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Meaningful travel: Women, independent travel and the search for self and meaning

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Abstract

It is increasingly recognised by researchers that tourism experiences incorporate more than just physical travel to a place, as they can also involve spiritual elements, psychological and physical benefits, altruism, self-development, and life-change. Building on this recognition, this paper puts forward the idea that independent travel plays an important and meaningful part in the course of people's lives. The concept of ‘meaningful travel’ is defined and explored, using women's experiences of independent leisure and business travel as a context. Conceptualising travel as meaningful and relevant to everyday life reveals the complex, fluid and dynamic nature of the tourist experience, and calls for an effort to transgress simplistic and uni-dimensional interpretations of tourism, business travel and holiday-taking. Analysis of the women's stories and words revealed that ‘meaningful travel’ centred around three key themes: a search for self and identity; self-empowerment; and connectedness with others/ ‘global citizenship’. Essentially, what the findings demonstrate is that meaningful travel is not about a mere search for authenticity and a collection of ‘cultural capital’. Rather, meaningful travel involves women searching for an increased sense of self and reconsidering their perspectives of life, society and their relationships with others. Furthermore, the results also demonstrate how women are able to transfer the meaning and benefits from their travel experiences upon their return home, within their everyday lives and contexts.

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... While cultural constraints may explain why women of some ethnic background do not like to travel, many others from different upbringings, cannot resist the urge to explore beyond their local area. A study of solo women travellers by Wilson and Harris (2006) supported this notion revealing, once women get to an age when their children are leaving home, they may look for new hobbies and sports to provide them with new horizons or skills to motivate and inspire them. Further, many women are empty nesters who have recently experienced feelings of loneliness resulting from a child leaving the family home. ...
... She is empowered, independent and seeks benefits, including enhanced feelings of psychological well-being she gets from travel (Elsrud, 1998). Studies have shown independent women travellers seek meaningful opportunities to satisfy various intrinsic needs, such as the search for identity, connection with others and self-empowerment, in addition to independence, spontaneity and the challenge of entering new environments (Wilson & Harris, 2006). Diving presents an excellent environment to achieve these needs, using the buddy system (the pairing of two divers to offer mutual assistance and support) which provides ways to connect with others in a nonintrusive manner (Sykes, 1994). ...
... However, the disparity could also relate to a lack of attraction to formalised learning and a preference for self-learning through lived or experiential learning (Hammerton, 2017;Tschapka, 2006). The majority of divers had done more than one hundred dives making them quite experienced despite the lack of higher level diving certifications reported, showing they felt confident and experienced enough to dive regularly without feeling the need to undertake more diving courses to build their confidence and capacity to dive or do adventurous activities safely (Queiroz Neto et al., 2017;Wilson & Harris, 2006). ...
Article
If you ask the average person to describe a scuba diver, you would probably receive comments such as strong, young, athletic, male and a bit of a daredevil. However, recent research into the highest growth sector of diver training, reveals women over 40 are signing on for dive training in unprecedented numbers. Dive service providers and tourist destination promoters may be missing opportunities to market effectively to attract this dynamic group, using a ‘one size fits all’ approach and potentially losing sales opportunities for equipment, courses, dive travel and more. This study examines the Mature Aged Female diver, revealing new demographic data, information about their dive travel preferences, how much they spend on diving holidays and other information useful to dive and tourism industry stakeholders. A web-based survey was used to study 111 female divers over 40. The average age of participants was 51 to 55, and most had logged over 100 dives. The results depicted participants as a vibrant part of the diving community, with money to spend and the desire to travel. Safety in dive operations was identified as a priority as was small-group travel. Spending over $500 a day on international diving trips, they represent an untapped and lucrative market segment. This study aims to contribute new insight into this dynamic and motivated market segment. Findings will assist dive tourism service providers and destination marketers to better understand this segment, to create attractive products and services to tap into this lucrative market.
... The popularity of solo women's travel has motivated tourism scholars to study various aspects of this travel trend in different regions. One of the earliest research studies in this area was conducted by Wilson and Harris (2006), who examined "Women, independent travel, and the search for self and meaning". Jordan and Aitchison (2008) examined the experiences of solo female tourists. ...
... First, while the growing trend of solo female tourists has attracted the attention of scholars (Jordan & Aitchison, 2008;Seow & Brown, 2018;Thomas & Mura, 2019;Weatherby & Vidon, 2018;Wilson & Harris, 2006;Wilson & Little, 2008), most of these studies refer to women from the West, although there is now a small but growing body of knowledge on female tourists from Asia (e.g., Khoo-Lattimore & Mura, 2016a, 2016b, Seow & Brown, 2018Nikjoo, Markwell, et al., 2021a;Nikjoo, Zaman, et al., 2021b). However, there is still a scarcity of studies on women traveling alone in Muslim countries, as well as studies on women's travel stories from one nation (Iran, as a Muslim country) which imposes limitations on women's travel. ...
... According to Mehmetoglu et al. (2001), people who travel by themselves have different motivations, such as resilience, investigation, independence, lack of a travel companion, spontaneity, prestige, and loneliness. Besides, women's primary motivation for solo travel is to challenge themselves, feel independent, meet new people, and increase comfort in the context of female solo travel (Jordan & Gibson, 2005;Wilson & Harris, 2006). However, there are significant variations in age, revenue, occupation, and spending form between solo travellers. ...
Article
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For various reasons, some women experience solo travel in different parts of the world. However, as with many leisure activities, access to travel and tourism does not have the same distribution between different social groups, including other classes and genders (men and women). While there is a growing body of research on solo female travellers, few studies have included women from Middle Eastern or Muslim‐majority countries. Drawing upon a series of in‐depth interviews, this paper examines the travel experiences of Iranian solo female travellers, which have been mainly overlooked in prior studies on the topic. The study's findings indicate that solo travel motivations can be categorized into personal factors: freedom and flexibility, self‐empowerment, independence, and exploration. Also, the absence of family responsibilities, routines, and gender constraints, as well as the promotion of their social and personal selves, contributed to their well‐being. The results also indicate that, despite the restrictions imposed by Iran's religious‐patriarchal society, tourism has made women more visible in the public sphere. Overall, this study fills a significant gap in tourism research by highlighting the experience, limitations, and motivation of solo female travellers, which heralds social change.
... Solo female travel contributed substantially to this trend at an early stage. The progress of gender equality enables women with social and financial means to travel independently, which subsequently empowers women with transformative experiences and broadened life perspectives (Wilson & Harris, 2006). Being able to travel alone carries profound symbolic and socio-cultural meanings for women, which gives rise to converging research on solo female travel (e.g., Jordan & Aitchison, 2008;Jordan & Gibson, 2005;Su & Wu, 2020;Yang et al., 2019). ...
... The self-change or transformation includes transformative learning, existential transformation, and behavioural change (Pung et al., 2020). Past studies have alluded to transformative outcomes of solo travel using other terms, including self-discovery, selfdevelopment, emancipation, empowerment, becoming autonomous and confident, and learning something new (Bianchi, 2016;Osman et al., 2019;Pung et al., 2020;Wilson & Harris, 2006;Yang et al., 2019). Solo travellers by choice are also motivated by freedom, flexibility, and escape (Chiang & Jogaratnam, 2006;Mehmetoglu et al., 2001;Osman et al., 2019;Seow & Brown, 2018;Wilson & Little, 2005); relaxation (Chiang & Jogaratnam, 2006;Laesser et al., 2009;Seow & Brown, 2018); and personal indulgence (Bianchi, 2016). ...
... Nevertheless, gender difference is observed, with transformative experience being most prominent among solo female travellers. This finding supports the existing solo female travel literature (Osman et al., 2019;Wilson & Harris, 2006; and offers evidence from the male's perspectives. Furthermore, this study extends the extant literature by investigating the motivations of potential solo travellers and reveals anticipated self-discovery and freedom as two main motivators, which is consistent with the motivations of experienced solo travellers who travel by choice. ...
Article
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Contemporary lifestyles and social changes have precipitated the popularity of solo travel. Despite the growing prominence of the solo travel market, it remains an under researched area. This study explores the definitions, motivations, and constraints of solo travel, taking into consideration both existing and potential solo travellers, and provides a gender-balanced investigation and subsequent in-depth understanding of the underlying factors that drive solo travel motivations and constraints. Interviews were conducted with 14 solo travellers and 14 non-solo travellers. The findings suggest that solo travel as an evolving and fluid concept, varies according to individual travel experiences and personal circumstances. Solo travel motivations can be broadly categorized into ‘solo by circumstances’ and ‘solo by choice’. Transformative experience, freedom, and flexibility are key motivators for solo travellers, while anticipated self-discovery and freedom inspire the potential solo travellers. Safety, cost, and social constraints emerged as the top three inhibitors impeding or constricting solo travel participation and experience. The findings reveal the institutionalization of solo travel and proclivity to join tours as strategies to build confidence and overcome safety and social constraints. Recommendations for the travel industry to cater to the solo travel market were also examined from the travellers’ perspectives.
... As previous literature suggests, it seems that peer-to-peer tourism experiences bring more authenticity than non-peer-to-peer provided ones (e.g. Wilson & Harris, 2006;Zerva, 2015). However, empirical research on whether consumers perceive such superiority and what can influence such a perception is rare. ...
... So far, peer-to-peer tourism experiences authenticity has been partially addressed by different authors (e.g. Paulauskaite, Powell, Coca-Stefaniak, & Morrison, 2017;Wilson & Harris, 2006;Zerva, 2015), frequently they have focused on the categorization of the interactions with locals, without explicitly exploring the empirical grounding on which consumers perceive the authenticity. Nevertheless, there are disperse suggestions of influencing factors that include their perception of the very own nature of peer-to-peer experiences, as well as their traits, values, and attitudes. ...
... This is especially relevant in peer-to-peer frameworks, in which, a) the intimacy between provider and customer is usually very high (Zerva, 2015) and b) the access to local networks (friends, social events, meetups) after the experience is more likely to occur (Timothy & Ron, 2013). Both elements clearly impulse symbolic meaning, sense, and identity, bringing even change in the tourists (Batle & Robledo, 2018), and may facilitate the individuals' search for identity, connectedness with others, and self-empowerment and, self and identity (Wilson & Harris, 2006). Overall, it is emphasized the non-economic benefits derived from peer-to-peer activities (Bock, Zmud, Kim, & Lee, 2005;Hamari et al., 2016). ...
Article
This article explores the role of peer-to-peer tourism experiences in the tourism quest for authenticity. Specifically, it analyses the influence of the consumers’ perception of the benefits derived from such typology of experiences, their traits, and attitudes on their perception of a superior authenticity. This research, piloted in Mallorca (Spain), shows that the perception of peer-to-peer experiences providing non-economic benefits, together with a positive attitude towards the sharing economy are the most influencing factors. Findings suggest that destinations may enhance their competitiveness by rethinking their product portfolio and deploying specific value-based segmentation and targeting approaches.
... While previous research on tourism and empowerment extensively focused on women employed in the tourism industry (Aghazamani & Hunt, 2017), an emerging line of research concerned female tourists (Doran, 2016;Seow & Brown, 4 2018). Female travel as a result of historical battle against societal restrictions on women, has been meaningful for women empowerment in widely western contexts (Wilson & Harris, 2006). For instance, female tourists in America, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand were identified to become more confident and independent after adventurous tourism (Doran, 2016). ...
... In contrast to family travels, women in girlfriend getaway temporarily emancipate themselves from caregiving roles (Gibson, Berdychevsky, & Bell, 2012) to enjoy physical and mental relaxation (Berdychevsky et al., 2013). Compared to solo women travel, girlfriend getaway provides women with opportunities to strengthen their female bonds and develop collective strategies to cope with the difficulties of "being female and alone" (Chiang, 2006;Wilson & Harris, 2006). These features make girlfriend getaway a valuable experience for women's well-being that deserves academic attention. ...
... Berdychevsky et al. (2013) even revealed the therapeutic nature of girlfriend getaways for women. Through letting women walk out of their comfort zone, accomplish goals, enrich the experience, broaden minds, and get in charge, girlfriend getaways help women develop a sense of freedom and individuality, as well as social connections, which can finally empower them in daily life (Durko & Stone, 2017;Jordan & Gibson, 2005;Wilson & Harris, 2006). ...
Article
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Influenced by the Confucian culture, clan‐family structure, and communist ideology, gender inequality still widely exists in modern China. On reflection of the socio‐cultural framework that shaped the Chinese gender lens, this study took a “power to” perspective on women empowerment by investigating 28 Guimi‐tourists' embodied experience. Upon identifying the core experience of “Return to Innocence,” a resources‐agency‐achievements framework was constructed to depict the underlying mechanism through which Guimi tourism empowered women to counteract sociocultural constraints. The study offered a context‐specific understanding of Guimi tourism and theoretically contributed to women empowerment and tourism, as well as Chinese cultural studies.
... Solo female travellers have emerged on a new phenomenon in tourism studies (Wilson & Little, 2005Chiang & Jogaratnam, 2006;McNamara & Prideaux, 2010). Many recent researches have shown that female solo travellers are very excited about a life-changing experience when they travel independently and are concerned about their self-identity and empowerment (Wilson & Harris, 2006). All-women travel groups are a growing phenomenon and also it has been studied to interpret travel intentions and actions (Berdychevsky & Bell, 2012;Berdychevsky, Gibson & Bell, 2016;Khoo-Lattimore & Prayag, 2015). ...
... One of the various reasons of travelling solo is escape which is a prevalent, driven force for independent female tourist's (Butler, 1995;Stone & Nichol, 1999;Chiang & Jogaratnam, 2006;Wilson & Harris, 2006, Berdychevsky, Gibson, & Bell, 2013. Benefits founded by Junek, Binney & Winn (2006) of an all-women travel group includes a calm surrounding atmosphere, intemperateness and intensive feelings of protectiveness. ...
... Benefits founded by Junek, Binney & Winn (2006) of an all-women travel group includes a calm surrounding atmosphere, intemperateness and intensive feelings of protectiveness. Wilson and Harris (2006) also found other benefits such as self-identity, gaining self-confidence, feeling of self-empowerment, and selfesteem, while McNamara and Prideaux (2010) unveiled that women travelling solo intend to challenge themselves and broaden their zone of comfort. ...
Article
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Solo travel is no longer a niche market. It alone contributes a massive amount of the total travel market and has shown an enormous growth in recent years. But the existing body of literature on solo women travelling and its outcomes is quite negligible. Consequent upon the fact, this study significantly contributes in the increment of existing literature. A conceptual model is proposed based on the secondary data sources and presents a discussion on the impact of solo travel experiences on women‘s well-being. For this purpose, a range of research papers, articles, blogs and other relevant social media contents have been reviewed to draw conclusive results for the study. In the findings, self-transformation and positive changes in well-being came out as resultant factors of solo travelling in many cases. Major reasons for solo travelling found during the study were—to overcome stress and depression, to bring positive change in present state of life, escape, happiness, empowerment, self-growth and self-realisation. This paper significantly adds to further researches on women solo travelling trends by providing insights into independent form of travel and draws attention towards its importance for women‘s health. Keywords: Solo Travelling; Women's Health; Hedonic & Eudaimonic well-Being; Vacation
... The literature on solo travel is mostly exploratory and focuses on female solo travelers (e.g., Chiang and Jongaratnam, 2006, Douglas and Barrett, 2020, Jordan and Gibson, 2005, Karagöz et al., 2020, McNamara and Prideaux, 2010, Osman et al., 2020, Pereira and Silva, 2018, Seow and Brown, 2018, Wilson and Little, 2008, Yang et al., 2019. These studies suggest that women travel solo predominantly to feel a sense of autonomy, for self-development, or to meet new people (McNamara andPrideaux, 2010, Wilson andHarris, 2006). Further, safety and harassment are relevant concerns for female solo travelers, and they cope through empowerment and self-transformation (Karagöz et al., 2020, Su and Wu, 2020, Wilson and Little, 2008. ...
... In the case of solo travel, satisfaction and pleasure with past experiences can be influential in reducing the level of uncertainty or risk and increasing the willingness to continue solo traveling (Karagöz et al., 2020, Osman et al., 2020, Yang et al., 2019. In addition, selfdevelopment is also found a relevant motivator for female solo travelers in previous studies (McNamara and Prideaux, 2010, Wilson and Harris, 2006, Yang, 2020. ...
... This result is not consistent with previous studies that find subjective norms a significant driver of general travel intentions in tourism (e.g., Meng and Cui, 2020, Todd, 2001, Yang and Tung, 2018. One possible reason for this result stems from the fact that tourists' motivations for traveling solo are largely intrinsic (Bianchi, 2016), and solo tourists may not attempt to "show off" their travel experiences to others but instead prefer enjoyment (Li and Cai, 2012) or self-development, such as personal growth and learning about culture and heritage (Rahman et al., 2020, Wilson andHarris, 2006). ...
Article
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Purpose This study aims to empirically investigate the antecedents of tourists’ intentions to continue solo traveling. Design/methodology/approach Drawing on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), an extended model on solo travel intentions is developed that incorporates variables related to past solo travel experiences, namely, tourist satisfaction, pleasure and self-development. An online survey was applied to 187 solo tourists from different countries. Hypotheses were tested with structural equation modeling. Findings All the variables, except for subjective norms, are significant predictors of tourists’ intentions to continue solo traveling. Results confirm a good explanatory power of the extended TPB model. Research limitations/implications Caution must be exercised with the results as tourists’ actual solo travel behavior may differ from their intentions. Future research may investigate tourists’ actual behavior by using longitudinal methods and include additional demographic variables as antecedents. Originality/value This study empirically investigated the antecedents of tourists’ intentions to continue solo traveling – an under-researched topic. Previous research is mostly exploratory and largely focuses on female solo travelers.
... Nowadays, the development of spiritual travel has taken place in a world where neo-liberalism and materialism have become widespread in modern life (Cheer et al., 2017). Numerous researchers acknowledge that tourism experiences are not just physical travel, and the experience can also be related to spiritual things, psychological and physical benefits, personal development, and changes in the individual's life (Wilson and Harris, 2006). In this regard, state that spiritual tourism forms a new subfield as a type of special interest tourism. ...
... Spiritual development is an important issue for all ages and should be considered in tourists' travel plans (Shanthakumari, 2017). While spiritual journeys change the nature of tourism products (Reisenger, 2006), tourism experiences include motivations to change spiritual content, psychological and physical benefits, self-realization and life beyond any destination or physical journey (Wilson and Harris, 2006). The reason for this situation is the change in society, which leads ideas to change towards spiritualism. ...
Chapter
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This book provides insights into the development and management of sacred journeys, and the varying motivations for undertaking such journeys. The book is divided into three distinct parts. Part 1 aims to contribute towards the development of theoretical perspectives in the field. Part 2 undertakes studies of the processes and impacts of managing motivational elements of spiritual journeys, and Part 3 contains international case studies. The book has 17 chapters and a subject index.
... Similarly, E. C. L. Yang, Khoo-Lattimore, and Arcodia (2018) revealed that female business travelers are 5.6 times higher in falling prey to sexual harassment than men. Despite the awareness of this risk, many women travel independently to many destinations including those that are male-privileged societies to search for the sense of freedom, empowerment, and autonomy (Jordan & Gibson, 2005;Wilson & Harris, 2006). The risk associated with independent female travel to Africa and their risk-taking behavior provide the context of this study, which aims to understand the risk management process of these solo female travelers when they travel in gendered public space. ...
... Laesser et al. (2009) attributed this growth to a growing number of single households, aging population, and delayed marriages and childbearing. As a result, solo travel by women has received considerable attention with some authors trying to understand the motivation behind this decision (Seow & Brown, 2018) while the others have focused on the satisfaction with such trips (Wilson & Harris, 2006). In either stream, solo traveling has been approached differently. ...
Article
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This article presents constraints of solo female travelers to Africa based on their blogs reflecting their pretravel and during-travel constraints and the negotiations they adopted to energize their desire to travel to and within African countries. The study employs netnographic research methodology to understand complex social phenomena and assist researchers in developing themes from female travel bloggers' experiences of solo travels to Africa. Using content analysis, the findings show that the constraints were mainly interpersonal, external, as well as intrapersonal. Family, friends, and the media presented solo women travelers with these constraints about Africa, which is perceived as a socially constructed "men's space." The study finds that despite these constraints, the bloggers felt adventurous and were satisfied with their African experience.
... Previous research presents interwoven and multi-layered approaches to spirituality and culture in management. Including focus on leadership (e.g., Fry, 2003;Fry & Cohen, 2009;Tourish & Pinnington, 2002), tourism (e.g., Blomfield, 2009;Putcha, 2020;Wilson & Harris, 2006), pilgrimage (e.g., Haq & Jackson, 2009), national culture (e.g., Adams, de Vijver, & De Bruin, 2012;, organizational culture (e.g., Driscoll & McKee, 2007), corporate spirituality-base culture (e.g., Delbecq, 2010;Krishnakumar & Neck, 2002), consumption (e.g., Kozinets & Handelman, 2004), workplace (e.g., Gotsis & Kortezi, 2008), sustainability (e.g., Fadiah & Zawawi, 2019), wisdom (e.g., Krishnakumar & Neck, 2002), religion (e.g., Koenig, 2015;Quatro, 2004), knowledge management (e.g., , family business (e.g., Neal & Vallejo, 2008), entrepreneurship (e.g., Jackson & Konz, 2006), and business ethics (e.g., Beekun & Westerman, 2012;Suriyankietkaew & Kantamara, 2019). This wide variety of topics raises the need to assess management literature's state of the art on spirituality and culture. ...
... Besides, spirituality is an aspect and impacts the tourism experience (Wilson & Harris, 2006). ...
Article
Culture and spirituality are relevant in society and organizations. Research concerning these areas thrived in the past decades. Accordingly, we map the research that simultaneously addresses spirituality and culture due to the longing to understand how this research domain has been established. To explore this issue further, we conducted a systematic literature review using Scopus to collect data – 1,449 authors published 676 papers in 288 journals. Afterward, using the Bibliometrix package of R Studio, we performed a bibliometric analysis and a content analysis of the conceptual and social structures of the metadata to reveal collaborations, networks, and research evolution from 1977 to 2021. It tracked the literature over the past thirty-five years, contributing to the awareness of state of the art and offering key themes and trends. Therefore, this paper provides outputs regarding journals, papers, authors, institutions, countries, and themes. Additionally, we categorized these results into four major thematic clusters – (i) pilgrimage, tourism, and leisure, (ii) leadership, (iii) spirituality and religion in business, and (iv) national and organizational culture – identifying their contributions and research agenda. Finally, we offer implications for future theory, research, and practice on spirituality and culture.
... However, the search for spiritual experiences through travel goes far beyond the religious and/or spiritual tourism paradigms (Cheer et al., 2017). This is not surprising, because if one views spirituality as the essence of being, which involves an often transcendent quest for meaning, purpose, and connectedness (Wilson & Harris, 2006), then a variety of tourism experiences and products can be viewed as potential means to search for new spiritual experiences and deepen spiritual fulfilment (Sharpley & Sundaram, 2005;Olsen & Timothy, 2006;Laing & Crouch, 2009, 2011Matteucci, 2013;Freidus & Caro, 2021), as noted in the previous section. Accordingly, the current pilgrimage dialogue has evolved beyond the binary classifications of pilgrimage as either religious or secular to instead focus on the spiritual quest of the individual leading to transcendence or enlightenment (Warfield et al., 2014;Nilsson & Tesfahuney, 2018;Collins-Kreiner, 2019). ...
... Scholars have noted it is possible for a person to engage their spiritual side in nearly every touristic situation (Wilson & Harris, 2006;Sharpley, 2016). However, this does not imply all these tourism segments are part of the rejuvenation of pilgrimage in the contemporary world. ...
Article
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This paper aims to conceptualize the pilgrimage and tourism relationship in the contemporary world. As the boundaries between pilgrimage and tourism have become blurred, there is a need to find a more holistic way to understand the nuances of the pilgrimage-tourism relationship. This conceptual paper argues that pilgrimage offers a stage for rejuvenation in the contemporary era. In the 21st Century, the concept of pilgrimage travel has re-emerged in tourism with a new identity that goes beyond the idea of pilgrimage as a journey to a sacred place. Building on this recognition, this paper provides a conceptual framework that emphasizes the linkages between pilgrimage and contemporary tourism using three core elements: meaning, ritual, and transformation. This framework allows broader interpretations of pilgrimage travel in different phenomena of tourism in the contemporary era.
... Meaningfulness -a sense of high value or significance -as Kim et al. (2012) synthesize from the earlier researchers (Bruner, 1991;Jamal & Hollinshead, 2001;Noy, 2004;Wilson & Harris, 2006), strongly affect tourists' memories (Kim & Ritchie, 2013). According to Tung and Ritchie (2011), meaningful experiences can change tourists' minds in the long term emotionally affect their lifestyles. ...
Article
The present study examines the effects of dimensions of Memorable Tourism Experience (MTE) scale on domestic tourists’ revisit intention to Danang tourist destination. An online survey of 309 tourists who has visited Danang for data analysis. The structural equation model is applied to investigate the relationships between MTE’s dimensions and tourist’s revisit intention. The results show that four dimensions of MTE (Novelty, Involvement, Hedonism, and Local Culture) have significant positive relationships with domestic tourists’ revisit intention. In contrast, Knowledge is found to affect tourists’ revisit intention negatively. Overall, the study contributes to the literature on memorable tourism experiences by offering theoretical and empirical evidence about interrelationships between the dimensions of memorable tourism experiences and tourists’ revisit intention. The results from this paper provide suggestions for enhancing memorable tourism experiences and encouraging tourists to return to Danang. Future studies should replicate the study in diverse samples such as geographic regions participants with different travel motives. Besides, future research should include destination attributes since tourists’ perceptions of the destination after the trip are based on on-site experiences and determine memorable tourism experiences.
... For example, Noy (2004) claims that backpackers seek self-change, while adventure and authenticity often characterize their self-change experiences. For Wilson and Harris (2006), meaningful travel includes themes of self and identity, self-empowerment and commitment to others (global citizenship). That is, individuals focus more on the nature of existence than pleasure, seeking a unique and memorable tourism experience to question or find a certain meaning of their lives. ...
Article
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Due to varying tourist motivations and needs, involvement in new experiences has different individual consequences. This paper examines the predictive relationship between memorable tourism experience (MTE), meaning in life (MIL) and subjective well-being (SWB). It further investigates whether meaning in life mediates memorable tourism experience’s influence on subjective well-being. The study design was cross-sectional, with data collected from 283 tourists visiting Cappadocia, Turkey. Although all variables were positively correlated, SEM analyses revealed that meaning in life mediated the association of memorable tourism experience with life satisfaction but not positive affect. These findings are discussed considering the role of meaning in life in the link between dimensions of MTE and SWB.
... Meaningfulness pertains to a sense of great value or significance, that is, doing something important and valuable (Wilson & Harris, 2006), which can act as a catalyst for a tourist's personal development and change. After returning home, everyday life may be viewed in a new way. ...
... This is because there is an increasing number of women tourists travelling solo or in all-female groups who are recognized as a growing segment within the tourism industry (Henderson 2000, Cockburn et al. 2006). Wilson and Harris (2006) argue that women solo travellers tend to have the opportunity for reassessing their perspectives on life and society including their own relationships with other people. Women who are self-assured enough to travel alone in search of 'adventure, social interaction, education and self-understanding' tend to feel more autonomous and independent (Bond 1997, McArthur 1999, Khan 2017. ...
Article
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Solo travel is a growing trend, a significant proportion made up of international students who take solo trips during their study abroad. However there is limited empirical research on the Asian proportion of this growing market. This study explores the main motivations and constraints of 10 female Vietnamese students’ solo travellers through in-depth interviews. The findings indicate that travel motivations can be categorised into personal factors, such as freedom and flexibility, self-empowerment, independence and exploration, and social interaction factors including a lack of companions and meeting new people. Travel constraints relate to being female and alone and being of Asian descent. This research extends understanding of this important market segment. As a result, tourism providers and destination marketing organisation (DMOs) can capitalise by developing their products and marketing.
... Meaningfulness pertains to a sense of great value or significance, that is, doing something important and valuable (Wilson and Harris, 2006), which can act as a catalyst for a tourist's personal development and change. After returning home, everyday life may be viewed in a new way. ...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to test Kim et al. ’s (2012) seven-dimension memorable tourism experience (MTE) scale in a new context and with a new sample. In addition, the study aims to test for causes or relationships between satisfaction, MTE dimensions, co-creative tourism experiences and memorability, as well as the mediating effect of memorability on tourists’ behavioural intention. Design/methodology/approach This study uses a cross-sectional survey design using a questionnaire to collect data. Three trained interviewers questioned international travellers in the boarding area in Olbia-Costa Smeralda Airport while they were waiting to board their flights home. The interviewers also distributed and administered the questionnaires. The questionnaire was in English. Data collection was carried out from August to October 2017. Findings In terms of the theoretical implications of this study, its findings result in a different MTE construct than that of Kim et al. ’s (2012) study. Although they discuss seven important experiential tourism factors that are likely to affect the memorability of a person’s experience, what emerges from the present research is that satisfaction, novelty, refreshment, involvement and knowledge significantly influence the memorability of a tourist’s experience. Research limitations/implications This study has some limitations. First, it is highly site-specific and based on a convenience sample, rendering the findings non-generalizable to either the destination under investigation or any other tourism destination. Further studies should be conducted in other Mediterranean cities to generalise the significance of these findings. Although English can be considered the primary international language, the fact that the survey has been written only in English could have excluded non-English speakers from participating in the study. In addition, the study has not considered national domestic tourists. In the future, translating the survey into different languages and interviewing domestic tourists visiting the island might be useful. Practical implications Tourism service providers could gather feedback forms from tourists to measure and improve their satisfaction. Additionally, the multiplicity of actors involved in the tourism sector should coordinate and cooperate with one another to create tourism experiences that result in high overall visitor satisfaction. Tourism service providers could also offer new and diverse encounters, for example, the chance to attend local festivals to arouse curiosity, as studies suggest that such novel activities make the experiences particularly memorable. Public officials should also focus on site rejuvenation to appeal to novelty seekers who have visited previously. Originality/value Overall, the study highlights the discrepancies in the effects of satisfaction, MTE dimensions and co-creative tourism experience on the memorability of a trip experience in relation to previous studies. The results of the analysis refute the assumption that the seven MTE dimensions are representative across a variety of destination-specific tourist experiences. Besides the identified five dimensions, opening up the discussion on other factors that might influence the memorability of tourists’ experiences presents an updated agenda.
... Motosiklet ile seyahat etmek kadınlar üzerinde özgüven artışı ve güçlenme gibi olumlu etkiler bırakırken, onların yeni insanlar ve kültürler tanımalarına da katkı sağlamaktadır. Bu sonuç, aynı zamanda motosikletli kadın gezginlerin seyahat sürecinde karşılaştıkları engelleri aştığı ve motosiklet ile seyahat etmenin onların güçlenmelerine katkı sağladığı sonucunu da desteklemektedir (Wilson ve Harris, 2006). ...
... Analysis revealed that the solo female cruisers in this study embraced cruising as a way to travel safely, which supports the findings of previous research into female solo travellers' perceived risks in leisure travel (Jordan & Gibson, 2005;Wilson & Harris, 2006;Yang et al, 2017). The solo female cruisers pointed to how they used the ship as a safety net to give them the freedom to travel, not just on the ship but also in the destinations. ...
Thesis
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Social understanding of risk has become increasingly prominent in the last two decades, reflecting a growing concern with societal and global uncertainty. Understanding how tourists feel about risk is crucial because the presence of risk, whether real or perceived, has the potential to change tourist decision-making. However, risk is not well understood in travel, and particularly limited in relation to cruise holidays. The aim of this thesis is to examine how the perception of risk is conceptualized in ocean cruising and how this may potentially influence tourist decision-making. Drawing on a constructivist ontology, the qualitative research employed focus groups and semi-structured interviews with cruisers and non-cruisers. Data was gathered using image elicitation, which illuminated thoughts and feelings about cruising and revealed how risk may be interpreted in the cruise context. This study recognizes the positionality of the researcher, and applying reflexivity, acknowledges the researcher’s own experience, sense of identity with cruises, and passion for the research topic. The complexities of positionality revealed specific methodological challenges and opportunities. Thematic analysis revealed tourists’ interpretation of risk in ocean cruising is complex, and current conceptualizations of risk are inadequate to explain risk perceptions in cruising. The findings revealed valuable insight into the way in which self-congruity potentially influences a cruise as a holiday choice for both cruisers and non-cruisers. While some cruisers perceive cruising as an opportunity for self-expression and to mitigate time and financial risk, this study illuminates how some non-cruisers perceive the familiarity of a cruise as a risk to their self-concept. Findings highlight the significance of trust and familiarity in understanding and interpreting perceptions of risk in ocean cruising. This exploratory study contributes knowledge in three areas by reconceptualizing how risk is understood in relation to cruise holidays. Firstly, this thesis has deconstructed the concept of risk, and in doing so has highlighted the role and significance of risk in ocean cruise decision-making. The qualitative nature of the study has added depth to an existing, largely quantitative understanding of risk in ocean cruise decisions. Secondly, this thesis specifically illuminates how social and psychological anxieties influence perceptions of risk in ocean cruise decisions. Thirdly, the study amplifies the relationship between trust, familiarity and risk in cruise decision-making. These contributions have implications for future research into cruise decision-making and also for how risk may be conceptualized further in tourism.
... In tourism, meaningfulness is defined as a travel experience of great significance or value [83,84]. Kim et al. [17] indicated that meaningfulness can help make memorable experiences and produce positive emotions. ...
Article
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Due to the fact that Chinese tourists are becoming the main players in the international tourism market, with large growth potential, this research empirically identifies the psychological factors that affect Chinese outbound tourists’ memorable tourism experiences (MTEs), and investigates the relationships among MTEs, the “fun” emotion, and their recommendation and revisit intentions based on the stimulus–organism–response (S-O-R) model. In addition, the moderating role of perceived risk between the causal relationships among the “fun” emotion and recommendation and revisit intentions is identified. A total of 560 survey participants who had experienced overseas tourism in the last two years were selected as the target population, and the data from 413 valid surveys were empirically analyzed via structural equation modeling (SEM). Chinese outbound tourists’ MTEs, such as hedonism, novelty, meaningfulness, and social interaction, are found to positively influence their experience of the “fun” emotion, such as emotional spark and flow. Additionally, it is found that when Chinese outbound tourists have achieved a high level of the “fun” emotion, their intentions to recommend and revisit their destination will be stronger. In addition, perceived risk is found to have a negative moderating role in the causal relationships among emotional spark and recommendation and revisit intentions, and also has negative moderating effects on the causal relationship between flow and recommendation intentions. This study provides important practical insights for how international tourist destination marketers and managers provide Chinese tourists with MTEs, and how to elicit the “fun” emotion and loyalty behaviors from Chinese tourists via the investigation of the mechanism of MTEs, fun, and recommendation and revisit intentions. It is also found that it is beneficial for international tourist destination managers to lower the level of tourists’ perceived risk to improve tourists’ recommendation and revisit intentions. These findings can aid in the development of more effective strategies to increase the market share and the international competitiveness of destinations.
... (Wang) Social and emotional support also includes a sense of security in the company of guimi. According to Wilson and Harris (2006), women may experience the geography of fears, which means there are certain areas where a female visitor might feel unsafe on her own, especially in the evening (e.g. out of fear of public male violence and harassment in some places). ...
Article
The phrase ‘guimi holiday’ usually refers to shared travel among female best friends. This study provides insight into guimi holiday (闺蜜游) experiences among young Chinese women. These women were mainly born in China between the 1980s and 2000s, reared under the one-child policy. Aided partly by the diffusion of the internet and guimi-related TV shows and movies, the guimi holiday has flourished in China. For this study, a qualitative methodology was employed to analyze travel blogs of guimi holidays from popular Chinese online travel communities, which revealed several elements of this holiday experience: the guimi style of bonding, pursuing ‘me and my’ authentic time, and social support. This paper concludes with some implications and recommendations for the marketing of the guimi holiday experience in the tourism industry.
... Travel constraints impose challenges and influence the types of experiences had on these journeys Constraints were classified into four typessociocultural, personal, practical and spatial Constraints could occur before or during the travel experience Wilson and Harris (2006) 40 Australian solo female tourists and a separate study of female solo business travellers Interviews and focus groups Independent travel undertaken to fulfil personal or professional development Solo tourism experiences allow for a reflection and resetting of purposes and priorities to be used back in their everyday lives Jordan and Aitchison (2008) 39 solo female tourists ...
Purpose This study aims to unpack the notion of travelling mobilities from the perspectives of an Asian solo traveller using the context of the 2019 Rugby World Cup in Japan. Design/methodology/approach An autoethnography was used for this research, analysing reflective notes drafted on hand-written journals over the duration of six days over three host cities of the sporting event. Findings Asian solo men appear to be treated very differently from their Western counterparts and solo female tourists. In addition, engaging with a sport that is highly Western-centric exposes the liminal spaces of in-between. Being of Asian appearance and conversant in Japanese further blurred the travelling mobilities of being an unlikely sports fan, an impromptu translator, a presumed local resident and an unconventional wanderer. Originality/value These limitations notwithstanding, the research has contributed to the paucity of knowledge surrounding Asian solo male tourists and some aspects of their corresponding travelling mobilities. Such nuanced understanding then inform tourism and hospitality knowledge and practice of offering relevant experiences to such a market.
... The dimensions that constitute an MTE were first described by Kim (2010), and later validated by Kim et al. (2012). These studies developed a quantitative scale for measuring MTEs 1 by connecting concepts discussed in the memory literature with others covered in the tourism experience literature (see Table 1 for a summary), such as the works of Duman and Mattila (2005), Holbrook and Hirschman (1982), Otto and Ritchie (1996), Tung and Ritchie (2011), and Wilson and Harris (2006 Other studies went further by including post-experience behavioural intentions in their models. In the present study we test an extended version of the seven-dimensional scale of Kim et al. ...
Article
This study aims to test some previously proposed MTE (memorable tourist experience) scales by using UGC (user-generated content) posted in social media sites, through script theory and thematic analysis. In addition, MTEs and OTEs (ordinary tourist experiences) are compared to identify any significant differences between their dimensions. The results suggest that some dimensions of the MTE scale (hedonism, novelty, meaningfulness, involvement, knowledge and serendipity) are significantly more frequently reported in MTEs than in OTEs, but are not exclusive to MTEs. Despite this, the MTE scale dimensions are able with some accuracy to classify tourist experiences as MTEs or OTEs. Thus, national park managers can use MTE scale dimensions to understand tourist evaluations of destinations and should focus their efforts on these dimensions when developing tourism plans.
... Günümüzde bireyler, değişen ihtiyaçları nedeniyle tatilleri süresince ruhani, fiziksel ve duygusal doyuma ulaşmayı beklemektedir (Knobloch, 2017). Anlamlılık, kişilerin, kendilerini değerli ve önemli bir aktiviteye katıldığını hissetmesi ile ortaya çıkmaktadır (Wilson ve Harris, 2006). Turistler anlamlandırdıkları bir turizm deneyimi edindiğinde, bu deneyim daha sonrasında daha kolay hatırlanabilmektedir (McCormick ve Kim, 2013). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Hikaye anlatıcılığı, yüzyıllardır süregelen öneminin dışında son yıllarda yönetim-organizasyon, pazarlama, iletişim gibi iş dünyasının önemsediği alanlarda popüler olmaya başlamıştır. İnsanlığın temelinde yatan bu kavram, günümüzde çok daha farklı amaçlar ile kullanılmaktadır. Bu nedenle, iş dünyası tarafından benimsenen bu kavramın akademik açıdan da önemi artmıştır. Literatürde gittikçe popüler bir duruma gelmiş olan hikaye anlatıcılığı, turizm özelinde de araştırmalara konu olmaktadır. Unutulmaz turizm deneyimi ise, son yıllarda değişen turist algıları ve beklentileri sonucu ortaya çıkan deneyimlerdir. Turist için, unutulmaz turizm deneyimi duygusal ve zihinsel olarak uç noktaya ulaşmaktır. Hikaye anlatıcılığı sürecinde, başlangıç ve son arasında anlatıma değer bir zirve noktası bulunmalıdır. Bu düşünce temelinde, turistlerin hikaye anlatıcılığı sürecinde, unutulmaz turizm deneyimlerinin anlatıma değer bir zirve nokta olup olmadığı sınamak amaçlanmıştır. Bu araştırmanın çalışma evrenini, Türkiye'de yaşayan ve paket tur programlarına katılım sağlamış yerli turistler oluşturmaktadır. Katılımcılardan, toplamda 250 adet geçerli anket elde edilmiştir. Elde edilen bu veriler; faktör analizi (AFA ve DFA), güvenirlik, regresyon ve aracılık etkisi analizleri yapılarak değerlendirilmiştir. Yapılan analizler sonucunda, anlatıya ulaşımın hikaye anlatıcılığı üzerindeki etkisinde, unutulmaz turizm deneyiminin aracı etki gösterdiği görülmüştür. Anahtar Kelimeler: Anlatıya Ulaşım, Hikaye Anlatıcılığı, Turist, Unutulmaz Turizm Deneyimi
... Meaningfulness is the perceived importance and meaning of travelling, namely getting a sense of physical, emotional or spiritual satisfaction (Wilson & Harris, 2006). Finally, involvement refers to the degree of importance or interest of tourists to the destination and the tourism experience (Alexandris, 2016). ...
Article
The aim of this study is to test the applicability of the construct of memorable tourism experience in the context of a mega-sport event, and to investigate the contribution of event quality factors on the development of memorable tourism experiences. For the accomplishment of this aim, thestudy investigated the experiences of a sample of international spectators who attended the 2018 FIFA World Cup matches hosted in St. Petersburg, Russia. Data collection took place on-site during the group stage matches hosted at the stadium and was conducted with a self-completion questionnaire using two scales, one for memorable tourism experience and one for event quality factors. The results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided support for the psychometric properties of revised versions of the two scales. Multiple regression analysis showed that memorable tourism experiences were significantly predicted by the event quality factors, with the authenticity, entertainment, venue quality, and event competition dimensions having the most significant contributions. Theoretical and management implications are discussed.
... Meaningful tourism experiences (McIntosh and Mansfeld, 2006;Mason and O'Mahony, 2007) sought by new generations of tourists (e.g. Chirakranont and Sakdiyakorn, 2022;Wilson and Harris, 2006) will increasingly rely on this aspect of transformational tourism, which currently remains under-researched. This search for more meaningful travel may well be one of the trigger points arising from the fallout of the global COVID-19 pandemic, as some scholars have postulated, particularly in the context of sustainable tourism Galvani et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – This article examines critically the literature on transformational tourism and explores a research agenda for a post-COVID future. Design/methodology/approach – A systematic review of the transformational tourism literature is performed over a 42-year period from 1978 to 2020. Findings – Further research is required in terms of how transformative experiences should be calibrated and measured both in qualitative and quantitative terms, particularly from the perspective of how tourists are transformed by their experiences. Similarly, the nature and depth of these transformative processes remain poorly understood, particularly given the many different types of tourism associated with transformative experiences, which range from religious pilgrimages to backpacking and include several forms of ecotourism. Practical implications – Future research directions for transformational tourism are discussed with regards to how COVID-19 will transform the dynamics of tourism and travel, including the role of new smart technologies in the creation of enhanced transformational experiences, and the changing expectations and perceptions of transformative travel in the post-COVID era. In addition, we call for future studies on transformational tourism to explore the role of host communities in the delivery of meaningful visitor experiences. Originality/value – Transformational tourism is an emerging body of research, which has attracted a growing level of interest among tourism scholars in recent years. However, to this date, a systematic review of published literature in this field has not been conducted yet in a holistic sense. This article offers a framework for future research in this field.
... With the concept of nomadic soul, Ulaanbaatar is a unique urban tourism destination, offering a fixed settlement with modern lifestyles in the city but nomadic and traditional lifestyles in the suburbs. The rich cultures and unique nomadic lifestyles in Ulaanbaatar attract a group of tourists who seek the search of self and meaning in their travel (Wilson and Harris 2006). By interacting with locals and acquiring more in-depth knowledge of these places, they are able to establish certain social bonds in the community and build a sense of belonging to the destination, which in turn fulfills their social needs. ...
... Although Cohen's (1972Cohen's ( , 2004 seminal work on the drifter is inspired by a young man traveling alone in a small boat on the Amazon River in the 1960s, most research on solo travel has revolved around the experiences of women, sometimes singles, sometimes not (Heimtun 2010;Jordan & Gibson 2005;Jordan & Atchison 2008;Wilson & Little 2008;Wilson & Harris 2006;McNamara & Prideaux 2010;Daniels 2008;Kelly 1992;Lutz & Ryan 1993). This research demonstrates the geography of women's spatial and temporal travel fears, risks and safety issues, the embodiment of gendered norms and the sexualization of the male gaze upon women. ...
... Solo female travel has also been on the rise globally (Jordan & Aitchison, 2008;Jordan & Gibson, 2005;Seow & Brown, 2018). Confronting the stereotypes, solo females take challenges and gain autonomy and empowerment, through which they express independence, and confirm their identity and self-esteem (Jordan & Gibson, 2005;Wilson & Harris, 2006;Wilson & Little, 2005, 2008Yang et al., 2018). Travelling solo does not mean being alone, without companions or social interactions along the way; instead, many solo travellers are keen to have communication with others as a major goal of their trip (Murphy, 2001;Sørensen, 2003). ...
Article
Solo female travel has been on the rise globally, which has drawn attention from the academics. However, no research has specifically centred on the social world of solo female travellers in either Western or Asian inquiries. The study is set on Asian solo female travel, in this case the Taiwanese women, with a view to unveiling their memorable experiences with male strangers on the cross-cultural adventures. A total of 19 Taiwanese participants were enlisted, and the qualitative study results present their positive encounters with male strangers on a continuum. Four types of situations denoting their relationships were further discussed: Tidbits of Travel, Acts of Kindness, Company and Friendship, and Affective Relationships. The research contributes to tourism scholarship by demonstrating the pluralities of their gender relationships with stranger males, which is in due response to the dearth of research in this area.
... The findings suggest that travel experience alone can empower women; the experience of taking risks in women travelling alone creates a sense of independence, power and self-confidence (Yang et al., 2018). Moreover, the experience of independent travel can help women increase their sense of self and reconsider their views on life, society and relationships (Wilson & Harris, 2006). Adventure activities create opportunities for women to take risks and face challenges in a relatively protected environment, where women feel pride and power after the adventure is over (Whittington, 2006). ...
Article
The participation of women in adventure tourism in recent decades is remarkable, and this challenges gender stereotypes, traditional norms, and discrimination against women in some societies. Given their unique and attractive nature, leisure activities, including adventure tourism, can be considered to improve women’s living conditions and to empower them. This study examined the effect of self-expression on Iranian women’s empowerment in adventure trips. For the purpose of this study, 223 adventure tourists were selected as the sample and structural equation modelling was used to analyse the data. The findings acknowledged that participation in leisure activities such as adventure tourism can lead to women’s self-expression, which directly affects their empowerment in various dimensions and can improve their social, economic, physical, and political status.
... Acknowledging women placed-based identity as linked to development and livelihood opportunities reduces tendencies to glamourize customs that reinforces traditional gender roles (Jiménez-Esquinas, 2017). Accordingly, traveling impacts women empowerment in several ways; for example, several studies of female tourists in western societies affirmed that they became more confident and independent after engaging in adventure travel (Wilson & Harris, 2006;Doran, 2016). Movements induce socio-cultural change and can disrupt and transform gender norms and roles (Eger, Munar, & Hsu, 2021). ...
Article
Asian Muslim women's travel habits are sorely under-researched. In response to various calls for research in this area, this study utilizes Hofstede's five cultural dimensions to determine how Bangladeshi cultural values inhibit and/or enhance travel constraints for solo Muslim female travelers and the subsequent effects on solo travel behavior. We propose solo travel as a strategic tourism development tool to achieve mobility rights and gender equality particularly for destinations that are highly populated with more women than men. Introducing an interpretivist qualitative approach, the study extracted both survey and open-ended responses from 307 frequent Bangladeshi solo travelers that were recruited from a women-only English-speaking Facebook Bangladeshi travel group. The findings reveal that this group is constrained by a unique combination of intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural factors. Power-distance, masculinity, and uncertainty-avoidance also play key roles. Sustainable and practical applications are outlined for destination management organizations, travel planners, policy makers, non-governmental organizations, and for-profit tour companies that benefit both Bangladeshi solo female travelers and those with whom they interact.
... Especially, 'women' increasingly prefer to travel solo and 'solo women travel' has become a new trend globally (Jordan and Aitchison 2008;Seow and Brown 2018;. 'Learning about different cultures', 'the ability to be free and flexible', 'social contact or sociality', 'education-learning', 'in search of self-understanding' and 'escape' are the main motivations for women to travel alone (Bond 1997;McArthur 1999;Gibson and Jordan 1998;Wilson and Harris 2006;Chiang and Jogaratnam, 2006;Yang et al. 2015;Ahokas 2017;Seow and Brown 2018). ...
Chapter
Air pollution is difficult to detect with human senses. It is to a large extent out of sight and out of sense, while causing a burden on our economy, our health and our environment. A relevant illustration of this is the exposure to air pollution during commutes. The air pollution commuters are exposed to remains to a considerable extent a hidden geography, with, for example, a lack of available reliable information regarding the on-the-road concentrations of several air pollutants. This research aims to unravel, to the best possible extent, spatio-temporal air pollution patterns (active) commuters are exposed to. Cyclists and pedestrians can be unaware that they commute in polluted air. They often travel close to motorised traffic, resulting in high exposure to several air pollutants, which have elevated levels on the road due to vehicular emissions. Significantly higher concentrations of particulate matter (<2.5 µm), black carbon and nitrogen dioxide were found on roads with high-traffic intensities than on roads with less traffic, cycling highways or separated cycle lanes. The amplitude of the concentration differences between routes depends on both temporal factors, such as the season, the day of the week, or the time of day, and spatial factors, such as the traffic’s density, the footpath or cycle lane’s location, the architectural makeup (e.g. street canyons) and the meteorological conditions. Using high-resolution air pollution models, it is possible to distinguish between routes of higher and lower air pollution concentrations, allowing active road users to choose an alternative route to lower their air pollution exposure. However, on-the-road concentrations displayed by the Belgian ATMO-Street model are often considerably underestimated, especially for routes with high levels of motorised traffic. In general, for air pollution models to distinguish between routes, a minimum spatial-model resolution of 10 m² including street configuration effects (e.g. street canyons) is desired. For temporal resolution, static seasonal-hourly raster model data, calculated from a previous year’s hourly data, are sufficient to make a scientifically sound distinction between alternative routes regarding exposure to air pollution. Those tools are a great help in uncovering the spatio-temporal pollution patterns (active) commuters are exposed to and also provide relevant insights to reduce the health and economic burden of air pollution, which is unseen to a large extent and of which most people are not aware. Additional research using microscale measurement setups to further unravel gradients in air pollutant concentrations and further reveal reliable estimates of on-the-road concentrations of those pollutants is recommended.
... Solo female travel is also viewed as a search for meaning, which can be described in three main themes: (1) a search for self and identity, (2) selfempowerment and (3) connectedness with others/'global citizenship', which are often blended together (Wilson & Harris, 2006). As the authors emphasize, these categories can be present in all phases of the trip and reflect the overall tourist experience. ...
... For example, Frankl (1985Frankl ( [1963) believed individuals are hardwired to search for the meaning of their own existence regardless of the situation. In addition to pleasure and fun, worthwhile tourism experiences can be memorable (Tung & Ritchie, 2011), meaningful (Wilson & Harris, 2006), or even transformational (Reisinger, 2013). ...
Thesis
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This study investigates a technology-mediated experience design that fosters memorable and meaningful tourism experiences (MMEs). Technology has been playing an integral role in facilitating people to make personal choices on their tourism activities, from itinerary planning, online bookings, and way findings, to social sharing of people’s journeys. This study shows how technology may offer the potential to transcend personalized experiences into memorable and meaningful experiences. A review of literature in positive psychology provided three insights on MMEs. First, a holistic understanding of MMEs from one’s explicit experiential dimension to implicit experiential dimension, which includes what people do, feel, think, and value. Second, MMEs also result from pursuing growth goals derived from their past, present, and future aspirations. Lastly, character strengths, which represent positive traits of individuals, can be the pivotal component in MMEs because they are the bridge between the implicit and the explicit dimensions of experience. Experience of meaning can emerge by making the implicit explicit, thereby fostering self-awareness, a sense of purpose, and self-development towards flourishing. Therefore, this study seeks to incorporate character strengths into an informatics system so that users can cultivate their character strengths and facilitate users in the appreciation of their MMEs by connecting what they do, feel, think and value. This thesis is composed of interrelated three studies that progress through a design process. The first study explored how technology can support people to cultivate their character strengths for the creation of memorable and meaningful experiences. It resulted in a tripartite strengths-based HCI framework that encapsulates three aspects of strengths used namely, strengths well spent, reflection and introspection, and anticipation of future self. The second study focused on the stage of reflection and introspection by investigating people’s proficiencies in creating visual diary with photos generated on their memorable and meaningful journeys because comprehensive visual storytelling is the prerequisite for people to connect the experience to the associated implicit psychological motives and needs. The result informed the development of a proof-of-concept strengths-based journaling platform. The third study involved the evaluation of the platform from three perspectives. First, on the features that facilitate users to create meaning by making the implicit psychological dimensions of MMEs (e.g., character strengths, motives, and values) explicit. Second, participants’ strengths that had drawn upon on their MMEs. Third, their intentions on cultivating their characters strengths, and pursuing values gained in their future journeys. The result showed that people deepened their self-awareness by using the platform. Also, MMEs more often involved people’s moderate character strengths rather than signature strengths. Participants were more willing to pursue the value gained and develop the character strengths used in their future journeys rather than revisit the places. By making the implicit psychological dimensions explicit, this study showed that technology facilitates people to deepen their self-awareness through recognizing deep-rooted values and appreciate character strengths from their MMEs. The result of this study has multiple implications and contributions to the field of technology-mediated experience design and smart tourism innovation at the levels of empirical research, theory, and artifacts.
... På den andre siden finner vi noen faktorer som er knyttet til opplevelser av glede og mening («indre faktorer»), det vil si gleden over reisen som sådan og over kulturmøtene og -utvekslingen som reisingen kan innebaere. Dette er aspekter ved reising som turismeforskningen også har vektlagt (Bosangit et al., 2015;Wilson & Harris, 2006). Slike «indre» faktorer understreker at den dissonansen rundt klimaspørsmål som musikere opplever, ikke bare kan forstås som en sak som kan løses rent praktisk. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
A successful musician’s career has long been associated with extensive touring and travel. International activities have been a marker of success. Due to the growing focus on climate change, extensive travel has come under a new light. Drawing upon qualitative interviews with professional musicians, we investigate the way they think about how and to what extent climate issues affect their work. The informants recognize climate change as an urgent problem, and the majority express willingness to change behavior to contribute to a more sustainable profession. At the same time, this willingness is weighed against possible negative consequences such behavioral changes have on their own professional careers. In this chapter, we explore these conflicting impulses through the concept cultural dissonance. We conclude with a discussion of the extent to which and the ways in which climate values impact the music profession and what opportunities the concept of cultural dissonance offers to analyze this.
Article
Research on solo female travel indicates that women traveling alone in foreign countries are subject to different sociocultural and gender norms, and may bear more fear and constraints both temporally and spatially. Harassment from male strangers exerts considerable influence on women’s perception of safety. However, issues of how solo female travelers confront stranger harassment remain untouched in tourism or leisure studies. Based on the perspectives of stranger harassment and cultural encounters, this article explores the experiences and interactions of 17 Taiwanese solo females with male strangers. Results revealed when facing harassment, they opted to neglect, forbear, or blame themselves; hardly had they actively fought back. Adding ramifications to the existing knowledge, this article contributes to the understanding of the theoretical conceptualization of stranger harassment of solo female travelers, and is in due response to the dearth of research in this area.
Thesis
Full-text available
Yaratıcı turizm, destinasyonların kültürel özelliklerine özgü faaliyetleri kullanarak turistlerin basit materyaller ile oluşturdukları öğrenme sürecini kapsamaktadır. Bu özelliği ile yaratıcı turizm, destinasyonların farklılaşmasını sağlayarak turistlere deneyim sunabilmektedir. Kültür turizminin kaynaklarını kullanan yaratıcı turizm, deneyim yaşamak isteyen turistlerin taleplerine uygun bir alternatif turizm çeşididir. Turistler destinasyon ziyaretlerinde deniz, kum, güneş üçlüsünün dışında alternatif deneyim arayışı içindedir. Kültürel özelliklere ilgi gösteren turistler, yerele özgü faaliyetleri ve kültürü tanıyarak daha fazla deneyim yaşama isteğindedir. Turistlerin gerçekleştirmek istedikleri bu deneyimlerin unutulmaz deneyimlere dönüşmesi destinasyonlar için önemli bir yere sahiptir. Yaratıcı turizm, destinasyonların kültürel öğelerinde farklılık sağlayarak unutulmaz deneyimler oluşturabilmesine yardımcı olabilir. Yapılan çalışmada, yaratıcı turizm faaliyetlerinin unutulmaz turizm deneyimi üzerinde etkisinin olup olmadığının tespit edilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmanın evrenini; çömlek yapımı, halı/kilim dokuma, mücevher yapımı, yöresel yemek pişirimi, porselen boyama, çini yapımı, şarap yapımı, zeytinyağı yapımı, seramik yapımı, ebru sanatı ve taş oymacılığı gibi benzer faaliyetlerin bulunduğu destinasyonları ziyaret eden turistler oluşturmaktadır. Evrene ulaşmak adına yargısal örneklem tekniği kullanarak yaratıcı turizm faaliyetlerine katılan turistlere ulaşılmaya çalışılmıştır. Yaratıcı turizm faaliyetine katılan 270 turiste anket tekniği uygulanarak veriler elde edilmiştir. Toplanan verilerin analiz edilmesinde SPSS 18 ve AMOS 26 istatistiki programlar kullanılmıştır. Elde edilen veriler güvenirlilik analizi, açıklayıcı faktör analizi ve frekans analizine tabi tutulmuştur. AMOS 26 programı ile araştırma modelinin test edilmesi amacıyla doğrulayıcı faktör analizi ve yapısal eşitlik modellemesi yapılmıştır. Analiz bulguları doğrultusunda yaratıcı turizm faaliyetlerinin unutulmaz turizm deneyimi üzerinde istatiksel olarak anlamlı bir etkisinin bulunmadığı saptanmıştır. Ancak yaratıcı turizm deneyimi alt boyutu olan benzersiz katılımının; hazcılık, yenilik, yerel kültür, anlamlılık ve bilgi üzerinde anlamlı bir etkisinin olduğu, iç huzurun yenilik boyutu üzerinde, öğrenmenin bilgi boyutu üzerinde anlamlı bir etkisinin olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Creative tourism, includes the learning process created by tourists with simple materials using activities specific to the cultural characteristics of destinations. With this feature, creative tourism can offer tourists an experience by enabling the differentiation of destinations. Creative tourism, which uses the resources of cultural tourism, is an alternative type of tourism that meets the demands of tourists who want to have an experience. Tourists are in search of alternative experience outside the sea, sand, sun trio. Tourists, who are interested in cultural features, want to experience more by getting to know local activities and culture. The transformation of these experiences that tourists want to realize into memorable experiences has an important place for destinations. Creative tourism can help create memorable experiences by providing differences in the cultural elements of destinations. In this study aimed to determine whether creative tourism activities have an effect on memorable tourism experiences or not. The population of the study; pottery, carpet/rug, weaving, jewelry making, local cooking, porcelain painting, tile making, winemaking, olive oil, pottery, stone carving, marbling art form destinations with similar activities. In order to reach the population, it has been tried to reach the tourists participating in creative tourism activities by using the judicial sampling technique. Data were obtained by applying the questionnaire technique to 270 tourists participating in the creative tourism activity. SPSS 18 and AMOS 26 statistical programs were used to analyze the collected data. The obtained data were subjected to reliability analysis, explanatory factor analysis, and frequency analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were performed to test the research model with the AMOS 26 program. In line with the analysis findings, it has been determined that creative tourism activities do not have a statistically significant effect on the memorable tourism experience. However, the unique involvement of the creative tourism experience sub-dimension; It has been determined that hedonism has a significant effect on novelty, local culture, meaningfulness and knowledge, peace of mind has a significant effect on the novelty dimension, and learning has a significant effect on the knowledge dimension.
Conference Paper
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Cinsiyet temelli eşitsizlik giderek artan bir biçimde tartışma alanı bulmuş ve dünya nüfusunun yarısını oluşturan kadınlar bu alanda dezavantajlı konumda yer almıştır. Seyahatlere katılan ka-dın sayısının artmasına rağmen, boş zaman hareketliliğinde kadınların yaşadıkları kısıtlılıklar ve engeller devam etmektedir. Bu çalışma, Türkiye' den yurtdışına seyahat eden kadınların boş zaman seyahat motivasyonlarını ve seyahat kısıtlayıcılarının saptanması üzerine yapılan nitel bir araştırmadır. Çalışmanın amacı, Türkiye' den yurtdışına seyahat eden kadınların seyahat motivasyonlarını, seyahate ilişkin risk algılarını, mekânsal tercihlerini incelemek ve turizm araştırmalarında ihmal edilen; kadın çalışmaları, toplumsal cinsiyet ve feminist coğrafya gibi konularda farkındalık oluşturmak ve turizm çalışmaları literatürüne katkı yapmaktır. Bu amaçlar doğrultusunda çalışmada yarı yapılandırılmış gö-rüşme formu aracılığıyla 12 katılımcı ile derinlemesine görüşmeler yapılmıştır. Araştırma çerçevesinde herhangi bir lokasyon kısıtlamasına gidilmemesinin nedeni; herhangi bir bölgedeki ya da lokasyondaki bir durumun incelenmesi yerine kadınların seyahati olgusuna odaklanılmasıdır. Araştırma bulguları, kadınların neredeyse eşit oranda üç tip kısıtlayıcı (içsel, kişilerarası ve yapısal) tarafından da engellen-diğini göstermektedir. Sonuçlar, güvenliğin ve ekonomik faktörlerin kadınların seyahate yönelik algıları ve mekânsal tercihleri üzerinde etkin bir rol oynadığını göstermiştir. Kadınların en önemli motivasyon kaynaklarının; bakış açılarında değişme, seyahat konusundaki önyargıları kırma, yabancı dilini geliş-tirme, özgüven artışı ve yeni kültürler ve insanlar tanıma olduğunu ortaya çıkarmıştır. Yine sonuçlar, kadınların seyahat deneyimlerini diğer kadınlara da tavsiye etme eğiliminde olduklarını göstermiştir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Seyahat, Kadın, Turizm coğrafyaları. GİRİŞ Turizm, ekonomik ve sosyo-kültürel önemi giderek artan ve dünyada en hızlı büyüyen sektörlerin başında gelmektedir. Modernite ve küreselleşme ile birlikte kadınlar da turizm hareketliliğinin önemli bir aktörü haline gelmiştir. Bununla birlikte kadınlar, özellikle cinsiyet temelli bazı kısıtlayıcılara ve engellere maruz kalmakta, bu durum kadınların seyahate yönelik algılarını ve seyahat odaklı motivasyonlarını, mobilitele-rini ve mekânsal tercihlerini önemli ölçüde etkilemektedir. Bu çalışma, Türkiye' den yurtdışına seyahat eden kadınların, deneyimlerini 'boş zaman kısıtlamaları teorisi' perspektifiyle ele almıştır. Crawford ve Godbey (1987), kişilerin boş zaman aktivitelerine katılımını etkileyen kısıtlayıcıları 3 kategoride sınıflandırmaktadır. Bunlar; içsel kısıtlayıcılar (kişisel kısıtlayıcılar), ki-şilerarası kısıtlayıcılar ve yapısal kısıtlayıcılardır. Crawford ve Godbey içsel kısıtlayıcıları; özgüven eksikliği, endişe ve korku (cinsel saldırıya uğrama, şiddet korkusu vb.) gibi psikolojik faktörler olarak ifade etmiştir. Kişilerarası kısıtlayıcıları, bireyin diğer kişilerle olan (aile üyeleri, arkadaş gibi) etkileşiminden kaynaklana-bilecek kısıtlayıcılar olarak, yapısal kısıtlayıcıları da ekonomik engeller, boş zaman eksikliği, ulaşılabilirlik gibi kısıtlayıcılar olarak tanımlamıştır (Wilson ve Little, 2005, s. 158). Bu kısıtlayıcılar bireylerin boş zaman seyahatlerini etkileyebilmekte, bunlar aşılamadığı takdirde bireyler boş zaman aktivitelerine katılım göste-rememektedir. Bu çalışmanın temel araştırma problemi, özellikle cinsiyetin boş zaman seyahatleriyle ilgili karar ver-meyi etkileyip, etkilemediğidir. Diğer bir ifadeyle seyahatlerin cinsiyetçiliğinin söz konusu olup olmadığı,
Thesis
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