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Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of some Syrian wild mushroom (Agaricus spp) strains



This research aims to study the chemical content (moisture, ash, fat, protein, fiber and carbohydrate), phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity of the fruit bodies resulting from the cultivation of six edible Syrian wild mushroom strains of the Agaricus genus. These strains were collected from the western countryside of Homs governorate in Syria (Agaricus bispours BR5, Agaricus bispours B.R.9, Agaricus sinodeliciosus BR17, Agaricus qilianensis BR22, Agaricus sinodeliciosus BR42 and Agaricus qilianensis BR47) and were compared to the commercially cultivated Agaricus bisporus strain Sylvan A15 as a control. The results showed that wild strains had a good chemical composition. The BR47 had the highest protein content among the studied strains (29.52%), which was close to the content of the control (28.55%). All strains recorded higher carbohydrate content compared to the control (p < 0.01), and BR42 had the highest content (72.24%). The fat content in the studied strains ranged from 1.68 to 5.34%, and they were all less than the control (7.29%). BR9 was marked by a high phenol content (1.93 mg.g–1 of dry weight), while the control had higher antioxidant activity (82.41%). A strong correlation was noted between antioxidant activity, protein, fat and ash. Some studied strains showed nutritional value and distinctive biological properties, indicating they can be used for food and pharmaceutical purposes.
Scientic Reports | (2023) 13:15896 |
Chemical composition
and antioxidant activity of some
Syrian wild mushroom (Agaricus
spp) strains
Boushra Hola
1*, Ramzi Murshed
1 & Mouwafak Jbour
This research aims to study the chemical content (moisture, ash, fat, protein, ber and carbohydrate),
phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity of the fruit bodies resulting from the cultivation of six
edible Syrian wild mushroom strains of the Agaricus genus. These strains were collected from the
western countryside of Homs governorate in Syria (Agaricus bispours BR5, Agaricus bispours B.R.9,
Agaricus sinodeliciosus BR17, Agaricus qilianensis BR22, Agaricus sinodeliciosus BR42 and Agaricus
qilianensis BR47) and were compared to the commercially cultivated Agaricus bisporus strain Sylvan
A15 as a control. The results showed that wild strains had a good chemical composition. The BR47
had the highest protein content among the studied strains (29.52%), which was close to the content
of the control (28.55%). All strains recorded higher carbohydrate content compared to the control
(p < 0.01), and BR42 had the highest content (72.24%). The fat content in the studied strains ranged
from 1.68 to 5.34%, and they were all less than the control (7.29%). BR9 was marked by a high phenol
content (1.93 mg.g–1 of dry weight), while the control had higher antioxidant activity (82.41%). A
strong correlation was noted between antioxidant activity, protein, fat and ash. Some studied strains
showed nutritional value and distinctive biological properties, indicating they can be used for food and
pharmaceutical purposes.
Fungus is a non autotrophic organism that grows in all types of soils, forests, elds, mountains, hills, deserts,
deadwood logs, or similar decomposted organic residues1. e concept that diet is fundamental to human health
has led to increased consumer demand for nutritional supplements and functional foods2,3.
Mushroom-based nutritional supplements or functional foods have become very attractive recently4,5.
Although mushrooms currently do not constitute a large part of a human diet, their consumption continues to
increase due to their high nutritional value.
Apart from minerals, bers, fatty acids, and essential amino acids present in them, they contain a broad range
of vital compounds with nutritional and medical properties6, such as phenolic compounds, polyketides, terpenes,
steroids7, beta-carotene, and vitamins A and C8. e mushroom is distinguished by a range of vital activities such
as anti-microbial activities911, and antiviral activities12. Several studies consider mushrooms as an easy source
for obtaining phenols, vitamins and other natural antioxidants13,14, and perhaps the synergy of these components
with each other is the main reason of the benecial eects described in clinical trials15,16.
Several species of edible wild mushroom have high levels of proteins, vitamins, and minerals, such as mag-
nesium, calcium, sodium, iron, zinc, selenium, etc., and low calorie values17,18. It also contains dietary bers,
especially chitin and beta glycan responsible for these functional properties19. Recent scientic studies20,21 conrm
that bioactive compounds from many species of edible mushrooms are involved in lowering blood cholesterol
levels, protect against various disorders including tumor, such properties directly or indirectly associated with
their high antioxidant activity.
Traditionally, mushrooms of the Agaricus spp. genus have been used to treat many common conditions includ-
ing atherosclerosis, hepatitis, increased blood grease, diabetes, dermatitis and cancer22. It also contains immune,
antibacterial and antitumor properties23,24, and has antioxidant properties and contains phenols, argotheonin
and minerals25. However, studies that characterize the wild species of this genus in Syria were not found. e
1Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria. 2General
Commission for Scientic Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Al Halboni, Libraries Street, Damascus, Syria. *email:
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aim of this study is to assess the chemical composition, total phenols, and antioxidant activity of some edible
wild species of Agaricus spp. found in Homs governorate, central Syria.
Results and discussion
Chemical composition
e results of the chemical analysis of the fresh mushroom samples showed that moisture content ranged from
88.72% in BR47 strain to 93.03% in BR42 strain (Table1). All strains excluding BR47, had signicantly higher
average of moisture content compared to the control. ese results were consistent with the results of Rahi
and Malik26, who conrmed that the percentage of moisture in edible mushrooms was between 85 and 95%, as
well as the results of several previous studies on Agaricus bispaurs22,27. e moisture content of mushrooms is
inuenced by several factors, such as species, environmental conditions, and other factors such as harvesting,
preparation and storage28,29.
Ash is an important chemical parameter and reects the nutritional mineral content. Essential mineral ele-
ments play a vital role in the proper development of human health, and Amin etal.1, found that the wild A.
bisporus fungus content of ash reached 53g per 100g of dry weight. Table1 showed that ash content in the
mushroom samples ranged from 5.16 to 11.90%, with signicant dierences between the control and the wild
strains (p < 0.01). e ash content of the control was signicantly higher than that of the studied wild strains.
Oboh and shodehiden30 reported that ash content of three edible wild mushroom species in Nigeria ranged from
31.7 to 17.5% of dry weight in the cap and from 19.6 to 12.3% of dry weight in the stipe.
e average ash content of stipe was signicantly higher (8.62%) than it of cap (7.72%) (Table1). BR17 and
BR47 had caps with good ash content without signicant dierences compared to that of the control. ese
results are in line with the results of Nasiri etal.31, who noted signicant dierences in ash content between the
cap and stipe of A. bisporus mushroom. According to Oluwafemi etal.32 the ash content of the capwas higher
than it in the stipe of Plueotus ostreatus mushroom. is dierence may be attributed to the dierences between
the species that were studied, the media of growth, and the environmental conditions.
e average fat content in studied strains ranged from 1.62 to 5.34% of dry weight, with signicant dif-
ferences among them and the control (Table2). e fat content in the control was higher than it in the wild
strains (7.29%). Obtained results were higher than the results of Atila etal.33, who found that the content of fat
in Agaricus bisporus was 1.56% of dry weight. Barros etal.34 found that the fat content in Agaricus arvensis was
0.14% of dry weight, and Barros etal.35 reported that the fat content in A. bisporus mushrooms was 0.92% of dry
weight without signicant dierences between cap and stipe. e results showed that fat content of both cap and
stipe in the studied strains was 4.16% and 4.18%, respectively, which is higher than the results of Nasiri etal.31,
who found that the content in both cap and stipe of Agaricus bisporus mushroom was 2.48 and 2%, respectively.
Studied strains varied in terms of which part, cap or stipe, has higher content of fat. BR9 and BR47 were in line
with the ndings of Oboh and shodehiden30 that cap had higher fat content than stipe in three species (Termi-
tomyces robustus, Coprinus sp, and Volvariella esculenta). However, in BR17 and BR22, the stipe had a higher
fat content than the cap. Despitethefactthatmushroomshavealow-fatcontent, they contain unsaturated
benecial fatty acids36.
Mushrooms are good sources of high quality proteins37. Table2 show that the content of protein in the stud-
ied strains ranged from 13.03 to 29.52% of dry weight. BR47 and BR17 recorded the highest content (29.52 and
28.29%, respectively), without signicant dierences compared to the control (28.55%). Previous studies reported
that the raw protein content of Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus bitorquis were 16.4 and 19.53%, respectively38,39,
which are less than most of the values reported in this study. In comparison, Tsai etal.27 found that the content of
protein in Agaricus bisporus ranged from 21.3 to 27% of dry weight. ere were no signicant dierences between
cap and stipe contents, however, this was strains dependent. Cap had signicantly higher protein content than
stipe in case of BR9 and BR42 , which is consistent with the results of (Oboh and shodehiden; Nasiri etal.)30,31
Table 1. Moisture and ash content in studied mushroom strains. Small letters indicate that there are
signicant dierences between the average values of studied parts by strain. Capital letters indicate that there
are signicant dierences between the average values of the studied strains or between the averages of the
studied parts.
Moisture (% of fresh weight) Ash (% of dry weight)
Cap Stipe Average Cap Stipe Average
BR5 90.31 ± 0.30efgh 90.24 ± 0.24defgh 90.28C 5.24 ± 0.16g 5.08 ± 0.09g 5.16E
BR9 91.11 ± 0.31gh 90.65 ± 0.15fgh 90.88C 5.43 ± 0.28g 8.99 ± 0.08d 7.21D
BR17 89.35 ± 0.22bcde 89.07 ± 0.34bcd 89.21B 9.94 ± 0.16c 9.82 ± 0.34cd 9.88C
BR22 91.39 ± 0.37h 90.13 ± 0.63cdefg 90.76C 7.74 ± 0.18e 6.41 ± 0.54f 7.08D
BR42 92.89 ± 0.15i 93.16 ± 0.17i 93.03D 5.74 ± 0.03fg 5.21 ± 0.11g 5.48E
BR47 88.97 ± 0.30bc 88.47 ± 0.42b 88.72AB 9.70 ± 0.18cd 11.34 ± 0.22b 10.52B
Control 89.68 ± 0.52cdef 86.83 ± 0.17a 88.25A 10.28 ± 0.10c 13.51 ± 0.18a 11.90A
Average 90.53B 89.79A 7.72B 8.62A
L.S.D0.01% Interaction: 1.21 Part: 0.46 Strain: 0.85 Interaction: 0.88 Part: 0.33 Strains: 0.62
CV 1.1 5.6
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who stated that the caps protein content in the Agaricus bisporus mushroom is much higher than in the stipe.
BR22 was distinguished by its higher content in the stipe. e content of protein in edible wild mushrooms is
inuenced by several factors such as species, stage of growth, part of the sampling, and location34.
Mushrooms are an important source of benecial dietary ber for health40. e studied strains had varied
content of ber. BR17 content (16.06%) was insignicantly higher than it of the control (15.66%). e second
highest ber content was found in control and BR47 (Table3). Amin etal.1found that the content of ber in
A. bisporus was 17.76% of dry weight, and Tsai etal.27 stated that the ber content in the mushroom Agaricus
bisporus ranged from 23.3 to 17.7%, which is higher than the results of this study. Also, Mohiuddin etal.41 found
that the dietary ber content in mushrooms ranged from 71.51% for Agaricus bisporus to 63.44% for Pleurotus
ostreatus. Mushroom content of ber depends on the species, maturity of the fruiting bodies and substrate42.
e results demonstrated signicant dierences in the content of ber between the cap and the stipe, where the
higher content of ber was in the stipe. is is due to the higher cellulose content in the stipe as compared to
the cap32. ese results are consistent with the results of Oboh and shodehiden30. Nasiri etal.31 studied the ber
content of the cap and stipe of the Agaricus bisporus, and it was 31.11 and 38.08%, respectively. ese are higher
than the value obtained in this study.
Carbohydrates is the largest nutritional component of mushrooms40. e results showed that all the wild
strains had higher carbohydrate content than that of the control (36.61% of dry weight). BR42 had the highest
content (72.24%) while the lowest content was in BR22 (54.35%) (Table3). Previous results showed that the
content of carbohydrates in mushrooms ranged from 35 to 75% of dry weight, and mostly in the formof poly-
saccharides like chitin, β-glucans, and trehalose43. e content of carbohydrates in mushrooms varied among
species. It was 56.47% in Agaricus bisporus compared to 39.94% in Agaricus bitorquis38. Barros etal.35 stated that
Agaricus bisporus had a content of 8.25 percent. Other studies44 reported a wide range (13 to 65 percent of the
dry weight) of carbohydrates content in Agaricus spp. species, however, Tsai etal.27 found that carbohydrates in
Agaricus bisporus ranged from 38.3 to 48.9 percent of the dry weight depending on the stages of growth.
Table 2. Fat and protein content (% of dry weight) in studied strains. Small letters indicate that there are
signicant dierences between the average values of studied parts by strain. Capital letters indicate that there
are signicant dierences between the average values of the studied strains or between the averages of the
studied parts.
Fat (% of dry weight) Protein (% of dry weight)
Cap Stipe Average Cap Stipe Average
BR5 5.58 ± 0.30de 5.09 ± 0.35e 5.34B 21.01 ± 0.133ef 19.95 ± 0.095f 20.48B
BR9 5.70 ± 0.42cde 0.72 ± 0.20g 3.21D 24.32 ± 0.109d 19.30 ± 0.313f 21.81B
BR17 1.22 ± 0.15g 5.92 ± 0.11cde 3.57D 28.93 ± 0.667ab 27.65 ± 0.203bc 28.29A
BR22 1.24 ± 0.17fg 6.28 ± 0.27bcd 3.76CD 20.12 ± 0.747f 23.05 ± 0.518de 21.58B
BR42 1.27 ± 0.12fg 2.10 ± 0.06f 1.68E 14.52 ± 0.139g 11.54 ± 0.219h 13.03C
BR47 6.53 ± 0.09bc 2.11 ± 0.18f 4.32C 28.63 ± 2.542b 30.41 ± 0.587ab 29.52A
Control 7.56 ± 0.11a 7.01 ± 0.23ab 7.29A 25.30 ± 0.088cd 31.80 ± 0.532a 28.55A
Average 4.16A 4.18A 23.26A 23.39A
L.S.D 0.01% Interaction: 0.87 Part:0.33 Strains: 0.62 Interaction: 2.91 Part: 1.10 Strains:2.06
CV% 10.9 6.5
Table 3. Fiber and total carbohydrates content (%) in the studied mushroom strains. Small letters indicate that
there are signicant dierences between the average values of studied parts by strain. Capital letters indicate
that there are signicant dierences between the average values of the studied strains or between the averages
of the studied parts.
Fiber (% of dry weight) Carbohydrates (% of dry weight)
Cap Stipe Average Cap Stipe Average
BR5 11.75 ± 0.364ef 13.81 ± 0.579d 12.78C 56.42 ± 0.324c 56.07 ± 0.930c 56.24B
BR9 11.21 ± 0.435fg 14.19 ± 0.176d 12.70C 53.35 ± 0.759c 56.79 ± 0.361c 55.07B
BR17 13.50 ± 0.579d 18.61 ± 0.297b 16.06A 46.41 ± 0.733d 38 ± 0.256f 42.21C
BR22 9.91 ± 0.246gh 16.55 ± 0.215c 13.23C 60.99 ± 0.324b 47.71 ± 0.930d 54.35B
BR42 6.93 ± 0.174j 8.21 ± 0.070ij 7.57D 71.54 ± 0.255a 72.95 ± 0.198a 72.24A
BR47 13.10 ± 0.300de 16.70 ± 0.511c 14.90B 42.05 ± 2.669e 39.45 ± 0.778ef 40.75C
Control 9.07 ± 0.267hi 22.25 ± 0.659a 15.66AB 47.79 ± 0.200d 25.43 ± 1.224g 36.61D
Average 10.78B 15.76A 54.08A 48.06B
L.S.D 0.01% Interaction:1.43 Part:0.54 Strain: 1.01 Interaction: 3.45 Part: 1.30 Strain: 2.44
CV % 5.6 3.5
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Signicant dierences between the content of carbohydrates in the cap (54.08%) and in the stipe (48.06%)
were found, but the content of both the cap and the stipe varied from one strain to another. Nasiri etal.31 stud-
ied the carbohydrate content in both the cap and the stipe of the Agaricus bisporus mushroom, and found that
the stipe had signicantly higher (31.41%) content than the caps (20.59%), yet these are less than the results
of this study. e current ndings are inconsistent with the results of Oboh and shodehiden30, who found that
the content of carbohydrates in the cap to be less than it in the stipe. is can be explained by the dierences in
growth conditions, genetic factors, geographical dierences, and methods of analysis45,46. Mushroom content of
carbohydrates is inuenced by several factors, such as species, stage of growth, part of sampling, available level
of nitrogen and location47.
Total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity
Phenols are one of the bioactive compounds with benets for human health. ey are found in mushroom with
good concentrations48,49. e content of total phenols in the fruiting bodies of the studied strains (Table4) ranged
from 1.93 to 0.58mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE).g–1 dry weight. is is less than the content indicated by Prasad
etal.50, who found that total phenols in mushroom ranged from 6.08 to 24.85mg GAE.g–1 dry weight. is can
be explained by the fact that wild mushroom contains higher content of phenols than cultivated mushroom51.
e results demonstrated also that the phenolic content of the BR9 strain (1.93mg.g–1) was higher than it in the
other studied strains, followed by control (1.42mg.g–1). e lowest content registered in BR42 (0.25mg.g–1).
Both trans-cinnamic and chlorogenic acids are the most important phenolic acids found with high concentra-
tions in Agaricus mushrooms52. According to Mujić etal.53, the content of phenolic compounds in mushrooms
ranged from 7.8 to 23.07mg GAE.g–1 dry weight. Alispahić etal.48 reported that the content of phenols in edible
mushrooms ranged from 4.94 to 35.56mg GAE.g–1 dry weight, and this dierence can be attributed to variation
in the environmental conditions surrounding the fungus at the collection site and extraction method54. e data
in Table4 indicated that the content of the cap and stipe was, strain-depending. us the content of phenols in
the cap was signicantly higher than it in the stipe in case of BR5, BR9 and BR47, and vice versa in the rest of
the strains and the control.
e DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) is a stable free radical that can be used to measure the radical
scavenging activity of antioxidant of specic compounds or extract in a short time. e studied strains showed
good scavenging activity of DPPH and the antioxidant activity ranged from 44.08 to 82.41% (Table4). e control
had the highest activity, followed by two wild strains of BR17 and BR47. Atila etal.33 and Khan etal.55 indicated
that A. bisporus mushroom had a higher antioxidant activity than other species (P. eryngii, Grifola frondose, P.
ostreatus, and L. edodes). e results showed higher antioxidant activity in the cap compared to it in the stipe, and
this varied from one strain to another. Such activity can be explained by the presence of some organic acids, such
as citric acid, malic acid and quinic acid with good and higher concentrations in the cap than that in the stipe56.
Correlations between chemical parameters
ere were a strong positive correlations between the content of protein and ber (r = 0.959), ash and protein
(r = 0.888), and ash and ber (r = 0.780) (Table5). e antioxidant activity correlated positively with protein
(r = 0.833) and fat (r = 0.721), which could be attributed to the presence of unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic,
linolenic and Sulphur amino acids such as ergothioneine, that has antioxidant potential57. A strong correlation
between antioxidant activity and ash was found (r = 0.872) (Table5). is is might be explained by the high
amounts of mineral elements in mushroom, of which zinc, selenium and copper are the most important; these
minerals are involved in the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes and thus protect living cells from the eect of free
radicals58. Carbohydrates negatively correlated with fat, protein, ber, ash and antioxidants activity.
Table 4. Total phenolic content (mg GAE.g–1dry weight) and antioxidant activity (%) in studied mushroom
strains. Small letters indicate that there are signicant dierences between the average values of studied parts
by strain. Capital letters indicate that there are signicant dierences between the average values of the studied
strains or between the averages of the studied parts.
Total phenolics (mg.g–1 dry weight) Antioxidant activity (%)
Cap Stipe Average Cap Stipe Average
BR5 0.94 ± 0.017f 0.82 ± 0.020g 0.88F 78.33 ± 0.310c 6.20 ± 0.922i 57.26C
BR9 3.08 ± 0.023a 0.78 ± 0.018g h 1.93A 34.83 ± 0.284i 53.33 ± 0.545f 44.08E
BR17 0.99 ± 0.015f 1.48 ± 0.030d 1.23C 63.69 ± 0.850d 82.12 ± 0.454ab 72.91B
BR22 0.41 ± 0.013i 0.75 ± 0.017h 0.58F 60.59 ± 0.341de 50.90 ± 1.367fg 55.75C
BR42 0.09 ± 0.008j 0.40 ± 0.011i 0.25G 45.91 ± 0.844h 48.76 ± 0.580gh 47.34D
BR47 1.91 ± 0.008b 0.41 ± 0.008i 1.16D 84.25 ± 0.489a 58.59 ± 0.386e 71.42B
Control 1.15 ± 0.009e 1.69 ± 0.023c 1.42B 84.09 ± 1.605a 80. 74 ± 0.520bc 82.41A
Average 1.22A 0.90B 64.53A 58.66B
L.S.D 0.01% Interaction: 0.06 Part: 0.02 Strains: 0.04 Interaction: 3.18 Part:1.20 Strains: 3.18
CV% 3 2.3
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e chemical composition of the studied wild strains revealed remarkable variations between them, and among
them and the control. BR17 and BR47 had a good content of protein, ber and ash compared to the control, and
these chemical components were positively associated with antioxidant activity. e studied strains varied in
terms of the content of the various chemical compounds found in the cap and stipe. It was clear that the stipe
had a high nutritional value that could not be ignored or wasted, therefore, it should be used as an important
food source, either in a dried form that would enter into the preparation of soups or other food products, or in
its fresh form.
Materials and methods
Collection and cultivation of mushroom strains
e research was conducted in the labs of the General Commission for Scientic Agricultural Research during
2021 and 2022. e chemical composition of fruiting bodies, which resulted from cultivation of six wild local
strains of mushroom (BR5, BR9, BR17, BR22, BR42 and BR47), was studied. ese wild strains were collected
from various forests and grasslands in the western countryside of Homs governorate, Syria (latitude: 34° 42 18"
to 34° 51 34.0 North, longitude: 36° 21 40.4" to 36° 33 04.5" East, altitude 533 to 757m above sea level), and
described both morphologically and molecularly and submitted to the Genbank (Table6). e commercially
cultivated Agaricus bisporus strain Sylvan A15 was used as a control.
e species were cultivated on traditional compost according to Sithole etal.59. Commercial production of A.
bisporus is carried out by cultivation on a composted mixture based on wheat straw, horse or chicken manure,
gypsum, and water60. e composting process involves two phases (I and II). In phase I, the straw is rst wettened
with water and subsequently mixed with the other components. is phase lasts 15–21 day60, during whichthe
compost temperature increases to 80°C due to thermophilic microorganisms. Subsequently, a pasteurization
process (phase II) is performed. e compost is conditioned at 45–50°C for about 4–9days until the ammonia
level becomes non-toxic to A. bisporus mycelia, aer which the temperature is reduced to about 25°C60. At the
end of this stage, compost can be used for (optimal) A. bisporus growth59. e A. bisporus mushroom grows
under a controlled environment with a regular room temperature of 22.5 ± 0.5°C and compost temperature
of 27–24°C59. Aer maturity (4–5weeks of cultivation) the fruit bodies were picked and transported to the
laboratory for analysis59.
Preparation of samples
e mushrooms were cleaned, then the cap was separated from the stipe, cut into small pieces (0.5 cm2), and
dried in an oven (J P Selecta S.a. Spain) at 55°C to constant weight. e samples were kept in a dry place until
they were analyzed.
Chemical analyses
e AOAC (Association of Ocial Analytical Chemists) methods No. 925.10, 942.05, 950.36, 96,315, and 973.18
were used to determine the content of moisture, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrates, and ber of the mushroom
samples61. Five marketable mushroom fruits from the rst ush of each of the four replications (plastic bags of
Table 5. Correlations among the dierent compounds of studied mushroom strains.
Fat Protein Fiber Ash Carbohydrates Phenolate Antioxidant activity
Fat 1
Protein 0.616 1
Fiber 0.664 0.959 1
Ash 0.560 0.888 0.780 1
Carbohydrates − 0.718 − 0.987 − 0.960 − 0.906 1
Phenolate 0.373 0.597 0.602 0.495 − 0.589 1
Antioxidant activity 0.721 0.833 0.779 0.872 − 0.876 0.218 1
Table 6. e Genbank taxonomy and accession numbers of collected wild strains.
Collection no Accession numbers Taxonomy
B.R.5 OP648153.1 Agaricus bisporus
B.R.9 OP648154.1 Agaricus bisporus
B.R.17 OP648155.1 Agaricus sinodeliciosus
B.R.22 OP648156.1 Agaricus qilianensis
B.R.42 OP648157.1 Agaricus sinodeliciosus
B.R.47 OP648159.1 Agaricus qilianensis
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0.1 m2) were collected at the same growth phase (just before the veil opening) to prepare the needed quantities
for these analyses.
Moisture content was estimated by drying the samples in the previous oven dryer (J P Selecta S.a. Spain) at
105°C until a constant weight is reached. e ash content was determined by heating the sample in a furnace
(HOBERSAL, SPAIN) at 550°C for 3h. e total nitrogen in samples was determined using the Kledahl method
(GERHARDT, Germany), and the protein content was estimated based on the nitrogen content (N × 6.25)6. e
fat content was estimated using the Soxhlet method (Vissal, India) and using the hexane as a solvent for extrac-
tion. e crude ber was evaluated by digestion of the samples by washing them with acid (H2SO4), then with
alkaline (KOH), aer that drying the samples at 105°C for 6h, then incinerating them at 600°C.
e content of the carbohydrate was determined by the following equation40:
Estimation of total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity
Preparation of methanolic extract
e methanolic extract was prepared according to the method of Keleş etal.62 with some modications. One gram
of mushroom`s dried powder was mixed with 10ml methanol (80%) and stirred for 1h at room temperature. e
mixture was ltered using ltration paper (MACHEREY–NAGEL No.1 paper) and stored at −18°C until use.
Determination of total phenolic compounds
e methanolic extract (1mL) was mixed with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (500μl) diluted in water (1:10); aer
3min 1ml of sodium carbonate (10%) was added to the mixture and completed to 10ml with distilled water. e
nal solution was le in the dark for 1h at room temperature, the absorbance was measured using the Spectro-
photometer (T80 + UV/VIS, Britain) at 765nm and the gallic acid was used to prepare a standard curve with a
concentration ranging from 25 to 75mg.l–1. e result was expressed as mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE).100 g–1
dry weight63.
Determination of antioxidant activity
e antioxidant activity was evaluated using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method according to
the procedure reported by Jacinto-Azevedo etal.64, with some modications. One ml of methanolic extract was
mixed with 3.9ml of methanolic DPPH solution (0.2mg.100 ml–1). Aer 30min in the dark, the absorbance was
measured at 517nm, and the % inhibition was calculated based on the following equation
Statistical analysis
All analyses were performed in four replicates. e data were expressed as means and analyzed by using Gen
Stat.12 statistical program. A factorial design and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used in the experiment,
followed by Fisher Least Signicant Dierence (LSD) test to evaluate the signicant dierence between means
(P < 0.01).
Data availability
e datasets generated during the current study are available on the online repository [http:// www. ncbi. nlm.
nih. gov/ taxon omy], accession numbers areas the following:
Collection no. Accession
B.R.5 OP648153.1
B.R.9 OP648154.1
B.R.17 OP648155.1
B.R.22 OP648156.1
B.R.42 OP648157.1
B.R.47 OP648159.1
Received: 9 August 2023; Accepted: 21 September 2023
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Moisture +fat +protein +fiber +ash
Inhibion =
Absorbance of the control
Absorbance of the sample
Absorbance of the control
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D. Tahani Al Aidi a researcher at the Department of Food Technology in the General Commission for Scientic
Agricultural Research to assist in the conduct of chemical analyses. is research was nancially supported by
the General Commission for Scientic Agricultural Research (GCSA) in Syria.
Author contributions
B.H. wrote the scientic article; B.H., M.J. and R.M. designed the experiment; B.H. and M.J. analyzed the data;
B.H., M.J. and R.M. draed the manuscript; M.J improved the manuscript.
Competing interests
e authors declare no competing interests.
Additional information
Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to B.H.
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Mushrooms belonging to Pleurotus genus have been demonstrated to have important nutritional and medicinal value and their regular intake prevent many diseases, reduce the infection probability and increase immunity. In order to investigate the bioactive compounds produced by seven commercial (‘142 F’, ‘142 E’, ‘D+’, ‘V turbo’, ‘V 142’, ‘A 12’, ‘V 160’) and five wild-type (‘Albino 1107’, ‘Altamura 1603’, ‘Muro Lucano 139’, ‘Conversano 1250’, ‘Albino beige chiaro 1094’) P. eryngii isolates, the following qualitative analyses were performed: Total polyphenol content, antioxidant activity (EC50 of ABTS) and antiradical power (ARP) in fresh lyophilized and dry basidioma, and water content, β-glucans and phenolic compounds in fresh samples. Standard methods were employed for each of the above mentioned aims. Total polyphenol content was diverse among the P. eryngii isolates. In particular, an elevated polyphenolic content was found in fresh lyophilized P. eryngii samples of the commercial isolates ‘V 142’ followed by ‘A 12’. The highest antiradical activity (ARP) was obtained by ‘Muro Lucano 139’ isolate. Wild P. eryngii isolates were characterized by higher water and β-glucans contents compared to the commercial ones, and the highest values were registered for the ‘Albino beige chiaro 1094’ isolate. In conclusion, the present study allowed us to identify the commercial and wild-type P. eryngii isolates from the Basilicata region, with high nutritional and medicinal value based on their bioactive compounds.
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The medical importance of Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus in the treatment of many diseases may be due to the nutritional compositions of these edible mushrooms. The current study aimed to chemical analysis of Iraqi cultivated mushrooms by using a spectrophotometer and high-performance liquid chromatography. Biochemical analysis of these mushrooms showed the highest ratio of moisture, carbohydrates, fiber, and ash was observed in extract of P. ostreatus compared to A. bisporus. On the other hand, the highest ratio of protein, total lipid, sodium, and calcium was detected in the extract of A. bisporus compared to P. ostreatus. Results showed that P. ostreatus and A. bisporus important sources of vitamins, P. ostreatus have the highest value of vitamin C, vitamin B1and vitamin B12 compared to A. bisporus in contrast to vitamin B2, vitamin B3, and vitamin D are increased in A. bisporus matched to P.ostreatus. Phenolic content analysis showed high and comparable values of total phe-nolic and caffeic in present mushrooms (p>0.05). The extract of P. ostreatus is rich in various amino acids and polysaccharides compared with A. bisporus. Also the study showed that A. bisporus has a high content of lipid compared to P.ostreatus. Besides, many fatty acids were detected in extract of A. bisporus and P.ostreatus but the highest ratio appeared for linoleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, and oleic acid. In conclusion the study detected the high nutritional value of Iraqi cultivated A. bisporus and P.osteratus when analyzing chemically spectrophotometrically and chromatographically.
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The crude n-hexane:diethyl ether, chloroform:acetone and methanol extracts of four species of Ganoderma (Ganoderma colossum (Fr.) C. F. Baker, G. resinaceum Boud., G. lucidum (cf.) (Curtis) P. Karst. and G. boninense (cf.) Pat.), from Nigeria, were tested for antimicrobial activity. The three solvent extracts of all the species of Ganoderma were active against Pseudomonas syringae and Bacillus subtilis, whereas none of the extracts were active against Cladosporium herbarum. Preliminary thin layer chromatography chemical tests on these extracts of Ganoderma showed that they contained compounds that stained blue-violet and blue or green when sprayed with anisaldehyde-sulphuric acid or Dragendorff, respectively. The profile of compounds in the extracts showed some variation among the four species.
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This study investigated the chemical and nutritional profile and antioxidative properties of cultivated Coprinus comatus . Proximate analysis revealed that C. comatus is rich in carbohydrates, dietary fibres and proteins, and could also be a valuable source of phenolics. Additionally, fat content is low, consisting mainly of polyunsaturated and omega-3 fatty acids. Furthermore, the safety profile of C. comatus is satisfactory, with all elements of toxicological importance within the proposed limits. Oral treatment with C. comatus for 42 days improved the antioxidant capabilities and ameliorated carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats, marked by decreased serum aminotransferase levels and lipid peroxidation intensity. Glutathione concentrations increased in a dose-dependent manner. Histological morphometric and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed antioxidative and hepatoprotective potential. These findings imply that cultivated C. comatus could be considered a nutraceutical, having beneficial nutrient and therapeutic properties.
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Ergothioneine (ERG) is an unusual thio-histidine betaine amino acid that has potent antioxidant activities. It is synthesised by a variety of microbes, especially fungi (including in mushroom fruiting bodies) and actinobacteria, but is not synthesised by plants and animals who acquire it via the soil and their diet, respectively. Animals have evolved a highly selective transporter for it, known as solute carrier family 22, member 4 (SLC22A4) in humans, signifying its importance, and ERG may even have the status of a vitamin. ERG accumulates differentially in various tissues, according to their expression of SLC22A4, favouring those such as erythrocytes that may be subject to oxidative stress. Mushroom or ERG consumption seems to provide significant prevention against oxidative stress in a large variety of systems. ERG seems to have strong cytoprotective status, and its concentration is lowered in a number of chronic inflammatory diseases. It has been passed as safe by regulatory agencies, and may have value as a nutraceutical and antioxidant more generally.
The nutritional value and biological properties of 24 samples of Chilean edible mushrooms were evaluated. The nutritional value was determined by measuring moisture, protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate contents. The biological activity was determined by using antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant tests. The mushrooms showed high total carbohydrate (83.65-62.97 g/100g dw) and crude protein (23.88- 8.56 g/100g dw) contents, but low fat contents (6.09-1.05 g/100g dw). Ch2Cl2-extracts were more active against bacteria and fungi than MeOH-extracts. Ch2Cl2-extracts of B. loyo, C. lebre, L. edodes, M. conica and R. flava inhibited the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. The Ch2Cl2-extracts of A. cylindracea, B. loyo, and G. gargal showed strong effects against fungi. R. flava showed the highest phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The Chilean species B. loyo, C. lebre and G. gargal exhibited interesting nutritional value and biological properties, showing potential to be used as a dietary nutritional supplement.