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The DEEP CITY project: A global concept for a sustainable urban underground management

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Abstract

The project "Underground resources and sustainable development in urban areas" (called also "Deep City Project") is motivated by the critical congestion of many cities around the world leading to environmental and public health problems. Consequently, it is obvious that major changes are needed in order to reach new conditions, which are more compatible with sustainable development. The theses of the project are: • A more comprehensive use of the urban underground is one key-solution for getting more space and more healthy living conditions at the surface of the city. • However this increasing use of underground cannot be achieved without a long term 3D planning. • This planning must consider the four main resources of urban underground: space for construction, geomaterials, groundwater and geothermy. • The management of the urban underground must not be sectorial (e.g. transportation or building or water supply or geothermal extraction) but must integrate the potential of all these resources. The project is defining the rules for multi-uses of the resources according to the various geological formations present below the city and their properties. • As underground conditions are very variable from a city to another and even variable at the scale of a city, geological knowledge and 3D modelling is the first step of investment in order to define the long term multi-uses potential. • Shifting some activities toward the underground implicates a significant improvement of the human acceptability for this space. Research in sociology and architecture are done in this direction. Up to now, the project has studied experiences of some large cities like Paris and Mexico. It is presently defining the new methodological concepts, the principles of which are described in this paper. The fundaments of a real 3D - land planning is presented, which will be introduced in a new federal law.

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... UUS encompasses natural geological formations of rocks and soils, anthropogenically altered soils and manmade structures, as well as caverns of various origins. When considering liveability there are four basic UUS resources: space, materials, water, and energy (Parriaux et al., 2007), each of which has different degrees of renewability dependent upon the way and/ or rate they have been exploited (Sterling et al., 2012). ...
... UUS has been used for thousands of years and yet the role of UUS in addressing urban development issues was raised just over a century ago by Hénard (1903) and since this time has been re-examined intermittently by a range of authors and institutes (Utudjian, 1952;Utudjian and Bernet, 1966;Fairhurst, 1976;Duffaut, 1977;Parker and Daly, 1981;Carmody and Sterling, 1993;Godard and Sterling, 1995;Hunt and Rogers, 2005;Jefferson et al., 2006;Parriaux et al., 2006;Rogers and Hunt, 2006;Simpson and Tatsuoka, 2008;Bobylev, 2009;Sterling et al., 2012;International Tunnelling Association -ITA, 1987, 1991a, 1991b, 1991c, 2000. Acceptance that it is an extremely valuable, irreplaceable resource has never been considered as readily as it is today (Parriaux et al., 2007;Bobylev, 2009;Sterling et al., 2012). ...
... UUS comprises four basic functional elements/resources (Fig. 6), all of which impact on sustainability (Parriaux et al., 2007) , 2012). By means of increased urban development, space has become an increasingly prized and scarce commodity. ...
Article
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... There are four resources in developing underground space; namely space, water, materials and energy (Parriaux et al., 2007). According to Hunt et al. (2016), planning for underground space should be done based on local contexts, depending on priorities and conditions. ...
... While, for the underground space ownership or known as the stratum title, the rights of the owner are subject to Section 92 B (3) (a) (b), of the NLC 1965. Regarding underground development, the surface landowners must be protected not only in terms of the legal land rights but also the safety and psychology of those living at the surface during the on-going underground construction (Qiao et al., 2019;Haghani et al., 2014). Hence, both the surface and the underground space owners must be clear as to their rights over the land. ...
... Urban Underground Space (UUS) has been used for many centuries; nonetheless acceptance that it is an irreplaceable, valuable, and in-demand resource has only materialised recently (Parriaux et al., 2007;Bobylev, 2009;Sterling et al., 2012). UUS can be defined as space beneath urban areas that provides direct service to a city (e.g. ...
... UUS encompass geologically formed rocks and soils, and artificial structures, as well as caverns of various origins. Parriaux et al. (2007) have identified four basic UUS resources: space, materials, water, and energy. These resources have different degree of renewability, depending on their use and/or rate of extraction (Sterling et al., 2012). ...
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... The two dimensions of urban development, above-and under-ground, require suitable local conditions and both are characterized by several benefits and barriers: buildings above ground could produce negative effects on life quality connected to the increased concentration (in terms of activities, buildings, and traffic) if they are not associated to general planning choices and processes (Durmisevic, 1999;Parriaux et al., 2006;Besner, 2007). On the contrary, the development of underground space use is able to achieve benefits associated to the displacement of activities and infrastructure from the surface (new open spaces available, increase of green and quality of life), but requires a good knowledge of the sub-surface physical environment for preventing undesirable effects (Kraas et al., 2005;Parriaux et al., 2007). ...
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... Whether they come from the belly of the Earth, such as the shifting of the Earth's plates or bursts of volcanic magma [122], or from that what is found on the surface, such as pandemics or nonpandemic incidents [123], or whatever they come from outer space, such as meteors falling [124,125], directly or indirectly, these events have the potential to fundamentally change life on Earth's surface [126,127]. Data explaining human behavior, such as that before, during, and after experiencing the COVID-19 pandemic, undergo changes depending on their understanding of data about the pandemic [128][129][130]. Some people, without hesitation, make profits to become rich [131], others may become poor due to losing their jobs [132], or some people may try to maintain their power even though they violate democratic principles, for example, by perpetuating the threshold for leadership candidates [133], such as 20% or more [134]. ...
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... This, together with the establishment and maintenance of a State Fund for engineering materials and data, you can optimize the adoption of many managerial and technical solutions for the development of the territory. It is essential to create and economic models, for example, on the basis of the calculation of the unit cost rises in the land associated with the quality of the underground resource [2].. ...
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Examines distortions of spatial development of the city of Moscow and the resulting urban planning, transport, social problems of the Centre of the metropolis. It is concluded that the efforts made by the Government of Moscow measures may be insufficient without strategic direction orientation of integrated urban underground space utilizing the potential of the city and especially its central zone. Reviewed the background and direction through the development of urbanization of underground objects. Provides suggestions for the justification and the preparation of a new master plan for the city, improve other instruments of urban management. Also provides specific recommendations for the optimization of the underground transport network in the central part of the city by embedding new stations on existing radial lines and justify slopes of underground, taking into account the geological conditions (with the creation of 3D models for this purpose). The basis of urban planning should become a principle of consideration of underground space as an integrated resource land. Proceeding from it, on an example of underground objects (like infrastructural skeleton of the city) are creating a spatial direction underground-ground systems, as well as improving their energy efficiency and utilization of recoverable materials. It is concluded that, despite the complexity of the tasks, their solution (with proper organization in the system of State Administration) is possible. It significantly will contribute to the achievement of the declared goal of sustainable development of the Russian capital.
... As the world population is projected to grow in the next decades, increasing demand for this resource is expected, and this may provoke stress both in terms of groundwater quality and quantity (Pollicino et al. 2021); in particular, groundwater demand is gradually increasing in urban areas, where 70% of the world population is expected to be living by 2050 (Un-Habitat 2012). To limit urban sprawl, the tendency to look for new building spaces in the vertical direction has increased (Li et al. 2013b, c;Koziatek and Dragićević 2017), leading to enhanced use of urban underground (Parriaux et al. 2007;Sterling et al. 2012;Bobylev 2016;Vähäaho 2016). In the last few decades, as a result of the deindustrialization process, several cities worldwide have faced rising groundwater levels, which has generated some interference between underground infrastructure (i.e. ...
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... Unfortunately underground space is often considered to be the "last frontier" for development (Durmisevic, 1999) and therefore construction can be piecemeal and is very rarely considered as part of a holistic master plan (Jefferson et al., 2006). Moreover, it is increasingly likely that elevated land pressures (Parker, 2004;Admiraal, 2006;Parriaux et al., 2007;Bobylev, 2009;Hunt et al., 2011;Sterling et al., 2012) will increase the value of underground space, ultimately making its full exploitation inevitable (De Mulder et al., 2007;Evans et.al, 2009). Therefore the four main underground resources outlined by Parriaux et al., (2004; should be carefully considered and planned for today, in order that future logistical complexity is reduced. ...
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... This is especially the case for large urban areas regardless of the size of the country where the city is located. Parriaux et al. (2007) have identified the four basic elements that constitute the underground environment as a resource as: space, materials, water and energy. Each of the four resources can be explored to address issues related to sustainable urban development. ...
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... As Sterling et al. (2012) pointed out, UUS is an environmental entity a natural resource in its own right [28]. The UUS assets contributing to SDGs are inhabited in 24 the soils and rocks that constitute the underground system. The potential of the UUS assets depend largely on the properties of the soils and rocks, which, however, can be damaged by any form of underground activities, such as the aforementioned UUS uses. ...
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... China has become a leader in the development of underground space during the last decade [15,16]. In 2007, in Beijing, 30 km 2 of underground space was reclaimed, and the number is increasing annually by 10% [17]. ...
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