarchy were more commonly found in areas where land was relatively abundant. The correspondence is confirmed by cases where changes in demographic pressure over time were accompanied by dramatic changes in forms of socio-political organisation. The distribution of the two broad types of systems can be accounted for partly in terms of decisions of farmers about postmarital residence and landholding under crowded and uncrowded conditions. Parallels may be observed outside Africa. Rural population pressures commonly increase restrictions on access to land in east African descent groups, but the development of localised lineages in conditions of rural crowding is not always a simple, one-way process.
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This paper identifies problematic elements in the literature on the ivory trade during the late 19th century and proposes an alternate approach that draws on insights from economic anthropology and history. It suggests ways in which various groups, both African and external, participated in the ivory trade. This participation grew out of differing beliefs about the power of trade to bring about economic, social and political change. While late 19th-century British debates about trade with Africa had no direct counterpart in the African communities involved in the ivory trade, the changing nature and meaning of trade and trade goods produced a variety of contending political, social and economic options. An examination of these beliefs about trade, focusing on the Eastern Congo, offers an interesting point of comparison with contemporary debates about the power of appropriately structured trade to transform Africa.
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Opening Paragraph The term ‘Dorobo’ denotes an ethnic category embracing small hunting-and-gathering groups residing on the fringes of various agricultural and pastoral peoples in East Africa. The essence of the Dorobo's position is that they engage in economically symbiotic activities with regard to local farmers and herders, while retaining their social marginality as people of the bush. Much is known of them through the constructs of their neighbours, who assign them attributes commensurate with their marginal social position; the Dorobo are amalgamated with wild amoral creatures, and their ancestors are thought to have been in attendance at the birth of the present world-order. Their marginality therefore has economic, spatial, and temporal dimensions.
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Opening Paragraph This paper is concerned with the limits to which exact genealogical tracing is JL carried among the Gusii, a Bantu-speaking people of western Kenya. At the time of field-work (1946–9) the Gusii were a moderately prosperous peasant people subsisting by hoe culture and stock raising. They were isolated between non-Bantu peoples (Luo, Kipsigis, Masai) in mountain country near the Kavirondo Gulf of Lake Victoria. They had no central authorities, except those introduced by the British colonial administration, and no central cult; they were not stratified either by rank or by marked differences of wealth. A segmentary descent system, and a common code of law regarding marriage and compensation, held them together as a common society (see P. Mayer, 1949 and 1950).
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Critically appraises the two approaches to regional geography as they have been expressed in recent programmatic statements and substantive scholarship. Both approaches embrace many longstanding goals of geographical research. Yet the two harbour quite different visions of the future of regional geography, if not the discipline as a whole. Traditional regional geography encourages the discipline to retreat "back to basics' in chorographic description. Reconstructed regional geography, by contrast, places regional studies at the conceptual vanguard of the discipline's contribution to the social sciences. -from Author
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■ Drawing upon a significant amount of unpublished data which Margaret Read collected as a part of the 1939 Nyasaland Nutrition Survey and her simultaneous study on the impact of migrant labor on village life in Nyasa land, this article argues that her conclusions that matrilineal practices were being taken over by patrilineal ones is not borne out by the evidence she collected. As peoples in the three nutrition survey villages (Yao, Chewa and Ngoni) and in the surrounding areas experienced much interaction and as, especially, patrilineal Ngoni interacted with matrilineal Chewa, practices usually associated with one or another of these descent systems became mutually modified rather than uni directional. Aspects of patriliny actually failed to give advantage to many people, and aspects of matriliny - such as inheritance, rights to land, and control over labor and children - proved to be more durable than her interpretations implied.
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This article examines the Maji Maji rebellion through the lens of environmental history. In particular I am interested in the intersection between German forest and wildlife policies and African resource use in the coastal districts where the rebellion broke out in the middle of 1905. In the decade before the rebellion, German officials enacted policies that dramatically circumscribed African access to forests and forest products that rural people used in their commercial networks, subsistence economies, and cultural life. Colonialists furthermore mandated hunting proscriptions that impaired the ability of African peasants to protect their fields from crop pests, and that brought the decades-old ivory trade to an end. In the year before the rebellion, Germans began a forest-reserve policy that severed the peasant economy from forests, making them virtually off limits to African use, often requiring people to relocate villages and farms and to abandon fruit trees, ancestral shrines, and hunting frontiers. The Maji Maji rebellion looks different when considered in the context of colonial environmental controls.
Article
South‐Africans generally assume that the Kruger National Park was called after Paul Kruger, the president of the Transvaal Republic, in order to commemorate his personal interest in nature conservation, and in particular his struggle against considerable opposition to found the national park which now bears his name. This version of conservation history is officially accepted by the National Parks Board and presented also in the available popular literature.In this paper the accuracy of this link between Paul Kruger and the Kruger National Park is examined closely and found to be entirely inaccurate. An analysis of contemporary sources demonstrates that Kruger lagged behind public opinion (both in the Transvaal and internationally) on wildlife conservation and had to be forced into establishing the Sabi Game Reserve. The argument is presented that the connection between the Kruger and national parks has been deliberately fomented to serve Afrikaner Nationalist political purposes. Chief among these have been the advancement of republican and apartheid ideology, the denigration of Britain, a need for international respectability and the promotion of Afrikaner scientists.It is contended that constructing the myth of Paul Kruger to create an Afrikaner culture in the Kruger National Park has positioned the park firmly with the white, Afrikaner Nationalist arena. This has important implications for the future of national parks in the changing political circumstances of South Africa.
Article
Opening Paragraph This paper attempts to answer two broad questions. Firstly, what is Kuria religion about? and secondly, what is the relationship between Kuria religious concepts and their social life and what is the place of ritual in this relationship? Neither of these are questions which Kuria would themselves ask—certainly in this form—but they are perhaps the two leading questions which an anthropologist must ask in examining the religious beliefs and ritual practice of another people. Much depends upon the answer to the first, for it is in terms of the answer that one is likely to establish the particular coherence of ‘integrity’ of a people's beliefs, held existentially in the context of their own social life. The answer is relevant too to an issue which has concerned those writing on related peoples of the same area as the Kuria—the problem of the relation between magic and religious beliefs. Thus Wagner, writing on the Bantu Kavirondo, uses the undifferentiated category of ‘magico-religious’ belief. But what exactly is meant by this umbrella term, and does it not itself obfuscate what it seeks to define? The second question considered—the relationship between Kuria religious concepts and their social life—is a continuation of the first in relation to their very elaborate and, in one sense, autonomous system of ritual based in particular on a complex sequence of rites of passage. These rites are a very striking feature of Kuria culture. It is, I think, by considering them in this double context—as expressing religious values on the one hand while controlling social behaviour on the other—that these rites are most fully understood.
Article
Opening Paragraph The importance of age as a factor of social grouping amongst East African peoples has long been recognized. Amongst the Kuria, a Bantu-speaking people who have been culturally influenced by Nilo-Hamitic neighbours, two distinct forms of age-grouping exist. In one ‘age-sets’ are recruited at regular provincial ceremonies of initiation, the historical sequence of sets then serving to rank their members by age seniority. In the other ‘generation classes’ are recruited according to a fixed cycle of named classes where the children of the men of one class are automatically ascribed membership of the succeeding class and where norms of coevality apply to each class in sequence. These two forms of age-grouping are institutionally distinct (status in one is in no way ‘tied’ to status in the other) and they operate in different ways within the society. Although both belong to what may empirically be called Kuria age-organization, they can conveniently be described separately. The following paper describes the generation classes.
Article
Late Quaternary rock-shelter deposits from the Mau Escarpement in Kenya preserve abundant large mammal remains, particularly in Holocene deposits. Taphonomic analysis indicates that people accumulated the Holocene archaeofauna and that, after discard, ravaging carnivores had little impact on the assemblage. The hunters concentrated on small bovids of the forest throughout the occupation, avoiding the larger more dangerous game that must have been abundant. This pattern differs significantly from that documented over the last 100 years for the Okiek hunter-gatherers of the Mau montane forest. Complete carcasses of small bovids were typically transported to the site, and the introduction of pottery had no apparent effect on carcass transport and butchery. Slightly greater bone destruction is evident at the time of the middle Holocene dry phase, and this may relate to more intense grease rendering. Domestic caprines appearedca 4000 years ago, about 900 years after pottery, but small wild bovids dominated the economy until about 3000 years ago when the resident hunter-gatherers became specialized caprine herders.
Article
While it was happening, European expansion was often legitimised by evoking frontier images: pioneers setting off from the metropolis, penetrating wilderness in order to open access to resources, like minerals, living-space, and fertile lands. Central to the ideology of the frontier is the notion of 'no-man's land'. These 'pioneers', however, often had to face local inhabitants and their interpretations and uses of this land. Thus it will be argued that contestations over landscape were at the same time battles over the legitimation of European expansion, as well as over local perceptions of this process. Ideologically, contestations by Europeans and Africans become apparent in the sexualisation of landscape. This paper is based on the case study of a Valley in eastern Zimbabwe on the border with Mozambique, and more specifically of two tea estates which were established in the rainforest. Unusually late for the region, European influence in this remote area only began to become significant in the 1950s which were an important turning point regarding land and landscape in the area. These years of great change will be analysed in order to map out different strands of interest by the main parties involved. It will be demonstrated that their readings of landscape translated into contestations over land. A recent example of such a conflict will be given.
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Mr. Scully, of the State University of New York, describes the numerous remains of fortified settlements in the area around the south of Mount Elgon. Built towards the end of the nineteenth century, they give us an insight into the troubled times in that part of Kenya. The information on which this article is based was collected during 1965–66 while he was a teacher at Kibabii Secondary School.
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In this notable paper, the author analyses a related group of traditions for historical, sociological and symbolic information, with interesting and convincing results. Dr. Kenny is an Associate Professor at the Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B.C., Canada.SummaryThis paper concerns the sociological, cultural, and historical implications of a theme—that of ‘the stranger from the lake’—which is widely found in the oral traditions of lineages residing along the eastern shoreline of Lake Victoria. The theme is that of a young unmarried man who becomes separated from his kin and then journeys out into the Lake where he comes in contact with miraculous power; he then returns to shore and founds a lineage in a new mainland home. It is shown that this theme has the pattern of an initiation and that it resembles stories of the origin of lineages, kingdoms, and ritual offices around Lake Victoria and in the greater interlacustrine region at large. It is also found that this mythic theme draws its power from dilemmas implicit in the status of stranger which apply in real world societies. Finally, the historical implications of one such story are explored, and it is established that this story can be understood only in terms of the lake shorelands as a whole. Thus, this analysis constitutes a plea for viewing the shorelands as an interconnected ecological, social, and cultural region in which certain shared themes commonly recur in structuring the perception of historical processes and events.
Article
A survey of structural remains coupled with oral tradition sketches a picture of complicated socio-technical change during the 200 years preceeding the onset of British administration of Elgon-Nyanza in the 1890s. The development of forts enabled Bantu farmers to enter contested areas, once the domain of Nilotic pastoralists, in reasonable security.The broad adaptive pattern discernible from information at hand seems to be that of successful strategic agricultural hamlets sending out satellite populations into surrounding regions which in turn fortified themselves and developed farming. In the northern mountain regions this process of fort building and pioneering clearly continues after the turn of the century.The combination of a fort site survey with oral tradition has been valuable in revealing some of the key elements of individual and corporate activities contributing to rapid socio-cultural change and the development of a distinct Northern Luyia culture in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
Article
Sets out to examine the interactions between African and white hunters in colonial Kenya in an effort to understand the nature of the confrontation between the competing cultural traditions of hunting under colonial conditions. It examines the major tradition of African hunting in eastern Kenya among African residents of Kwale, Kitui and Meru districts from oral and archival materials, arguing that the place of subsistence hunting in the economy of African farmers has been systematically denigrated in the colonial literature. Next, the various representatives of the European hunting tradition in Kenya are surveyed; sportsmen, travellers, settlers, and professionals. The history of the game and national park departments, which administered the hunting laws and were charged with the preservation of wildlife, is next described. At the end of the colonial era, with the emergence of a new sensibility to conservation, Kenya's gamekeepers engaged in a major, successful anti-poaching campaign in eastern Kenya's Tsavo Park. This was the climatic confrontation between the two cultures in their contest for control over Kenya's wildlife resources. -from Author
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This article studies the expansion of tsetse fly in one part of Kenya Maasailand between 1900 and 1950. It follows the lines of investigation first suggested by Ford's work and examines in detail the interaction between changes in four elements in the Mara ecosystem: climate, vegetation, land use and tsetse. Tsetse was able to expand because its habitat expanded and the spread of bush and fly into the grasslands both caused, and was facilitated by, shifts in patterns of Maasai grazing and occupation in the area. Up to the 1890s, the Mara Plains were regularly grazed by Maasai herds; but the general depopulation of Maasailand in the aftermath of the rinderpest pandemic and civil war left the region vacant until after 1900 and allowed the spread of bush cover which was then colonised by tsetse. When Maasai returned, they altered their grazing patterns to avoid such areas. However, the progressive encroachment of tsetse-infested bush continued and was not halted until bush-clearing schemes and closer grazing forced the fly to retreat by destroying its habitat. The study is set within the wider context of ecological change and capitalist development in East Africa and suggests that the common assumption that colonial capitalism was responsible for the disruption of the ecosystem and, therefore, for the spread of disease and environmmental degradation needs careful re-examination in the light of a more sophisticated understanding of the processes of ecological change.
Article
This essay argues that the apparent discrepancies between oral tradition and other kinds of historical evidence in the western Serengeti, Tanzania, result from a rupture in time and space. As people were incorporated into a meta-ethnic region to the east dominated by the Maasai in the last half of the nineteenth century, they created new ways of calculating time and organizing space based on new kinds of age-sets. Within this larger context of widespread disasters the small, unconsolidated western Serengeti ethnic groups that we now know as Nata, Ikoma, Ishenyi and Ngoreme formed their identities. New generational and gender contests of power came into play as western Serengeti peoples responded creatively to the pressures of the late nineteenth century by mobilizing their own internal cultural resources.
Article
From the beginning of the nineteenth century, Nyamwezi long-distance trading caravans dominated the central routes through Tanzania, stretching from Mrima coast ports such as Bagamoyo and Saadani to Ujiji on Lake Tanganyika. Despite the inroads of Omani Arab and Swahili trading enterprises from the middle of the century, the Nyamwezi maintained a position of strength. In the second half of the nineteenth century, market relations emerged as the dominant form of economic organization along the central routes, although the market for many commodities was clearly fractured by transport difficulties, and non-market relations frequently substituted for weakly developed commercial institutions and tools. Most caravan porters in nineteenth-century Tanzania were free wage workers, and nearly all were clearly migrant or itinerant labourers. The development of a labour market for caravan porters was an early and significant stage in the transition to capitalism, which began in a period of violence and political upheaval. Clearly, this has implications for how scholars should view broader processes of economic transformation prior to the imposition of colonial rule, which cut short a series of significant indigenous innovations.
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This article suggests ways in which a spatial perspective is relevant to questions of African economic history prior to formal colonization. Aspects of spatial analysis can help to identify and compare economically dynamic centres and subregions and to understand the qualities of regional and inter-regional systems. Spatial analysis can also illuminate various economic relationships between Africa and Europe; thus it is relevant to such issues as African adaptation to ‘legitimate’ trade and economic dependency. Among the main concepts discussed are central place theory, ‘growth centres’, port gateways, and dendritic marketing systems. The article focuses upon the Sierra Leone–Guinea plain and the larger Sierra Leone–Guinea inter-regional commercial system during the second half of the nineteenth century. Brief comparisons are made with other areas.
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During the colonial period, the Maasai were conspicuous for their unwillingness to become involved in, or to co-operate with, colonial rule in Kenya. Between 1895 and 1904, however, the Maasai and the British had entered an informal alliance to further their mutual interests. The Maasai, badly hit by the human and animal plagues of the 1880s and early 1890s, needed time to recover their stock and to reorganize their society. The British, hampered by lack of money and troops, and in a weak position, could not afford to antagonize the Maasai who controlled their lines of communication. Co-operation proved fruitful for both sides. The Maasai were able to get stock by joining punitive expeditions, while the British relied on them to supply irregular troops. Olonana, the Maasai laibon, was able to enlist British influence in support of his claims to paramountcy against his brother, Senteu, who lived in German territory. The contrast between German and British policy towards the Maasai illustrates some of the advantages which the British and the Maasai gained from their alliance. After 1904, this alliance began to break down as their interests diverged. Olonana was left isolated as both sides began to work out a new understanding.
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