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After Independence: Making and Protecting the Nation in Postcolonial & Postcommunist States

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After Independence: Making and Protecting the Nation in Postcolonial and Postcommunist States. Edited by Lowell W. Barrington. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2006. 306p. $75 cloth, $29.95 paper. As the editor states clearly in the introduction, the central question taken up in this useful volume is “What happens to nationalism after independence?” Its premise is that most scholarship on nationalism has attempted to trace or explain the emergence of the popular sentiments of solidarity that account for the formation of national consciousness, the rise of nationalism as a modern and highly potent political ideology, and the contribution of nationalism to the proliferation of states. Although there are excellent case studies of postindependence nationalisms in individual countries, less comparative and theoretical attention has been paid to conceptualizing and explaining variation in the intensity and character of nationalism in newly independent states.
AFTER INDEPENDENCE
After Independence: Making and Protecting the Nation in Postcolonial and Postcommunist States
Lowell W. Barrington, Editor
http://www.press.umich.edu/titleDetailDesc.do?id=126246
The University of Michigan Press
AFTER INDEPENDENCE
making and protecting the nation in
postcolonial & postcommunist states
edited by
Lowell W. Barrington
the university of michigan press Ann Arbor
After Independence: Making and Protecting the Nation in Postcolonial and Postcommunist States
Lowell W. Barrington, Editor
http://www.press.umich.edu/titleDetailDesc.do?id=126246
The University of Michigan Press
Copyright © by the University of Michigan 2006
All rights reserved
Published in the United States of America by
The University of Michigan Press
Manufactured in the United States of America
cPrinted on acid-free paper
2009 2008 2007 2006 4321
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
or otherwise, without the written permission of the publisher.
A CIP catalog record for this book is available from the British Library.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
After independence : making and protecting the nation in postcolonial
and postcommunist states / edited by Lowell W. Barrington.
p. cm.
Includes index.
ISBN-13: 978-0-472-09898-9 (cloth : alk. paper)
ISBN-10: 0-472-09898-5 (cloth : alk. paper)
ISBN-13: 978-0-472-06898-2 (pbk. : alk. paper)
ISBN-10: 0-472-06898-9 (pbk. : alk. paper)
1. Nationalism—Case studies. 2. Newly independent states—
Politics and government. 3. Postcolonialism—Case studies.
4. Post-communism—Case studies. I. Barrington, Lowell W., 1968–
JC311.A3548 2006
320.54—dc22 2005024419
After Independence: Making and Protecting the Nation in Postcolonial and Postcommunist States
Lowell W. Barrington, Editor
http://www.press.umich.edu/titleDetailDesc.do?id=126246
The University of Michigan Press
Contents
Preface & Acknowledgments vii
I. INTRODUCTION
1. Nationalism & Independence lowell w. barrington 3
II. POSTCOLONIAL NATIONALISM
2. Nationalism in Postcolonial States joshua b. forrest 33
3. From Malay Nationalism to a Malaysian Nation?
diane k. mauzy 45
4. Rwanda: Tragic Land of Dual Nationalisms
john f. clark 71
5. From Irredentism to Secession: The Decline of Pan-Somali
Nationalism peter j. schraeder 107
III. POSTCOMMUNIST NATIONALISM
6. The Post-Soviet Nations after Independence
ian bremmer 141
7. Nationalism in Post-Soviet Lithuania: New Approaches for the
Nation of “Innocent Sufferers” terry d. clark 162
8. Kravchuk to the Orange Revolution: The Victory of Civic
Nationalism in Post-Soviet Ukraine taras kuzio 187
9. Post-Soviet Armenia: Nationalism & Its (Dis)contents
razmik panossian 225
10. Georgia: Nationalism from under the Rubble
stephen jones 248
After Independence: Making and Protecting the Nation in Postcolonial and Postcommunist States
Lowell W. Barrington, Editor
http://www.press.umich.edu/titleDetailDesc.do?id=126246
The University of Michigan Press
IV. CONCLUSION
11. Nationalism, Nation Making, & the Postcolonial States
of Asia, Africa, & Eurasia ronald grigor suny 279
Contributors 297
Index 301
CONTENTS vi
After Independence: Making and Protecting the Nation in Postcolonial and Postcommunist States
Lowell W. Barrington, Editor
http://www.press.umich.edu/titleDetailDesc.do?id=126246
The University of Michigan Press
Preface & Acknowledgments
An independent state is often thought of as the ultimate goal of
nationalists. As a result, much of the existing work on nationalism has cen-
tered on its role in the creation of new states. While acknowledging the
importance of that aspect of nationalism, this volume instead seeks answers
to two less obvious questions: What happens to nationalism and national-
ists when they have achieved their ultimate goal? What happens to nation-
alism after independence?
These are the central questions that the chapters in this book answer by
examining several different cases of postindependence nationalism. Fol-
lowing my introductory chapter, Joshua Forrest provides an overview of
the development of nationalism in states that gained their independence
during the wave of decolonization in the 1950s and 1960s. Modifying the
discussion of causal factors presented in my introduction, he proposes
numerous factors to consider when seeking to understand nationalism in
the postcolonial cases. His discussion also highlights some of the argu-
ments presented in the subsequent postcolonial case studies, as he points to
two general tracks of postindependence nationalism—those states that
have pursued (at least marginally successfully) civic nation-building and
those that have fractured along ethnic lines.
The ‹rst of these tracks is discussed in Diane Mauzy’s overview of the
development of national identity and nationalism in Malaya and Malaysia.
She outlines the development of a more civic approach to national identity
(the “Vision 2020” policy), following the initial heavy emphasis on ethnic
identity in the years immediately preceding and following independence.
Her chapter highlights the ebbs and ›ows of postindependence nationalist
ideas and movements. While civic national identity may be the stated goal,
the journey toward its development has been neither quick nor consistent.
In the ‹rst of two chapters on Africa, John Clark examines the case of
After Independence: Making and Protecting the Nation in Postcolonial and Postcommunist States
Lowell W. Barrington, Editor
http://www.press.umich.edu/titleDetailDesc.do?id=126246
The University of Michigan Press
Rwanda. In his chapter he proposes a “dual-nationalism” framework for
understanding Rwanda, challenging the conventional thinking by many
scholars of the country. While arguing that Rwanda is far from representa-
tive of the African postcolonial experience, Clark does point to lessons
from the case for our understanding of the importance of elite action
(instrumentalist triggering) in the emergence of ethnonationalist con›ict.
The ‹nal postcolonial case covered in the book,1and the focus of Peter
Schraeder’s chapter, is Somalia. Schraeder tracks the decline of Somali
nationalism, explaining the attempts at an overarching pan-Somali identity
and why they were ultimately unsuccessful. He argues that scholars failed to
realize that the relative ethnic homogeneity of Somali was no guarantee of
successful postindependence nation-building. Among the lessons he dis-
cusses from the Somali case is the importance of “turning points,”
moments at which elites can no longer continue to pursue an inclusive
nationalist project, as well as the enduring nature, and importance, of clan-
based identities in seemingly homogeneous states.
The next section of the book focuses on postcommunist nationalisms,
speci‹cally those of the Eurasian region of the former Soviet Union. In addi-
tion to providing an overview of the arguments of the postcommunist case
study chapters, Ian Bremmer’s chapter focuses on a factor not at the center
of the chapters that follow: Russia. Rather than providing an overview of
Russian nationalism, as many others have done, Bremmer highlights the
way in which nationalist approaches in the postcommunist states shaped
relations with Russia as well as how the need for close relations with Russia
limited the nationalist options of the post-Soviet ruling elites.
In Terry Clark’s chapter on Lithuania, he demonstrates how the devel-
opment of Lithuanian national identity—and its view of the nation as one
of “innocent sufferers”—led both to an emphasis on ethnic identity as well
as a tolerance for the “ethnic other.” It also made possible, encouraged by
the defeat of nationalist parties in the 1992 elections and the desire “to
rejoin Europe,” the transformation of Lithuanian nationalism into a multi-
faceted movement with a heavy emphasis on civic nation-building. Among
the lessons from Lithuania that Clark highlights is the importance of exter-
nal factors in shaping postindependence nationalism. Similar to its neigh-
bors of Estonia and Latvia to the north, the pursuit of European integration
(EU, NATO membership) has constrained nationalist elites in Lithuania
and pushed them in a more inclusive direction.
Taras Kuzio’s chapter on Ukraine challenges the way in which scholars
PREFACE & ACKNOWLEDGMENTS viii
After Independence: Making and Protecting the Nation in Postcolonial and Postcommunist States
Lowell W. Barrington, Editor
http://www.press.umich.edu/titleDetailDesc.do?id=126246
The University of Michigan Press
have traditionally used the term nationalism (especially with the modi‹ers
civic and ethnic). He pushes scholars not to equate nationalism with “ethnic
nationalism,” even in Eastern Europe, where scholars have generally
emphasized ethnic answers to the national membership question. In addi-
tion, he highlights the way in which the nationalist movement in pursuit of
independence must not be confused with postindependence nationalism.
In the ‹rst of two chapters on the volatile region of the Transcaucasus,
Razmik Panossian tracks the decline of nationalism in postindependence
Armenia, arguing that the country has entered a period of “postnationalist”
and “normal” politics. According to Panossian, while nationalist symbols
continue to be used in political campaigns, nationalist politics (policy-
making based on national identity concerns) has taken a backseat to more
pragmatic policy concerns.
In the ‹nal case study chapter, Stephen Jones discusses the case of Geor-
gia. While providing a detailed overview of the violence of the postinde-
pendence period, Jones is careful to separate the issues of violence and
nationalism. He even cautions scholars not to assume that violence
between ethnic groups can automatically be labeled ethnic violence. Jones
believes that a civic nationalist approach is unlikely in Georgia, but he
argues that this is largely due to the structural issues and conditions that
contribute to the conflicts and subsequent incompatibilities.
In the conclusion to this volume, Ronald Suny revisits the concepts of
nation and nationalism, arguing for a “radical middle” position between
primordialism and constructivism, and between views that the nation is sit-
uational and that it is persistent. He also proposes a re‹ned typology of
postindependence nationalism, overlapping heavily, but not completely,
with that proposed in my introductory chapter. He then walks through the
arguments of all the case study chapters, emphasizing certain points and
challenging others. He is, for example, not completely convinced of Arme-
nia’s transition to a period of “postnationalist politics.” He concludes his
chapter, and the book, with a call for scholars not to ignore the past when
looking ahead to the future of nationalism in particular cases.
Indeed, the nationalist past of a given state can take its “revenge” on the
present and future.2But, as the authors of this book point out in numerous
ways, nationalism after independence is in›uenced by many causal factors,
not the least of which is the role of intellectual, social, and political elites.
The form that it will take is not predetermined—either prior to or at the
time of independence. There are many possible roads that newly indepen-
ix Preface & Acknowledgments
After Independence: Making and Protecting the Nation in Postcolonial and Postcommunist States
Lowell W. Barrington, Editor
http://www.press.umich.edu/titleDetailDesc.do?id=126246
The University of Michigan Press
dent states can take: ethnic nationalist, civic nationalist, or barely national-
ist at all. The authors of this book have taken us a long way toward under-
standing these various roads, though more work clearly remains to be done.
The work on this book would not have been possible without the sup-
port and effort of many people. The authors not only provided me with
excellent material but also were more than accommodating to my tinker-
ings with their chapters. The reviewers of the manuscript gave the authors
helpful advice about ways in which to improve the text; the book is better
for their thoughtful comments. At Marquette University, I received a great
deal of support from department chairs Chris Wolfe, Rich Friman, and
Duane Swank, assistance from Leah Manney and Josephine Morstatter,
and especially crucial service from several research assistants who helped
with this project: William Muck, Brandon Wilkening, John Lyle, and Anne
Mozena.
Finally, and most important, my wife, Therese, and children, Alex,
Colin, Tristan, and Quinn, put up with my many extra hours in the of‹ce,
late or missed dinners, and play times put off until later. To them, I am
especially grateful.
L.B., December 2005
NOTES
1. Ronald Suny’s provocative labeling of the post-Soviet states as postcolonial in his
concluding chapter notwithstanding.
2. See the concluding sentence of Suny’s chapter in this volume, the idea borrowed
from the title of his 1993 book. See Ronald G. Suny, The Revenge of the Past: National-
ism, Revolution, and the Collapse of the Soviet Union (Stanford, CA: Stanford University
Press, 1993).
PREFACE & ACKNOWLEDGMENTS x
After Independence: Making and Protecting the Nation in Postcolonial and Postcommunist States
Lowell W. Barrington, Editor
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