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The Consequence of Modernity

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... For instance, technology and science enabled the cultural exchange of the different societies to cross the borders between countries. Global orientation or global expansion as various schools of thought contend; globalization is a modern process of economic and cultural realm expansion of social modernity (Giddens, 1990; Research Publish Journals 1994a; 1994b). Globalization eased and enabled the amalgamation of cultures, and ""tends to bring a universalized cultural value"" (Kaul, 2012). ...
... It is because of the process of globalization of cultural interconnectedness and social interdependency in our contemporary globalized economy (Held et al. 1999). The modern capital system of the world of globalization (Giddens, 1990) has accelerated the process of the English language evolution. Globalization and the economic interconnectedness of the international system made the English language a global language (Crystal, 2003). ...
... It illustrated how the rapid development of technology, science and trade shaped the cultural interconnectedness of the world and later facilitated the cultural exchange of the different societies of the world (Tomlinson, 1996). It demonstrated ways in which globalization relates with global expansion or orientation as some various schools of thought arguethe social modernity and the process of cultural realm expansion (Giddens, 1990;1994a;1994b). In other words, globalization universalized the cultural values of societies and enabled the amalgamation of cultures (Kaul, 2012). ...
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Abstract: Although the concept of globalization has not explicitly stated in a distinct definition, the phenomenon of its cultural dominance is one of the most complex ideas that confront radical intellectual criticism. Cultural globalization differs considerably, not only the stance of its theoretical meaning, but also the aspect of cultural convergence explanations. This academic article endeavours to explain the social and cultural theories of the twentieth century of globalization. It explains how the process of globalization enabled Western capitalism use developing policies in order to influence the least developed countries (LDCs). In contrast, it will highlight the counter-arguments of this phenomenon such as Anthony Giddens and John Tomlinson thoughts of cultural imperialism. It also suggests that the process of globalization allows the cultural imperialism to take effect. Finally, the piece will assess whether the phenomenon of cultural dominance is a product of globalization – as globalization became a device where powerful countries implicitly impose their cultural values to the less powerful states of the world. Keywords: Globalization, Cultural Dominance/Imperialism, Interconnectedness, Media, Hollywood Movies, Industries, Consumption Pattern, Language.
... " (Cote et al 2017). Psychologists studying climate change denial point out that the increased perception of death-risk that 'risk society' (which is no longer centred upon the vision of unending progress and instead focuses on adaptation to human-made risks) (Beck 1995;Giddens 1990) allows may actually activate 'distal defenses' which keep death thoughts unconscious --and one form they take is of bolstering the existing world-view even when it is not sustainable in plain view (Dickinson 2009). In our interviews at Eloor, we were struck by the fact that elected members almost never volunteered to broach the topic of pollution until we suggested it explicitly to them; there was much diffidence about speaking of it. ...
... Reterritorialization, which is often thought of as accompanying deterritorialization refers to the new logic of power that restructures the place with new cultural meanings and objects. These concepts are also widely used in the literature on globalization somewhat differently, for example, to refer to the burgeoning of translocal cultural experience (Hernandez 2002) or the increase of social contracts and interaction that cross beyond the limits of a specific local territory (Giddens 1990: 64). 10. ...
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This examines the denial of the harmful impacts of industrial pollution at Eloor, Kerala, from a historical and sociological perspective
... En tredje samfunnsforsker som har vaert opptatt av denne problematikken, er Giddens. Mens Polanyi ([1944] 2012) og Granovetter (1985) først og fremst refererte til sosiale relasjoner, har forankringsteorien hos Giddens (1990) også en romlig dimensjon. Avforankring blir mulig gjennom det som Giddens (1990) kaller tid-rom-distansering. Atskillelsen av tid fra rom skaper grunnlag for nye former for sosial aktivitet og nye relasjonsmønstre. ...
... Mens Polanyi ([1944] 2012) og Granovetter (1985) først og fremst refererte til sosiale relasjoner, har forankringsteorien hos Giddens (1990) også en romlig dimensjon. Avforankring blir mulig gjennom det som Giddens (1990) kaller tid-rom-distansering. Atskillelsen av tid fra rom skaper grunnlag for nye former for sosial aktivitet og nye relasjonsmønstre. Giddens (1990, s. 21) har beskrevet dette som å «løfte ut» samhandling fra sosiale relasjoner og lokale kontekster. ...
... Modernisation has been described as the appearance of modes of social life or organisation that began in Europe from around the seventeenth century onwards, which subsequently became more or less worldwide in their influence (Giddens, 1990). Modernisation theories, such as DOI and TAM, explain the changing ways of communication and media use in traditional and (post)modern societies. ...
... The third wave of modernisation theory emerged in the postmodern era of the 1990s. According to Giddens (1990), this wave assumes a middle ground and is neither an anti-western modernisation nor favours it. Giddens shows that modern society is characterised by time-space distanciation and disembedding mechanisms. ...
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This paper examines how mobile communication and mobile banking is used by women in rural western Kenya (Elgeyo Marakwet), a resource-constrained area where women must carefully monitor the flow of money through their households. Also, women face structural inequality. Among other things, polygyny (one husband and several wives) is legal. Based on the inductive analysis of 25 interviews with women, and using the lens of intersectionality, we examine their use of mobile banking. We examine how mobile technology plays into the management of the household economy, and how it is used in extramarital relationships. We discuss how women use mobile communication in their collective savings groups (chama). We see how the mobile phone can be the locus of tensions within the household and how mBanking both supports the lives of the women but also how this can eventually undercut social support.
... The example is Westernization and McDonaldization (Pieterse 2009) or Europeanization (Ladrech 1994;Moumoutzis 2011). Globalization appears here as a 'consequence of modernity' (Giddens 1990) along with its universalisms as a great unifying force. The second trend emphasizes globalization as a system created from 'details' characterized by distant mutual connections (Hannerz 1996;Wang and Yueh-yu Yeh 2005). ...
... In the conditions of globalization, intercultural contacts also determine intensification of economic relations by connecting distant locations, in the way that local events are often shaped by activities carried out in other locations (Giddens 1990). In this way, there is a 'global valorization' of local resources that can become (or not) a global value (Robertson PREPRINT for Regional Studies. ...
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Hybridization of regional and urban development-reflections on changing patterns of contemporary development. Regional Studies. The paper's intention is to progress theoretical achievements of hybridization as alternative concept of explaining diversity in global world resulting from implementation of novelties in different contexts. Findings like: hybridization hypothesis, context asymmetry, efficiency/effectiveness of hybridization, various adaptation paths, hybridization places and levels are supplemented by references to evolutionary economic geography along with selective examples of hybridizations in course of the paper. This framework looks to be helpful to interpret a mosaic picture of contemporary socioeconomic and territorial development, and it also justifies broader, more flexible, and multi-paths approach to policy and strategic planning of companies and sectors as well as cities and regions.
... There are different approaches to this relation. In fact the rise of any forces opposing what is often depicted as 'irresistible' and 'inevitable' trend towards globalised world as a 'consequence of modernity' (Giddens 1990) is depicted as paradoxical and odd. The analogy of the juggernaut, the powerful machine of modernity, ...
... Moreover, Niederberger and Schink (2011) give a detailed overview regarding globali- zation and related concepts, discussing the different approaches of the prevalent defi- nitions in different fields, such as that of Giddens (1990), who considers globalization to be a political, technological and cultural as well as economic phenomenon, in a "com- plex set of processes" (Giddens, 2002, p. 12). Giddens defines it as "the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such way that local happen- ings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa" (1990, p. 64), thereby all aspects of our everyday life are changed. ...
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Globalization has not only changed our society, it has also had a profound effect on education. Many schools deal with student populations which, due to migration, are increasingly multilingual. Politically, few argue against the importance of multilingualism; rather, it is promoted. However, in practical terms the challenges associated with teaching and educational policies have increased as a result of linguistic diversity among student bodies. Moreover, reading is certainly regarded as a key learning skill, but how is the students’ life-world multilingualism (LWMUL) taken into consideration? Previous research suggests that there are significant links between teachers’ beliefs and practices, making this a compelling issue. The overall aim of this study was thus to gain a deeper understanding on teachers’ beliefs and strategies when teaching reading in multilingual settings. Using a cross-disciplinary, qualitative research methodology approach, the empirical inquiry consists of case studies with different, linguistically diverse settings. The case studies include classroom observations as well as teacher interviews in German, Swedish and Chilean grade 4 classrooms. After a qualitative content analysis in three analysis procedures, the results suggest dualistic beliefs being exhibited by the teachers. The separation of languages is believed to be of major importance, thus providing space almost exclusively for the academic language of instruction. This is reflected in the teachers’ strategies, leading to a static implementation, in which the students’ life-world multilingual resources (MULR) are generally not included. A lack of professional competence could be observed in issues regarding multilingualism, allowing beliefs rather than evidence-based knowledge to be the deciding factor in the practice. Four types of strategies for teaching reading in multilingual settings were identified, and an inattentive type of strategy, including a blindness to difference, seems to dominate. Keywords: teachers’ beliefs, teaching strategies, teaching implementation, linguistic diversity, multilingualism, Germany, Sweden, Chile, Grade 4
... Finalement, les sociétés post-industrielles de la « dernière » ou de la « haute » modernité (Giddens 1990 : 38) font certes face au danger comme leurs antécédents civilisationnels, mais elles ont surtout pour particularité de se mettre de plus en plus en danger par leurs activités et leur perception de ces activités. Dans ce dernier registre elles poussent si loin l'investigation sur les effets induits des activités Perception et gestion des risques en Asie du Sud-Est : une introduction humaines, mues en cela par l'obsession du tout prévoir et du tout contrôler, qu'elles rendent manifeste au plus grand nombre l'impossibilité pratique d'une telle maîtrise et propagent à un degré jamais atteint jusqu'alors le doute, la suspicion et le désenchantement au sein de l'opinion publique. ...
... As a matter of fact, the CLUE approach is a case of framing a practice-theoretic vision within a critical tradition (i.e., British cultural studies influenced by the Frankfurt school). Here, the practicetheoretic vision refers to its "three strands of practice theories" (Sun, 2012, p. 56)-activity theory, British cultural studies, and rhetoric genre theory-along with some other schools of practice theories reviewed in this book, such as those of Giddens (1984Giddens ( , 1990, Orlikowski (1992Orlikowski ( , 2000Orlikowski ( , 2007, Brown and Duguid (2001), and Suchman (2002. ...
Chapter
This chapter articulates a practice-oriented critical vision of cultural differences to global design and explores how we should productively engage differences in global design practices. Cultural differences in this book refer to the differences that emerge from various categorical identifications such as ethnicity, race, age, class, religion, gender, sexuality, and ability and manifests as ways of life. A practice-oriented critical vision sees cultural differences as dynamic, relational, emergent, contingent, and liminal, in contrast to a simplistic interpretation of cultural differences presented by multiculturalism and other theories. This chapter first reviews why cultural differences matters and then organizes the discussion around four sets of questions: First, how does difference come into being? Second, what is the nature of difference ontologically? Third, how should we treat difference methodologically and practically? Fourth, as designers, how can we turn differences into design resources? And how should we design with, across, and for cultural differences? Based on the articulation of a practice-oriented critical vision of differences that turns communication deficits into design resources, the culturally localized user experience (CLUE) approach is thus developed into the approach of culturally localized user engagement and empowerment (CLUEE), simplified as the CLUE ² (CLUE-squared) approach. Examples of race construction and social media design cases are provided to enrich the discussion.
... As a matter of fact, the CLUE approach is a case of framing a practice-theoretic vision within a critical tradition (i.e., British cultural studies influenced by the Frankfurt school). Here, the practicetheoretic vision refers to its "three strands of practice theories" (Sun, 2012, p. 56)-activity theory, British cultural studies, and rhetoric genre theory-along with some other schools of practice theories reviewed in this book, such as those of Giddens (1984Giddens ( , 1990, Orlikowski (1992Orlikowski ( , 2000Orlikowski ( , 2007, Brown and Duguid (2001), and Suchman (2002. ...
Chapter
This chapter articulates a practice-oriented critical design approach for empowerment. It situates global design issues concerning structure and agency in a discourse of redistributing power and privileges. It first paints a big picture of the social justice–oriented design scholarship in the disciplines of human–computer interaction (HCI), technical and professional communication, and informatics with its key issues. Then it reviews the development of critical design movement and the turn and re-turn to practice in HCI and design communities. Built on that discussion, it integrates the two into a critical practice approach for empowerment—a relational view of design that centers on everyday practice and aims to transform its inequalities of power.
... This feature of statehood is recognized by a wide range of writers from Hobbes through Engels and Weber to contemporary theorists such as Mann and Giddens. According to Anthony Giddens, "a nation-state is a political apparatus, recognized to have sovereign rights within the borders of a demarcated territorial area (italics mine)" [3]. ...
... In conditions of modernity, place becomes increasingly phantasmagoric: that is to say, locales are thoroughly penetrated and shaped in terms of social influences quite distant from them. [10] Although Giddens acknowledges the changing nature of relationships between places and inside places as well. He sees places becoming 'phantasmagoric', which can mean 'a shifting series or succession of phantasms or imaginary figures, as seen in a dream or fevered condition, as called up by the imagination, or as created by literary description'. ...
... Globalisation refers to the world in which the societies, cultures, polities and economies have, in some sense, come closer together. According to Giddens (1990), the concept can be defined as: ...
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The book is to provide students with a basic understanding of major aspects of political development in Third World countries. Students need to be exposed to the formation of modern states in the Third World and its theoretical underpinnings. Their understanding of Third World political phenomena will be further enhanced by learning about the dynamics of political history of various countries which were influenced by the legacy of colonialism and imperialism, which in turn gives rise to differences in the practice of democracy and political culture of these countries. In general, students will be exposed to common key issues facing Third World countries such as debt and structural adjustment, famine, population problem and environmental degradation, as well as the impact of globalization and the future of Third World countries.
... Based on this definition, many researchers have tried to establish a link between institutions and economic performance, indicating that a market economy cannot function properly without institutions. They imply, among numerous other channels of influence, that institutions generate trust among economic actors and reduce transaction costs (North 1992), provide collective goods (Streeck 1991), foster transparency (Storper 2005), promote entrepreneurship, and grease the functioning of labor markets (Giddens 1990). ...
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This research extends the literature on regional inequalities in the European Union in two directions. First, it confirms the importance of institutions for regional inequalities among 18EU member countries, and second, indicates which dimension of the institutional quality is important by using the six dimensions of the Worldwide Governance Indicator. The results support standard “rules of engagement” that reduce transaction costs by lowering uncertainty and facilitating the mutual trustworthiness of individual economic agents that spread equally among regions in specific countries. In addition, we interpret empirical evidence to determine that institutions also shape regional inequalities indirectly through political channels.
... There are different approaches to this relation. In fact the rise of any forces opposing what is often depicted as 'irresistible' and 'inevitable' trend towards globalised world as a 'consequence of modernity' (Giddens 1990) is depicted as paradoxical and odd. The analogy of the juggernaut, the powerful machine of modernity, ...
... Це поняття активно використовується в соціологічній науці, особистість засвоює поступово культурні норми, цінності на кожній фазі свого Міжнародні відносини: теоретико-практичні аспекти Випуск 5 (2020) ISSN (print) 2616-745X; ISSN (online) 2616-7794 282 розвитку. І за все життя збирає доволі великий і різносторонній багаж культурного наслідування (Giddens, 1990). Ці два поняття близькі один до одного, протікають одночасно. ...
... For Czarniawska and Joerges [6], ideas travel through their movement across time and space from one local setting to another. This travel is similar to Giddens' [12] description of how concepts could be disembedded from one context and re-embedded in another. Before any idea can travel into a new local setting, it must first be translated from its form as found in its previous local setting. ...
... Lo scenario in cui si inserisce il presente contributo è relativo alle metamorfosi cui è sottoposta la moderna società occidentale, da ricondursi a un più ampio fenomeno che, per dirla con le parole di Giddens (1990), è la "tarda modernità", successivamente battezzata da Beck (2000) come "società del rischio". Perché dietro questo rischio si celano eventi di grande portata come la flessibilità (Cesareo, 1996;La Rosa 2004;Gallino, 2014) (2002) secondo cui capita, nella modernità liquida, che "il posto di lavoro divenga come un camping in cui si pianta la tenda per qualche giorno, ma che si potrebbe abbandonare in qualsiasi momento, qualora i confort offerti siano ritenuti insufficienti o non soddisfacenti" (ivi, p.171). ...
... McLuhan argued that the world has turned into a "global village" that keeps getting smaller with technological improvements and the rapid flow of information (Mcluhan, 2014). Giddens defined globalization as the concentration of social relations globally as the developments in one country affect other countries or states, and societies are being affected by the events outside the national borders (Giddens, 1990). ...
... Trust exists between individual people and impersonal entities, such as groups, organizations, and institutions (Aryee et al., 2002). Scholars have contended that, in part, trust is based on one's confidence in an institution (Giddens, 1990;Luhmann, 1979;Tyler & Huo, 2002), and Luhmann (1979) went on to argue that institutions have a role in building trust. To better understand this role, scholars have explored how individuals' trust in institutions can affect their actions toward that institution. ...
Article
Background/Context Government support for higher education has decreased over the past few decades. In turn, institutions are seeking alternative sources of funding and increasing reliance on alumni giving. Although trust is important to social institutions and nonprofits, we know little about the role of trust in alumni engagement. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study We empirically assess the association between trust and philanthropic giving. We aim to determine the effectiveness of using trust as a predictor for giving attitudes and behavior. More specifically, we seek to answer the following research questions: 1. To what extent does trust in alma mater vary across socio-demographic characteristics? 2. To what extent does trust in alma mater correlate with alumni engagement (self-reported behavior and attitudes) with philanthropic giving? 3. Does the strength of the association between trust in alma mater and alumni engagement hold after controlling for socio-demographic characteristics? Population/Participants/Subjects Data for this study came from the National Alumni Giving Experiment (NAGE) conducted in 2014 (n=1,553). The NAGE survey instrument was designed as a web-based, self-administered questionnaire, with attitudinal items developed based on previous research and common practices in public opinion research. Respondents were recruited and paid via Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk). The NAGE sample is comparable with the General Social Survey's (2012/2014) college educated sample. Research Design We used a sequential mixed-methods research design (QUAN > qual). In the first stage, which is the main portion our study, we employed multivariate analysis to examine (a) socio-demographic variations in trust in alma mater, and (b) the correlations between trust and philanthropic giving. In the second stage, we coded and analyzed open-ended responses. We analyzed the quantitative and qualitative data separately, but we connect the findings to produce a comprehensive analysis of the role of trust in philanthropic giving to higher education. Findings/Results We found that alumni trust is a strong predictor of self-reported giving and attitudes, even after accounting for socio-demographic characteristics. Analysis of open-ended responses suggests that alumni develop (dis)trust based on public discourse on higher education and their personal perceptions and observations of their alma maters’ institutional policies and spending. Conclusions/Recommendations Trust is granted by individuals to others and to institutions. However, institutions cannot take trust for granted. Institutions of higher education must continually earn the trust of their constituents through creating transparent practices and educating students and alumni about funding, assuring them that they have measures in place to track and implement donor wishes.
... This is what Ntibagiriwa (2003) he is but by what he has acquired by whatever means. Giddens (1990) instead thinks the result of this paradigm shift is that modernism is producing a global civilization, a global culture. ...
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p> Global ethics is the universal aspiration of the citizens of the world towards minimum common values, standards, and basic moral attitudes, shared by all for a better world order. While ethics is the rational justification of the principles of right and wrong. Contrary to the view that the emerging new world order is the intensification of international relations, globalization, or the advent of a cryptoclastic secretive world government conspiring to rule the world, this paper believes that the emerging new world order is a result of human effort to subjugate nature to the laws designed by human reason. It is the attempt of human beings to create themselves and their own laws. It is this effort to manipulate nature to give answers to human problems, which has produced the kind of modern technologies that has turned the world into a global village and made easier international relations. In this process, African traditional values will either be rejected as irrelevant, trans-valued to higher levels, or Africans are deemed to acquire some completely new values to regulate their affairs. However, contemporary society faces peril if it ignores some of these basic African values like, respect for life, the environment, and nature. </p
... The economic crisis has deeply influenced several categories of public law, which are now perceived differently than they used to be. One of the fields where this phenomenon is particularly evident regards the appropriation of goods and the ownership of rights (Glyn, 2007;Leijonhufvud, 2009, p. 741.;Levet, 2012;Gibson, 1993, p. 147;Giddens, 1991). ...
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The complexity of public procurement and the related controls are a significant issue that public authorities are facing in Hungary. The “fear” of being controlled by state authorities and EU auditors is affecting decisions in public procurement. However, research on the effects of such a system is largely absent. The purpose of the article is to explore the functioning of the control system related to EU funded public procurements and to examine its actual and potential impact on the purchases of public authorities. The method is first an introduction of the features of the control system and then the analysis of data from the relevant bodies in order to see the effect of controls and possible difficulties with the system. The results show that despite the seemingly positive impact on the regularity of procedures, the interference in the decisions of public authorities and the delays caused are problematic. It is therefore suggested that the Hungarian government should consider streamlining the control process such as through checks based on samples or focusing on the most risky procedures. The research is the first academic analysis of data related to public procurement control in Hungary, yet it can already inspire the Hungarian and other governments to review the effectiveness of such procedures and to reduce administrative burdens for public authorities as much as possible.
... Los estudios de Anthony Giddens (Giddens, 1990) y de Jürgen Habermas (Habermas, 1985) influenciaron la concepción tradicional de "modernidad", así como ha sido conocida hasta ahora. Históricamente se han indicado los acontecimientos que caracterizaron los siglos XVII y XVIII en Europa, tales como la Reforma Protestante, el ...
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En el marco de la más amplia transformación del Estado iniciada por el primer gobierno indígena de Bolivia del Presidente Evo Morales, este estudio analiza la nueva Ley de Educación “Avelino Siñani — Elizardo Pérez”, promulgada en 2010. La Reforma Educativa Boliviana es considerada como un instrumento para descolonizar el aparato educativo del patrón de conocimiento colonial occidental y para promover un enfoque de educación intercultural y bilingüe, inspirado en la noción indígena de “Vivir Bien”. Con este fin, el estudio pretende destacar los progresos, los desafíos y las complejidades del proyecto de descolonización educativa. Asimismo, examina cómo se expresan los dilemas de la descolonización educativa y los desafíos de interculturalizar las estructuras sociales, políticas y económicas en contextos de pobreza y de complejidad cultural, como el boliviano, para comprender la coherencia e incoherencia del proceso de descolonización global del país.
... Globaliza on as a social process creates geographic barriers to various social and cultural plaEorms that are not seen as important, whereas the individuals involved realize a loss of their importance (Waters, 1995). Globaliza on is also the intensifica on of interna onal social rela ons as a connec on within various locali es, which makes it possible to shade several events occurring many miles away from each loca on (Giddens, 1990). Robertson (1992) sees globaliza on as a compression and intensifica on of the consciousness of the whole wide world. ...
... Lo scenario in cui si inserisce il presente contributo è relativo alle metamorfosi cui è sottoposta la moderna società occidentale, da ricondursi a un più ampio fenomeno che, per dirla con le parole di Giddens (1990), è la "tarda modernità", successivamente battezzata da Beck (2000) come "società del rischio". Perché dietro questo rischio si celano eventi di grande portata come la flessibilità (Cesareo, 1996;La Rosa 2004;Gallino, 2014) che, seppure abbia favorito crescita economica e innalzamento degli standard emergenti, ha comunque creato un livello di incertezza strutturale nei paesi europei. ...
... La mayor complejidad planteada deriva de múltiples factores; se destacan la mayor interdependencia entre las entidades que conforman el sistema financiero, la mayor dificultad para entender y regular el uso de los productos financieros novedosos, la mayor velocidad de los cambios en el sistema y en su contexto, y la incapacidad de adaptación de los subsistemas a dichos cambios (Giddens, 1991). ...
Chapter
Se propone un modelo matemático con una fórmula cerrada para el cálculo de la tasa interna de rendimiento (TIR) en tres flujos futuros; es decir, un polinomio de grado tres, para acciones del sector de telecomunicaciones en México. El objetivo es determinar el valor de laTIR para cada una de las organizaciones seleccionadas resaltando el uso sencillo y eficaz del algoritmo matemático aplicado al modelo financiero del valor presente neto (VPN). El periodo de estudio va del 2014 al 2017 y se consideran flujos totales de efectivo de manera anual.
... La mayor complejidad planteada deriva de múltiples factores; se destacan la mayor interdependencia entre las entidades que conforman el sistema financiero, la mayor dificultad para entender y regular el uso de los productos financieros novedosos, la mayor velocidad de los cambios en el sistema y en su contexto, y la incapacidad de adaptación de los subsistemas a dichos cambios (Giddens, 1991). ...
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Los investigadores que participan en esta publicación, tuvieron como objetivo ofrecer una mirada actualizada al entorno financiero y organizacional, a partir del análisis de la gestión, la estrategia, el contexto socioambiental y la educación financiera. De esta forma fue posible presentar una panorámica sobre los desafíos existentes para la formulación de políticas que respondan a un entorno organizacional cambiante en América Latina. La diversidad de enfoques enriquece el aporte del libro para los interesados en mejorar su comprensión sobre los desafíos externos e internos que deben afrontar las organizaciones contemporáneas. En últimas, se espera que estos trabajos aporten nuevos marcos interpretativos a futuras investigaciones, al tiempo que la visión crítica y basada en evidencia de la academia contribuya en la formulación de políticas públicas en la región. Este libro evidencia cómo el Grupo de Investigación en Desarrollo, Estructuras Económicas y Políticas Públicas (GIDEP) continúa consolidando su agenda de investigativa.
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This dissertation constitutes a critical examination of Swedish spatial planning for safety. Spatial planning for safety rests on a number of assumptions about the desired order of the world. These assumptions appear as given and unproblematic, making the formulation of alternatives appear unnecessary. This dissertation provides an account of how, and on what basis a spatial planning problem such as ‘fear and insecurity’ is formulated and acted upon. It is an account of how and what conceptions of knowledge operate to legitimise ideological representations of spatial planning problems. And furthermore, what these ideological representations of spatial planning problems substantially entail, so as to allow for a political spatial planning practice that formulates and deliberates alternatives. This is carried out by analysing assumptions of public life and knowledge within Swedish spatial planning for safety. This dissertation finds that Swedish spatial planning for safety constitutes ‘certainty’ as a hegemonic criterion for participating in public life, which operates to limit the articulation of alternative discourses in spatial planning for safety. The desired for safe public life is organised based on visual certainty, where the urban fabric should be configured in such ways as to allow for stereotypical visual identifications of one another. Such a public life reflects an individualised practice, where perceptions of fear should be governed by individuals themselves, by independently assessing situations and environments in terms of risks. This individualised conduct is coupled with the fostering of active subjects, which encompasses being engaged in the local residential areas as well as in one another. Such substantial content of ‘planning for safety’ brings about tensions in terms of its ideological legitimating basis, by moving from principles of ‘rights’, where the individual constitutes the first ethical planning subject, to unitary principles of ‘collective values’, in which the ‘community’ constitutes the first ethical planning subject. These presuppositions are further enabled through the ways in which knowledge is conceptualised in spatial planning. This dissertation argues that a hegemonic instrumental emphasis on knowledge in spatial planning prevails. Having such a hegemonic emphasis on knowledge has the implication that even though spatial planning adopts different assumptions, or moves between alternative assumptions of knowledge, the knowledge becomes meaningful only in its instrumental implementation. The instrumental emphasis on knowledge should be regarded in light of the rational and goal-oriented nature of project-based planning, which constitutes a logic that constrains the emphasis on knowledge in spatial planning. This dissertation argues further that if spatial planning should be considered a political practice that debates its goals and values, a politicisation of the emphasis on knowledge in spatial planning is imperative.
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Modern insanın rasyonalist-pozitivist dünya anlayışının siyasi argümanlar ile birleşmesinden sonra devletler bazında kabul gören determinist yaklaşım, uzun bir süre egemen düşünce olarak kabul görmüştür. Bu anlayışa göre, bireyler gibi toplumlar da fizik kurallarına uygun olarak genel evrensel kurallar çerçevesinde değerlendirilebilir ve bunlar ideal olana evrileceklerdir. Ancak bireyler gibi toplumların da evrileceği ve bu süreçte sekülerleşme, rasyonelleşme ve bireyselleşme gibi temel değerler ile donanacağına yönelik inanç son zamanlarda önemli oranda eleştirilere muhatap kalmaktadır. Toplumların, bireylerin makro teorileri terk etmesi birçok kimliği kendi bünyesine katması, görünüşte çelişik olan argümanları kendi özelinde bir araya getirmesi temelinde gelişen kimlik politikaları ile artık ‘genelleme’ nin oldukça zorlaştığına dikkat çekilmektedir. Ancak sosyal bilimlerde toplumsal ilişkilerin bu şekilde çözülüşüne dair hemfikir olma durumu var iken; içinde bulunduğumuz dönemi tanımlama noktasında çeşitli farklılaşmalar yaşanmaktadır. Örneğin A. Giddens, J. Habermas ve F. Jameson gibi sosyal bilimlerde öne çıkan isimler modern dönemin bitmediğini fakat bunu günümüzde daha radikal bir şekilde deneyimlediğimizi öne sürmektedirler. Ancak buna karşın J. F. Lyotard, J. Baudrillard S. Hall, U. Beck, Z. Bauman ve D. Bell gibi kişiler ise günümüz gerek sosyal ilişkilerinin gerekse de siyasal eğilimlerinin kazanmış olduğu boyutun eski dönemin ötesinde olduğunu öne sürerek yeni tanımlayıcı isimler sunmaktadırlar. Bu çalışmanın temel amacı da sosyal bilimlerde sıkça karşılaştığımız bu gelişmeleri bir araya getirerek söz konusu çağdaş öncü bilim insanlarının neye göre modern dönemin bitmediğini ya da neye göre bittiğini savunduklarını temel referanslar ışığında kategorik-teorik olarak bir araya getirmektedir.
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The role of local administration is to develop good policies and decisions in order to satisfy the public interest. In the present study, the principles of aesthetical analysis are related to the criteria of opportunity by which the local public administration guides in appreciating the opportunities of the administrative acts and the strategies of action. The idea that the administrative practices of the local public authorities, legal and justifiable by admitting the discretionary power are in the position of being caught by kitsch is argued for. Inadequacy, overcrowding, mediocrity are the main manifestations of kitsch in the administration and is often confused with modernization. By replacing the aesthetic ideal of “beauty” with that of “pleasure” or “attractiveness”, the phenomenon leads to populist decisions to the detriment of those having social utility. The paper points that aesthetic judgement raises the probability of finding valuable arguments and solutions that are good for the process of debating and adopting decisions. In this study the concept is approximated by examples. This methodological strategy is applied in order to ensure the passing from a concrete connotation to the explicit scientifically stated. By aesthetical analysis the characteristics of kitsch in public administration are identified, as well as its premises and consequences.
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ICT policy relates deeply with power relations for its ability to create new spaces and to change the relation between actors within. Therefore, being suspicious towards the policy is a must as the changes in policy do not occur in vacuum. This article tries to scrutiny the government’s policy on ICT and what implications ofthe policy on power relation lies beneath. Using Foucault’s approach of genealogy and archeology, this articles tries to trace the episteme, discourses and practices of power holders. This article, for instance, identifies that the New Order’s policy on ICT was trapped into ‘blind’ liberalism that put citizens as customers instead of the real citizen. This shows us that ICT policy is still being used as an instrument for controlling and disciplinizing the citizen rather than for improving the quality of democracy.
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Cieľom publikácie bolo vytvoriť praktický nástroj pre študentov produktového dizajnu. Prvá časť publikácie je venovaná téme dizajnérskeho vzdelávania a jej cieľom je priblížiť základný kontext spojený s dizajnérskym školstvom, objasniť používaný slovník a kontext, z ktorého vychádzajú metódy dizajnérskeho výskumu a príklady použité v druhej, praktickej časti nazvanej „Nástroje a príklady“. Druhá časť opisuje nástroje pre úvodnú fázu projektového plánovania a následne fázu analýzy skúmaného problému. Zameriava sa na praktický opis jednotlivých nástrojov, metód na objasnenie základných pravidiel a možností ich využitia. Nie všetko, čo funguje v praxi, je rovnakým spôsobom využiteľné počas štúdia a naopak. Cieľom publikácie je vysvetliť výhody a nevýhody jednotlivých nástrojov a priblížiť vhodný kontext ich použitia v študentských projektoch. Publikácia prináša autentické praktické ukážky dizajnérskeho výskumu na príklade projektov študentov FAD STU v Bratislave.
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The disruption by COVID-19 from its entry into Lagos in February, 2020, has affected various sectors of the economy and particularly, the fisheries sector. While it has been reported that COVID-19 virus does not infect seafoods, it has been found to alter food systems. This study assessed the pains and gains (impacts) of COVID-19 pandemic on the fisheries at the fishing settlement, retail, wholesale and industrial levels using questionnaires, interview sessions with key management and relevant personnel, focused group discussions as well as secondary data from the target industry. It covered period before lockdown (pre-COVID-19; December 2019-February, 2020), during lockdown (COVID-19 lockdown; March-June, 2020) and that following the lockdown (post-COVID-19; July-August, 2020). Qualitative and quantitative data from artisanal, retail, wholesale and industrial sub-sectors showed that while the pandemic caused decline in income and impairment of livelihood, it increased costs of logistics, electricity supply, production and commuting while the quality of seafood harvested was unaffected. It had positive impacts on personnel health consciousness and hygiene, fish catch at both the artisanal and industrial sub-sectors, and reduced stress levels but varying effects on fish consumption, staff emolument and cost of products.
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The notion of design is one of the tools of globalization in the context of transferring cultures. Domestic daily life provides appropriate objects and related practices in order to examine material culture interactions. The values and the meanings of objects in relevance of daily life activities and practices collaboratively construct our material environment. This research discusses the issue of culture at the interactions of users, objects and practices. The research explores designed objects that bring cultural codes in kitchens and living rooms of selected Izmir homes. The study emphasizes that the negotiation at the interaction of daily life objects and users. The negotiation records that the objects are interpreted in daily life through the behaviours or reflections such as ignoring, accepting and resisting. The values of objects are studied in relevance of daily practices and usage processes in the cultural contexts. The main issue of this study is to understand the values of the objects within the cultural perspective in the globalization context.
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Significant changes in the nature of social life are being brought about by computer, information, and biological technologies, to the extent that-some argue-a new cultural order, "cyberculture", is coming into being. This paper presents an overview of the types of anthropological analyses that are being conducted in the area of new technologies and suggests additional steps for the articulation of an anthropology of cyberculture. It builds upon science, technology, and society studies in various fields and on critical studies of modernity. The implications of technoscience for both anthropological theory and ethnographic research are explored. El uso generalizado de computadores, de biotecnologías y el flujo de información digital han introducido en la vida social contemporánea transformaciones importantes. Tanto, que algunos argumentan que un nuevo orden cultural está cobrando forma: la "cibercultura" (cyberculture). En este artículo presento un panorama del tipo de análisis antropológicos que están siendo implementados en el área de las nuevas tecnologías; así mismo, sugiero algunos pasos adicionales para la articulación de una antropología de la cibercultura. Esta aproximación se cimienta en estudios de ciencia, tecnología y sociedad en varios campos y en análisis críticos sobre la modernidad. También exploro las implicaciones de la tecnociencia para la teoría antropológica y la investigación etnográfica.
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