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Buying Power: A History of Consumer Activism in America

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Abstract

Far from ephemeral consumer trends, buying green and avoiding sweatshop-made clothing represent the most recent points on a centuries-long continuum of American consumer activism. A sweeping and definitive history of this political tradition, Buying Power traces its lineage back to our nation’s founding, revealing that Americans used purchasing power to support causes and punish enemies long before the word boycott even entered our lexicon. Taking the Boston Tea Party as his starting point, Lawrence Glickman argues that the rejection of British imports by revolutionary patriots inaugurated a continuous series of consumer boycotts, campaigns for safe and ethical consumption, and efforts to make goods more broadly accessible. He explores abolitionist-led efforts to eschew slave-made goods, African American consumer campaigns against Jim Crow, a 1930s refusal of silk from fascist Japan, a range of contemporary boycotts, and emerging movements like fair trade and slow food. Uncovering previously unknown episodes and analyzing famous events from a fresh perspective, Glickman emphasizes both change and continuity in the long tradition of consumer activism. In the process, he illuminates moments when its multifaceted trajectory intersected with fights for political and civil rights. He also sheds new light on activists’ relationship with the consumer movement, which gave rise to lobbies like the National Consumers League and Consumers Union as well as ill-fated legislation to create a federal Consumer Protection Agency. A powerful corrective to the notion that a consumer society degrades and diminishes its citizenry, Buying Power provides a new lens through which to view the history of the United States.

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... Consumer activism is unique due to the reason that deciding which product to buy or not to buy in accordance with the activism purpose is enough to be a consumer activist, hence, anyone can take a part in a consumer action with only their daily consumption habit. Therefore, in consumer campaigns solidarity can be built easily among activists regardless of the distance (Glickman, 2009;Lightfoot, 2019). Glickman (2009) claimed that consuming is political, moral, and social action because buying a product affects not only the consumer but also the environment and all actors involved in the process. ...
... Therefore, in consumer campaigns solidarity can be built easily among activists regardless of the distance (Glickman, 2009;Lightfoot, 2019). Glickman (2009) claimed that consuming is political, moral, and social action because buying a product affects not only the consumer but also the environment and all actors involved in the process. Accordingly, choosing to buy or not to buy a product may have an impact on a good, buyer, seller, and public as a whole. ...
... Consumers can aim to harm companies and sellers by boycotting their products because they believe, otherwise, it will harm others (pp.4-7). Even if consumer activists fail to achieve changes, at least they raise awareness, make an issue heard, or echoed in political discussions (Glickman, 2009). ...
Thesis
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This thesis investigates the changes in tactics of the Clean Clothes Campaign (CCC) as a transnational advocacy network (TAN). To understand the change, the conceptual framework of TANs in the garment industry is examined. Early consumer activism movements emerged as social, political, and moral actions; starting from the 1970s, the impacts of neoliberal economic politics on the garment industry triggered the anti-sweatshop movements by TANs. TANs tactics are examined through examples; by examining, I attempt to explore how TANs have become a major actor in labor rights movements and specifically how their tactics are used to contribute to their efforts. To understand the change in the tactics of the Clean Clothes Campaign, campaigns of the network, starting from the late 1960s to current ones, are provided. The analysis of the CCC in a historical process showed that while in the early campaigns, informing people was crucial to raise awareness and necessary for the encouraging actions; campaigns started to target authorities to be more effective; strengthening, expanding the network, improvements in international norms on labor rights gave network members power to hold responsible actors accountable.
... This movement is noticed particularly in the area of marketing, through the efforts of its researchers in discussing such historical approach (Jones and Tadajewski, 2016;Witkowski and Jones, 2006) and the growth of journals dedicated (or open) to the topic such as the Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, the Journal of Management Marketing, the Journal of Macromarketing, the Journal of Consumer Affairs and the Journal of Consumer Research, which gather articles on historical research in marketing, history of marketing thought and historical methods (Tadajewski, 2011;Tadajewski and Jones, 2014;Stole, 2013). This interest has been especially true in discussions regarding consumerism, as researchers dedicated to the subject are becoming more involved in analyzing the history of the movement, showing its evolution from local consumer protection initiatives beginning in the late 19th century in the US to a globalized phenomenon (Hilton, 2009;Glickman, 2009). However, such research does not analyze the strategic and instrumental use of the past by consumerist organizations, which underly organizational practices and policies related to such topics as identity, reputation and legitimacy (Suddaby et al., 2014). ...
... In general, consumerism is a term used to represent waves of social and political movements in defense of consumers, which initially came to be in the US (Glickman, 2009;Rotfeld, 2010). Different authors argue that the consumerist movement began in countries of the Global North, during the Industrial Revolution (Hilton, 2007b), sparked by workers' protests and consumer boycott of products (Glickman, 2009). ...
... In general, consumerism is a term used to represent waves of social and political movements in defense of consumers, which initially came to be in the US (Glickman, 2009;Rotfeld, 2010). Different authors argue that the consumerist movement began in countries of the Global North, during the Industrial Revolution (Hilton, 2007b), sparked by workers' protests and consumer boycott of products (Glickman, 2009). During this period, companies were growing at an accelerated pace, becoming large corporations that threatened to monopolize their respective industries. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyze how, in three different contexts, the National Council for Advertising Self-Regulation narratively uses its past to build an official history concerning its origins that legitimates advertising self-control as a hegemonic narrative. Design/methodology/approach By using the historical research and the “uses of the past” approach, this study identifies, analyzes and confronts three organizational histories of Conar’s origins (both its official and unofficial versions) in the context of the creation of the Brazilian system of advertising self-regulation. Findings After a thematic analysis of the documentary sources, the narratives on the National Council for Advertising Self-Regulation’s origins and the self-control process were grouped into three versions: the narrative under the military regime: 1976/1980; the narrative during the process of re-democratization of the country: 1981/1991 and the contemporary narrative: from 2005 onwards. These narratives were confronted and, in consequence, provided, each of them, a different interpretation of the context surrounding the creation and justification for advertising self-control. Originality/value The study shows how a consumer defense organization re-historicized its past strategically to gain legitimacy in three different ways through time. It also reveals that organizations strategically use their past to build an intended vision of the future, thus having more agency than the hegemonic literature in management studies usually guarantees. Finally, it exposes the malleability of past narratives through which organizations play a critical role in the ongoing struggle for competing uses of the past. Therefore, the study identifies different organizational stories through time that allow researchers to reflect on several strategic uses of the past by organizations.
... This constitutes a coercive form of soft power diplomacy (George, 1994), encouraging consumer backlash and profit losses to force a transatlantic corporation to cut ties with the Russian economy. Furthermore, US audiences possess an extensive history of consumer boycotts for social causes (Glickman, 2009) (Glickman, 2009). Hence, Ukraine leverages this consumer conscientiousness alongside the US national image to achieve its diplomatic aims. ...
... This constitutes a coercive form of soft power diplomacy (George, 1994), encouraging consumer backlash and profit losses to force a transatlantic corporation to cut ties with the Russian economy. Furthermore, US audiences possess an extensive history of consumer boycotts for social causes (Glickman, 2009) (Glickman, 2009). Hence, Ukraine leverages this consumer conscientiousness alongside the US national image to achieve its diplomatic aims. ...
Thesis
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Scholars argue that we are facing a ‘memeification’ of global politics. Diplomatic use of memes in strategic communication is an emerging practice. Studies predominantly focus on Russia’s deployment of memes to deflect critique, yet researchers do not assess the practical effectiveness of such campaigns, limiting the robustness of conclusions. In 2022, following almost a decade of hybrid warfare, Russia invaded Ukraine. Before and after the war began, Ukraine embarked on a memetic informational digital campaign, providing the opportunity to interrogate diplomatic memetic communication. This paper uses thematic analysis to analyse how the official Ukrainian Twitter account used digital memes to craft a distinct nation brand and administer informational digital diplomacy aims before and after the 2022 Russian invasion. Moreover, through thematic analysis of audience responses, this paper evaluates the effectiveness of Ukraine’s memetic communication through three measures: engagement with Russian and Ukrainian narratives; evaluations of Ukraine’s nation brand; how foreign audiences evaluate the legitimacy of Ukraine’s foreign policies. In doing so, this paper evaluates memetic communication as a public diplomacy strategy, finding that, like citizen memetic communication, memes constitute effective identity-building, solidarityforming, ideological vehicles through which diplomats can foster the conditions necessary for advantageous diplomatic relations and effective informational warfare.
... As a class that is particularly receptive to reflexive dispositions (Plessz et al, 2016), middle-class people, especially the most educated ones, have demonstrated economic goodwill in different ways throughout history. For example, historians have shown their role in the establishment of a social contract around the role of consumption in the United States following the Second World War (Cohen, 2003) and in consumer activism (Glickman, 2009). Neither economically nor statutorily constrained, this group maintains a reflexive relationship with consumption, reflecting on its value in relation to its collective effects. ...
... Market technologies play on their dispositions to adopt what I call 'economic goodwill', namely a way AQ4 AQ5 14 of consuming appropriately in accordance with the common good. Historians have reported how such people were engaged during war periods in saving energy or scarce resources, or in monitoring price increases (Cohen, 2003;Glickman, 2009). More recently, they have been targeted by public campaigns, commercial strategies and mobile applications to incorporate environmental, nutritional or social justice concerns in their consumption choices. ...
Article
In the context of the calls for sufficiency held by climate experts, consumption is a major lever of ecological transition. Following numerous social sciences studies, I suggest that the belief that such an ecological transition could rest on the shoulders of consumers alone is illusory. I highlight the strong interdependencies within a political economy of affluent consumption between public policies, corporate business models and consumer practices. Taking an economic sociological and Foucauldian perspective, I develop a research agenda to explore how affluent consumption becomes a legitimised and institutionalised norm. Affluent consumption, which is highly resource intensive, is structural in both economic policies of governments and business models of companies and is therefore constantly organised and governed. However, it is not imposed on individuals by force. The government of consumption is based on technologies of power that shape and orient consumers’ conduct, leading them to adopt the norms of affluent consumption by activating and playing on their dispositions acquired through market socialisation.
... Vers 1850 le mouvement abolitionniste abandonne les « produits libres ». Le mouvement circule à nouveau vers la Grande-Bretagne où il prend un nouvel élan (Glickman, 2005 ;Glickman, 2009). ...
... Ainsi certains commerçants se sentent eux-mêmes responsables des produits qu'ils transportent, posant très tôt la question de l'éthique dans le capitalisme que l'on retrouve ailleurs plus tard (Abend, 2014 ;Fridenson et Kikkawa, 2017 ;. L'engagement de consommateurs et consommatrices dans la lutte contre l'esclavage semble comparativement assez rare en France, alors même que des femmes sont actives durant la Révolution française et qu'elles auraient pu aussi s'inspirer des mouvements de boycott venus de la Révolution américaine (Glickman, 2009). Mais d'après les recherches disponibles, lorsqu'elles s'expriment en tant que consommatrices, ce n'est pas tant pour lutter contre l'esclavage que pour défendre le prix des produits ou leur droit à commercer (Drescher, 2007 ;Jarvis, 2019). ...
... 107-109). This image of growing transnational homogeneity has been challenged by accounts which stress the continued relevance of notions of citizenship, class, and gender to the way people have positioned themselves as consumers (Albert de la Bruhèze & Oldenziel, 2009;Glickman, 2009;Haupt & Torp, 2009;Oldenziel & Hård, 2013;Trentmann, 2016). The way in which the figure of the consumer and its societal position were mediated has thus become a crucial question (Hilton, 2009;Kroen, 2004;Trentmann, 2006;Trumbull, 2006). ...
... The way in which the figure of the consumer and its societal position were mediated has thus become a crucial question (Hilton, 2009;Kroen, 2004;Trentmann, 2006;Trumbull, 2006). Civic organizations had been at the forefront of attempts to shape patterns of consumption and the underlying image of the consumer since the second half of the 19th century (Chatriot et al., 2006;Glickman, 1997Glickman, , 2009Oldenziel & Hård, 2013;Trentmann, 2008Trentmann, , 2016. Governments regulated issues such as opening hours for shops, public health regulations, and product quality well before the Second World War (Cohen, 2003;Jacobs, 2005;Torp, 2012). ...
Article
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Just as the social categories of class, gender, and religion became unstable during the “age of fracture” (Daniel Rodgers), the idea that we are all consumers was consolidated. The emergence of societies in which the consumer became a pivotal figure during the second half of the twentieth century constitutes a distinct phase in the history of consumption, which impacted the politics of consumption. This article expands the view of political consumption by looking at the institutionalization of the consumer in Dutch political system. In the course of the postwar period, an abstract notion of the consumer became widely accepted. This view was emancipatory, negating existing differences through unifying consumer policies. Focusing on the entanglement of the consumer with other social roles and categories in these negotiations, the article demonstrates that political consumption is not an anomaly, but the result of such entanglements.
... As a number of historical studies have demonstrated, consumption has long been conceptualised as a domain that is highly conducive to militancy, advocacy and activism (Chessel, 2012). In 1773, for instance, American opposition to the British crown -a movement known as the Boston Tea Party -was structured around patriots' rejection of British imports (Glickman, 2009). It was the first in a long series of boycotts and other campaigns for healthier and more ethical consumption in the United States. ...
Article
Consumers become activists whenever they organise themselves into off- or online movements launched to oppose corporate actions and/or foster consumption-based cultural change. Whereas, some readings of such movements focus on the way in which members self-organise their activities, the emphasis here is on the role that a movement’s founders play in framing its activities. Findings from the study of a movement founded by a Cameroonian music enthusiast show that online activities can be affected both by how a movement has been framed by its founder and by the way in which its members self-organise. A founder orchestrates a movement’s coherence, and also the expression of its members, along three lines: by attributing meaning, distributing roles and tasks and promoting creativity.
... Beyond symbolic work, racialized market actors also bolster their participation in markets by redirecting the flow of economic resources to the ethno-racial community (Glickman 2009;McNay 2010). Here, racialized actors engage in selective patronage, which means voluntarily excluding themselves from portions of the market (e.g., boycotting) and redirecting their resources to other market actors more aligned with their values and goals (Hinrichs and Allen 2008). ...
Article
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Ethno-racial minorities are often racialized and consequently excluded from various consumption contexts. Racialized market actors strive to overcome exclusion and gain participation in markets; however, these efforts are often insufficient because they cannot create equitable access to market resources, fair opportunities for voice, and empowerment to shape market practices. Our research identifies digital enclave movements as a unique means by which racialized market actors redirect their resources and mobilize digital network tools to participate in markets. Using a qualitative study of the digital enclave #MyBlackReceipt, we explore tactics supporting the formation and sustenance of digital enclaves and how they support participation in markets. We identify five tactics that racialized market actors employ to foster digital enclaves and enhance market participation: legitimizing, delimitating, vitalizing, manifesting, and bridging. Last, we provide recommendations for policymakers on how to support and foster more equitable participation of ethnic minority groups in markets while addressing the risks of radicalization and the backlash related to enclaves.
... Comme le prouve le travail des historiens, la consommation a très tôt été pensée comme un terrain ouvert aux opérations militantes et à l'activisme revendicatif (Chessel, 2012). En 1773, le mouvement des américains contre la couronne britannique connue sous le nom de Boston Tea Party s'est structuré sur le rejet des produits britanniques importés de la part des patriotes (Glickman, 2009). Ce mouvement a inauguré aux Etats-Unis une longue série de boycotts et autres campagnes pour une consommation plus saine et plus éthique. ...
... Aunque el taylorismo se enfocó en la racionalización y la disciplinarización del movimiento de los trabajadores, y el fordismo en los dispositivos mecánicos, ambos se erigieron sobre la idea de que los procesos industriales son indefinidamente perfectibles y de que la productividad también puede incrementarse al infinito. De este modo, el taylorismo y el fordismo son formas concretas en las que el capitalismo muestra su tendencia a la autoexpansión y rechaza que su reproducción tenga límite alguno (Radetich-Filinich, 2016 (Glickman, 2009). ...
... On the other hand, though, 'the aggregated desires' are mixed, often including competing visions of nationalistic and commercial priorities and various personal, economic and cultural motivations. We found that many Weibo users during the anti-Lotte boycott not only took pride in national achievements and felt that they were protecting national sovereignty but also assimilated elements of nationalism and the logic of capitalist profit-seeking to self-serving efforts (Banet-Weiser and Mukherjee, 2012;Gerth, 2011;Glickman, 2009). Our aim here is not to delineate these desires fully but rather to demonstrate their effect in reproducing nationhood and commercializing nationalistic activities through 'economization of the social' (Kania-Lundholm, 2014: 603). ...
Article
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This study advances the understanding of consumer nationalism through an analysis of a Chinese boycott of South Korean goods. In early 2017, Chinese internet users expressed their strong aversion to the South Korean conglomerate Lotte and coordinated a folk boycott against it on the grounds that Lotte supported South Korea’s deployment of the U.S. Terminal High Altitude Area Defense missile system, which China considered a threat. We explored the increasing convergence of consumer activities in the form of consumer nationalism with commercial entities’ marketing strategies and also with the state’s interests with respect to security and promoting national pride. The internet and new technologies have facilitated grassroots nationalist activities in terms of the ready circulation of information and mobilization of collective actions. We investigated a digital discursive space in the communicative interactions among stakeholders through which digital media not only amplify the scale and intensity of the mundane and everyday practice of nationalism but also blur the boundaries among the participating actors. Our research documented the multilateral relationships among stakeholders – individual consumers/media users, commercial entities, and the state – in practicing nationalism and reproducing the nation through (non)consumption.
... The great transformation to market capitalism was initiated by an interplay of new mass consumption and mass production (Polanyi, 2001(Polanyi, /1947. The response to settle growing conflicts around redistribution took a paternalistic form: the allocation of social gains and protection to workers was made in exchange for their quiescence and non-unionisation (Glickman, 2009;Lichtenstein, 2002). Trentmann (2016) highlights how, for instance, company towns were such a paternalistic creation bringing together work, living (in affordable housing), consumption (in the company store) and leisure. ...
Article
Consumer collective action is commonly connected to individualised politics, market responsibility and local utopias. In this paper, we take an alternative point of departure and discuss the (emergence of) neo-materialist movement organisations (NMMOs) as mobilising prefigurative everyday politics in local organising and creating strategies toward alternative global futures. Our approach is threefold. First, we introduce the concept of neo-materialist movement organisations and, second, outline their organising in the everyday context and prefigurative commitments. Third, we explore different strategies of scaling toward alternative futures with particular focus on (controversial) institutional avenues. We contribute to the emerging literature on prefigurative politics in consumer movements by problematising the dominant approach to social change trapped in local inwardness. We further highlight the potential for systemic changes via local authorities, or what we call scaling through institutions.
... La implantación del modelo producción-consumo trajo consigo una serie de transformaciones sociales y culturales que apuntalaron el cambio de escala y la aceleración de la reproducción del capitalismo. Ya para 1927 se diagnosticaba que los trabajadores habían adquirido más importancia como consumidores que como productores (Glickman, 2009). ...
Conference Paper
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La historia de la insustentabilidad es también la de la industria, definida ésta como la producción de bienes a partir de materias primas que resultó de la Revolución Industrial. A inicios del siglo XX, en particular tras la depresión de la década de 1920, este sector creció exponencialmente cuando, para dar salida a la sobreproducción, se fomentó el consumo exacerbado de bienes, o consumismo. Para ello fue crucial el surgimiento de las técnicas de mercadeo y el desarrollo de los medios masivos de comunicación. La contraparte necesaria de esta práctica, el productivismo, entiende la producción industrial como un fin en sí mismo, y es una consecuencia del ethos capitalista, a saber, el crecimiento económico perpetuo. El productivismo industrial da primacía a las innovaciones tecnológicas que incrementan la producción y el margen de ganancias por sobre la contaminación que puedan generar o el desaprovechamiento de recursos que impliquen. Asimismo, se vale de estrategias tales como la obsolescencia programada, que limita intencionalmente la vida útil de los productos para fomentar su consumo, y que alcanza su culmen en los productos de un solo uso. En la lógica productivista, no se cuestiona la producción ni el consumo de bienes banales (es decir, con escasa utilidad y altos costos ambientales). Entre las consecuencias del binomio productivismo/consumismo se encuentra el agotamiento de recursos finitos, así como los daños a los ecosistemas, que a su vez resultan del derroche de recursos y de la generación excesiva de residuos. Por ello, en este siglo, el imperativo de nuevas formas de producción y consumo ha quedado plasmado en la Agenda Mundial de Desarrollo Sostenible, aprobada en 2015 por los estados miembros de las Naciones Unidas. Así, el objetivo 12 plantea la producción y consumo responsables como una de las líneas de acción necesarias para alcanzar el desarrollo sostenible.
... This politicisation of consumption and the subsequent emergence of the citizen-consumer was a transnational phenomenon. In different countries all around the world, consumption became a means to express one's nationality (Cohen, 2003;Gerth, 2003;Glickman, 2009;Oldenziel and Hård, 2013;Trentmann, 2007: 149-150). Governments, consumer organizations, private associations and consumers themselves sought to link notions of national identity and citizenship with consumption practices through largescale propaganda campaigns, such as the Hebrew campaign for tozeret haaretz (product of the land) (Raviv, 2001), the Indian swadeshi (home rule) movement, which became massively popular through the figure of Mahatma Gandhi (Bayly, 1986) or the Thai promotion of 'national' textiles after the revolution of 1932 (Phillips, 2013). ...
Article
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Recent scholarship has paid considerable attention to the emergence of the citizen-consumer in the interwar era. Drawing on the literature from the fields of ethical consumption and consumer history, this paper opts for a broader perspective on the emergence of the citizen-consumer in historical analysis. It combines the polysemic nature of the hybrid citizen-consumer from food studies and ethical consumption, and the socio-historic analysis concerning political and cultural citizenship, by showing how consumption practices have been used to shape Dutch national citizenship. In the Netherlands, the private association Vereeniging Nederlandsch Fabrikaat (VNF) was one of the earliest and most vocal organisations that linked consumerism with an ideal of citizenship. Scholars typically tend to see the rise of the citizen-consumer as a product of three interest groups: the consumers, the state, or the industry. The VNF did not just appeal to consumers themselves, but also the government, and the business community to play their part in the development of the ideal Dutch citizen-consumer. By studying the practices of this association this paper thus offers a new perspective on the emergence of the citizen-consumer within a transnational perspective.
... In this sense, organic food farmers have the agentic capacity to reject established production and market structures that are seen as environmentally unsustainable, as well as the ability to provide a food supply that is recognized as more sustainable. As well as them lacking the resources of large corporations that dominate the agri-food market (Howard, 2016) and the consumer's capacity to enforce changes in company practices (Glickman, 2009), organic food producers also need to overcome the lack of financial interest in adopting organic production practices . They need to act to promote new exchange structures (Thompson & Coskuner-Balli, 2007), reshape market practices and how the market is constituted (Schouten et al., 2016), and establish their political role in the food system (Ploeg, 2008). ...
Article
Building more sustainable markets requires a combination of resources and motivations to overcome the structural barriers that exist at the different social levels. Farmers are powerful agents who can overcome these barriers to promote more sustainable food systems. By adopting the theoretical perspective of markets as aggregate systems, this study aims to present the barriers faced by farmers and the motivations that stimulate them to act toward forming a more sustainable market system. Our empirical research comprises in-depth interviews with 21 organic food farmers in the southern region of Brazil. The results suggest a complex relationship between structure and agency at the different social levels, which can lead to particular motivations for a sustainable food production system. Finally, we theorize about producers' roles and how they act to realign different social levels to build more sustainable food markets.
... The historical history of consumerism, especially in the United States, is an expanding field of study [52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60]. Efforts to incorporate ethical, social, and political issues are now focused on the public, including the belief that customers are activists and people who can exercise social and political rights in the marketplace [61][62][63][64][65]. ...
Article
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Consumption has lately been under the microscope facing pressure from all stakeholders as principles of sustainability have gained more popularity. In this context, a new sustainable consumer model was born, referring to major shifts in buying and consumption habits. Nevertheless, these shifts were lagging as consumers resisted change in the comfort of old habits. This comfort was shaken up by the COVID-19 outbreak that forced us to rethink every aspect of our lives. Therefore, this crisis context seems the perfect opportunity to shift towards the sustainable consumer model. People’s openness towards embracing new consumption habits was evaluated in a quantitative study where data was collected in two different moments: May 2020 and December 2020. Major results of our research show that people’s lives were dominated in 2020 by uncertainty, especially when referring to their financial situation. Further on, consumers have already started to bring major shifts in their consumption habits because of this uncertainty. Among the most important shifts, there were more prudent purchase decisions, rising interest for discounted prices, increased likelihood of buying local and enhanced preference in buy fresh products instead of processed or semi-processed ones.
... Au départ, ces travaux ont pointé une transformation des mouvements sociaux eux-mêmes, qui se seraient détournés d'actions visant les pouvoirs publics au profit des acteurs marchands, dans un contexte d'affaiblissement des marges de manoeuvre des États face aux dynamiques de globalisation des firmes (Vogel, 1996), ou encore en raison de la répression violente de mouvements sociaux dans certains pays (Soule, 2009). Les travaux plus récents sont toutefois revenus sur cette interprétation initiale, en reconnaissant que les mouvements militants ont, de longue date, ciblé tout autant les activités économiques que les États (Glickman, 2009). Il importe, en outre, de ne pas opposer les actions visant les acteurs politiques et celles ciblant les acteurs économiques, puisque ces dernières, le plus souvent, ont aussi pour objet de faire évoluer la régulation (Hilton, 2009 ;Chatriot et al., 2006) et sont menées conjointement avec des pressions sur la fabrique de la loi, comme en témoigne la longue trajectoire des luttes syndicales (Fantasia et Stepan-Norris, 2004). ...
Article
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ABSTRACT "Beyond Confrontation: Capturing the Diversity of Interactions between Activist Worlds and Economic Worlds" For the past twenty years, a rich body of literature has focused on the interactions between activist and economic worlds. This introduction to the thematic issue “Activist worlds, economic worlds: contentiousness, boundaries, and cooperation” reviews the main insights from this field, but also highlights its blind spots. While the dominant scholarship on “social movements, firms, and markets” insists on the dimensions of segmentation, contrast and confrontation, we call attention to the porosity of the boundaries between activist and economic worlds. We suggest three main analytical shifts to grasp the continuities, overlaps and transfers between these two worlds: 1/a focus on hybrid collectives and practices, at the intersection of the activist and economic worlds ; 2/a perspective in terms of “cause fields”, within which actors from heterogeneous universes converge ; 3/a micro-sociological approach, centered on the activists and/or professionals. Echoing these programmatic orientations, the articles of this issue bring to light the diversity of interactions between the activist and economic worlds, beyond the logic of confrontation.
... And indeed, such a pessimistic assessment of the tactic may be warranted. One historian takes it to be "indisputably the case that the vast majority of boycotts throughout American history have been putative failures" (Glickman 2009: 2). Another scholar studying boycotts emphasizes the paucity of rigorous data of the sort that would be needed to draw conclusions about the overall effectiveness of boycotting (Friedman 1999). ...
Article
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Some consequentialists argue that ordinary individuals are obligated to act in specific, concrete ways to address large-scale harms. For example, they argue that we should each refrain from meat-eating and avoid buying sweatshop-made clothing. The case they advance for such prescriptions can seem intuitive and compelling: by acting in those ways, a person might help prevent serious harms from being produced at little or no personal cost, and so one should act in those ways. But I argue that such reasoning often relies on an overly simplistic assessment of the costs and benefits of those prescriptions, one that misconstrues or neglects important issues. Indeed, a closer look at those costs and benefits reveals just how little we often know about a number of real-world matters that bear on the expected consequences of the prescribed individual actions. Our predicament is one of radical uncertainty: we currently lack a sound basis for concluding that the relevant actions are more likely to do good than to backfire. I distinguish this empirically grounded objection from others, which are not convincing—including one based on the mere conceivability of the actions in question backfiring and another based on the supposition that such actions cannot make a difference in addressing the massive problems at issue. The upshot is that, at least for now, consequentialist arguments for many specific individual actions aimed at addressing large-scale harms are inconclusive.
... As temáticas e as discussões foram pautadas e incentivadas pelos movimentos consumeristas estadunidenses liderados por Ralph Nader (JOVENS, 1970), um dos principais ativistas da época, que geraram uma reação negativa de alguns neoliberais brasileiros (BETING, 1971), que se referiam a consumerismo como um "mal a ser evitado" (CONSUMERISMO, 1974). Tal reação é semelhante àquela observada nos Estados Unidos pelos conservadores da New Right (GLICKMAN, 2009). ...
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... As temáticas e as discussões foram pautadas e incentivadas pelos movimentos consumeristas estadunidenses liderados por Ralph Nader (JOVENS, 1970), um dos principais ativistas da época, que geraram uma reação negativa de alguns neoliberais brasileiros (BETING, 1971), que se referiam a consumerismo como um "mal a ser evitado" (CONSUMERISMO, 1974). Tal reação é semelhante àquela observada nos Estados Unidos pelos conservadores da New Right (GLICKMAN, 2009). ...
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Resumo Este estudo tem por objetivo analisar, com base na perspectiva decolonial, processos históricos imperialistas que possibilitaram a incorporação de um modelo eurocêntrico de autorregulamentação na criação do Sistema Brasileiro de Autorregulamentação Publicitária, o SBAP. Para isso, foi realizada uma pesquisa histórica, calcada na óptica crítica em questão, utilizando dados secundários para analisar esse caso específico. A análise mostra que a incorporação de elementos estrangeiros ao sistema brasileiro ocorreu por meio, sobretudo, de três fatores: criação e internacionalização de modelo de autorregulamentação publicitária por meio de processos etnocêntricos e imperiais, formação do setor publicitário brasileiro de acordo com padrões internacionais, em especial estadunidenses, e influência de modelos e organizações internacionais em relação aos autores do SBAP. Mais do que uma discussão focada no poder de empresas sobre consumidores, espera-se que essa visão crítica gere mais conhecimento sobre as relações entre o Norte e o Sul globais, bem como de que maneira o controle imperial se materializa em consumerismo. Processos históricos coloniais e etnocêntricos limitam formas de pensar distintas à lógica neoliberal de defesa do consumidor por meio de livres mercados, ajudando, assim, a manter o domínio eurocêntrico sobre o conhecimento.
... More recently, in his study of the 1991 fire at the chicken-processing facility in Hamlet, North Carolina, that killed 25 workers, Bryant Simon argued that 'the combination of less pay, less regulation, and less attention to the economic and racial inequities of the past was the best way to solve the nation's most pressing problems'. 14 Trentmann doesn't fully take up these political questions. For example, in discussing unfair distributions of resources, he notes that 'it is unlikely that any resulting reductions in the use of material resources could be distributed fairly, either within nations or across the globe. ...
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1. Evaluation of Tourism Services and its Impact on Andhra Pradesh Tourism with Special Reference to Rayalaseema Region - A Case Study on Aptdc ................................................................................... 1 – Dr. J. Venkatesh, M. Prasanthi 2. Role of Young Entreprenuers and the Recent Trends in Entrepreneurship Activities in India...........11 – Dr. J. Venkatesh, Dr. R. Lavanya Kumari...................................................................................................... 3. Wireless Network Technology for Process Automation.......................................................................... 17 – Dr. M. S. Gowtham, Dr. S. Syed Jamaesha 4. Reliable Energy Aware Multi-Hop Routing for Wsn............................................................................. 25 – Dr. S.gopinath, Mr. S. Pragadeswaran 5. Consumer Behaviour in Present Marketing Scenario............................................................................ 33 – Prof. Kumar Ratnesh 6. Why Higher Variability in Trading Volume Results in Lower Expected Returns............................... 44 – Vibhore 7. Just in Time Leadership............................................................................................................................. 54 – Shikha Kansal 8. Impact of Block-Chain On E-Commerce : A Scot Analysis.................................................................... 64 – Dr. Palvinder Kaur Bakshi 9. Human Resource Management - Big Five Personality Traits................................................................ 70 – Shemi Varghese 10. Management & Sustainable Development............................................................................................... 82 – Dr. Mrinalini Pathak 11. Empowerment of Women in India............................................................................................................ 91 – Dr. Ravi Kumar Gupta 12. Smart and Eco Cities................................................................................................................................ 100 – Dr. K.kavita, Dr. Jyoti Shinde 13. Green Chemical Technology for Industrial Applications......................................................................113 – Diksha Chaudhary, Soumava Santra & Tanay Pramanik 14. Corporate Governance .............................................................................................................................119 – Neha Kousar 15. Role of Optimization Techniques in Welding......................................................................................... 125 – M. Sowrirajan, S. Vijayan, M. Arulraj, V. Rajkumar 16. Work from Home Outlasts Covid-19...................................................................................................... 141 – Dr. Ramachandra Arya 17. Modeling and Solving Large Scale Optimization Problems Using Spreadsheets............................... 157 – Dr Thothathri Venugopal 18. Production of Succinic Acid from Agricultural Residues..................................................................... 163 – Nidhi Tripathi 19. Metagenomics: A New Approach............................................................................................................ 180 – Gibarni Mahata 20. Crispr/Cas9 Genome Editing on Human Hematopoietic Stem Cell.................................................... 186 – Pratik Chatterjee 21. Lung Cancer Detection And Diagnosis Using the Machine Learning Approach............................... 192 – Nandini Gupta & Pratik Chatterjee 22. A Brief on Artificial Intelligence.............................................................................................................. 200 – Aarushi Sharma 23. Renewable Energy Sources: A Need for Sustainable Development..................................................... 204 – Megha Bhatnagar 24. Overview of Financial Management and Modern Finance Practices.................................................. 210 – Sajal Basu Bosch 25. Higher Alcohol as a Fuel Additive in Spark Ignition Engines.............................................................. 219 – Dr. Chandrakant B. Kothare 26. Plastic Waste Management...................................................................................................................... 226 – Dr. Piyush 27. Cluster, Cloud and Grid Computing...................................................................................................... 234 – Rohit Raja, Manisha Achantani, Richa Sharma 28. Environmental Sustainability and Water Management....................................................................... 244 – Pradipta Kumar Sarangi 29. Renewable Energy System for Sustainable Development..................................................................... 255 Dr. Shivendra 30. Traffic Management Using IoT............................................................................................................... 266 – Neha Tyagi, Sushant Jhingran 31. Nanoplastics in Drinking Water.............................................................................................................. 278 – Akshata Mandloi, Dr. Manishita Das Mukherji 32. Role of Pseudogene in Diagnosis and treatment of Cancer.................................................................. 289 – Sachin Goel, Mansi Agrahari 33. Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning in Cyber Security and Threat Intelligence................ 296 – Amrita 34. Overview of Marketing Management & Modern HRM Practices..................................................... 305 – Sajal Kanti Basu 35. Soft Computing Techniques in Solar Energy......................................................................................... 319 – Dr. Hoor Fatima, Neha Tyagi 36. Overview of Human Resource Management & Modern Marketing Practices.................................. 331 – Sajal Kanti Basu 37. Behavioural Analysis for Suspicious Character in Crowd................................................................... 336 – Neha Tyagi, Preeti Dubey, Amit Kumar Upadhyay 38. Importance of Sustainable Citizen to Achieve Sustainability............................................................... 345 – Meenakshi Bisla 39. Future Needs, a Society's Dream and Challenge for Industry............................................................. 345 – Shailender Gaur 40. Solid Waste Management......................................................................................................................... 360 – Dr. Piyush Gupta
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