Carbon nanotube based dyestuffs were prepared by dispersing aggregates of multiwalled carbon nanotubes in water using a blend of zwitterionic surfactants with anionic surfactants. Using a dye-printing approach, the carbon nanotubes were directly applied to polyester multifilament yarns to form an electrically conductive layer over each filament of the multifilament yarn. Yarns having electrical resistivity ranging from 10^3 to 10^9 ohm/cm were obtained. Yarn with a resistivity of 10^3 ohm/cm could be used to form flat, soft, and portable electrical heaters by vertically weaving the yarns into fabrics. The 10^5 ohm/cm yarns could be used for anti-static clothing, and the 10^9 ohm/cm level yarns for brushes for photocopying machines.
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". The cross-sectional morphology clearly shows that the CNT networks (bright outer edge) are enriched on the outer surface layer of the TPU fibers and a ''skin–core'' – like structure is distinguished. Unlike the previous work of conductive polyester multifilament yarn and grapheme oxide modified fabric by ''dye–print''  , or the MWCNT–jute fibers prepared by dip coating  that the conductive components are only adhered or deposited on fiber matrix, some CNT heads are observed embedded within the TPU matrix for the low CNT content sample (2.3 wt.%), implying that CNT layers are penetrated into the TPU matrix (Fig. 1b). And as expected, the thickness of such skin layer in- Fig. 1 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: A noninvasive approach is used to fabricate electronically conductive and flexible polymer fibers by fixing carbon nanotube (CNT) networks as a thin layer on thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) multifilaments. The anchoring of the CNT layer is achieved by partially embedding or penetrating CNTs from the dispersion into the swollen multifilament surface. Thus a stable and high conductivity (up to 102 S/m at 10 wt.% CNT loading) of the resulting CNTs–TPU fibers is realized while the mechanical properties of the TPU multifilament, especially the strain to failure of >1500%, are not affected by increasing the thickness of the CNT layer. Real time analysis of the resistance of the CNTs–TPU fibers during incremental tensile loading tests reveal that the increase of resistance as a function of the strain is attributed to stretching-induced deformation, alignment, and, at high strains, destruction of the conducting network. Moreover, the changes in resistance are highly reversible under cyclic stretching up to a strain deformation of 400%.
"Note that a graphene-coloured fabric can be obtained without the addition of any binders to the GO based dyestuffs; however, for the CNT-coloured fabrics, a certain amount of binder (in this study, a polyurethane-based polymer) has to be added into the CNT-based dyestuffs in order to firmly immobilize the CNTs on the surface of the fabric yarn  "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Graphene oxide (GO) was immobilized on the surfaces of acrylic yarns through a conventional dyeing approach. The GO dyed yarns and/or the fabric were immersed in an aqueous sodium hydrosulfite solution at around 363 K for 30 min, which converted the GO into graphene. The graphene created a graphitic-coloured and electrically conductive thin layer over each yarn in the fabric. Data on the electrical conductance of the yarns versus temperature (30–300 K) fit well with the so-called fluctuation-induced tunneling model, which suggests that the graphene layer belongs to a continuously interconnected network. Values of the electrical resistivity ranged from 102 to 1010 Ohm/cm, as verified by the content of graphene in the conductive layer.