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Understanding the Broader Impact of Stuttering: Suicidal Ideation

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Purpose: Suicide and suicidal ideation are topics that have a long but limited history in stuttering research. Clinicians and clinical researchers have discussed personal and therapeutic experiences with clients who have attempted suicide, died by suicide, or struggled with suicidal thoughts. This study sought to (a) explore the occurrence of suicidal ideation in a sample of adults who stutter; (b) evaluate the relationship between adverse impact related to stuttering and suicidal ideation; and (c) document respondents' thoughts related to suicide, stuttering, and their intersection. Method: One hundred forty adults who stutter completed the Suicide Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R). Of these, 70 participants completed the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire (PTQ), and 67 completed the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering (OASES). Participants who indicated at least some tendency for suicidal thoughts on the SBQ-R (n = 95) were then asked a set of follow-up questions to explore their experiences of suicidal ideation related to stuttering. Results: Quantitative data indicated that the majority of adults who reported experiencing suicidal ideation associated these experiences with stuttering (61.2%, n = 59). Individuals with higher Total Scores on the PTQ and OASES were predicted to experience significantly higher rates of suicidal ideation and, in particular, a higher likelihood of having more frequent suicidal ideation in the past year. Qualitative analyses revealed that suicidal ideation intersects meaningfully with the experience of stuttering. Conclusions: Data from this study highlight the importance of considering broader life consequences of stuttering that some adults may experience, including suicidal ideation. By being cognizant that clients may develop such thoughts, speech-language pathologists can play a valuable role in identifying and providing necessary support for at-risk individuals. Supplemental material: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.23699688.

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Purpose: People who stutter often experience significant adverse impact related to stuttering. However, it is unclear how adverse impact develops in children who stutter (CWS) and whether there are protective factors that may mitigate its development. This study examined the relationship between resilience, a potentially protective factor, and stuttering's adverse impact in CWS. Resilience comprises external factors, such as family support and access to resources as well as personal attributes, making it a comprehensive protective factor to explore. Method: One hundred forty-eight CWS aged 5-18 years completed the age-appropriate version of the Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM) and the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering. Parents completed a caregiver version of the CYRM and a behavioral checklist for their child. The adverse impact of stuttering was modeled as a function of resilience (external, personal, and total), controlling for child age and behavioral checklist score. We also estimated correlations between child-report and parent-report CYRM measures to assess rater agreement. Results: Children reporting greater external, personal, or total resilience were more likely to experience lower degrees of adverse impact related to their stuttering. We documented stronger correlations between younger child and parent ratings of resilience and weaker correlations between older child and parent ratings. Conclusions: These results yield valuable insight into the variability of adverse impact experienced by CWS and offer empirical support for strength-based speech therapy approaches. We discuss the factors that contribute to a child's resilience and provide practical suggestions for how clinicians can incorporate resilience-building strategies into intervention for children experiencing significant adverse impact from their stuttering. Supplemental material: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.23582172.
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In clinical practice, patients with language impairments often exhibit suicidal ideation (SI) and suicidal behavior (SB, covering the entire range from suicide attempts, SA, to completed suicides). However, only few studies exist regarding this subject. We conducted a mini-review on the possible associations between neurologic language impairment (on the motor, comprehension, and semantic sides) and SI/SB. Based on the literature review, we hypothesized that language impairments exacerbate psychiatric comorbidities, which, in turn, aggravate language impairments. Patients trapped in this vicious cycle can develop SI/SB. The so-called “affective prosody” provides some relevant insights concerning the interaction between the different language levels and the world of emotions. This hypothesis is illustrated in a clinical presentation, consisting of the case of a 74-year old woman who was admitted to a psychiatric emergency department (ED) after a failed SA. Having suffered an ischemic stroke two years earlier, she suffered from incomplete Broca’s aphasia and dysprosody. She also presented with generalized anxiety and depressive symptoms. We observed that her language impairments were both aggravated by the exacerbations of her anxiety and depressive symptoms. In this patient, who had deficits on the motor side, these exacerbations were triggered by her inability to express herself, her emotional status, and suffering. SI was fluctuant, and—one year after the SA—she completed suicide. Further studies are needed to ascertain possible reciprocal and interacting associations between language impairments, psychiatric comorbidities, and SI/SB. They could enable clinicians to better understand their patient’s specific suffering, as brought on by language impairment, and contribute to the refining of suicide risk detection in this sub-group of affected patients.
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Background: Impaired life skills, family dysfunction, negative thinking and low life satisfaction may predispose to suicidal behavior. There is paucity of study that examined these variables in suicide attempt. Aims: This study was conducted to know the levels and the relationships of these variables in attempted suicide. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional. Materials and Methods: In this hospital-based cross-sectional study, 328 participants with a history of attempted suicide were assessed using socio-demographic and clinical pro forma, life skills profile (LSP), perseverative thinking questionnaire (PTQ), satisfaction with life scale (SLS), and family assessment device (FAD) after obtaining informed consent. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics, Mann–Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis-H test and regression analysis. Results: Results revealed a mean scores on PTQ, LSP, SLS, and FAD to be 29.93 (standard deviation [SD] =13.5), 21.32 (SD = 13.5), 15.71 (SD = 6.8), and 26.46 (SD = 4.57), respectively. In linear regression analysis (R2 = 0.815, df = 3, F = 475.715, P = 0.001), LSP score had a statistically significant positive association with PTQ score (beta = 0.861, t = 32.76, P = 0.001) and FAD score (beta = 0.068, t = 2.79, P = 0.0046); while negative association with SLS score (beta = −0.078, t = −2.92, P = 0.004). Conclusions: The study findings suggest of impaired life skills, life dissatisfaction, impaired family function, and elevated repetitive negative thinking pattern in attempted suicide. Better life skills have a positive association with higher life satisfaction, family function, and low repetitive thinking and thus seem to have a protective effect against suicidal behavior in the population.
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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify relationships between stuttering and labor market outcomes, determine if outcomes differ by gender, and explain the earnings difference between people who stutter and people who do not stutter. Method: Survey and interview data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Of the 13,564 respondents who completed 4 waves of surveys over 14 years and answered questions about stuttering, 261 people indicated that they stutter. Regression analysis, propensity score matching, and Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition were used. Results: After controlling for numerous variables related to demographics and comorbidity, the deficit in earnings associated with stuttering exceeded $7,000. Differences in observable characteristics between people who stutter and people who do not stutter (e.g., education, occupation, self-perception, hours worked) accounted for most of the earnings gap for males but relatively little for females. Females who stutter were also 23% more likely to be underemployed than females who do not stutter. Conclusions: Stuttering was associated with reduced earnings and other gender-specific disadvantages in the labor market. Preliminary evidence indicates that discrimination may have contributed to the earnings gap associated with stuttering, particularly for females.
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The content sharing link for your article is: https://rdcu.be/LIKE People with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are at significantly increased risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior. Given that social difficulties in ASD often lead to social isolation, which can in turn increase the risk for depression, this study examined loneliness and social support as potential risk and protective factors associated with depression and suicidal ideation. 2 Method The sample comprised 185 people (92 females) with ASD aged 14 to 80 years who were participating in a national survey. 3 Results Forty‐nine percent of participants returned scores in the clinical range for depression and 36% reported recent suicidal ideation. Females, comprising almost 50% of the sample, returned higher depression scores than males, however no differences were identified between males and females in terms of suicidal ideation. Regression analyses revealed that loneliness, satisfaction with social support, and ASD traits predicted depression scores. Satisfaction with social support predicted suicidal ideation, however, it was no longer a significant predictor after the effects of depression were taken into account. Path analysis showed that ASD trait severity was independently related to depression, that the effect of number of social supports on depression was mediated by loneliness and satisfaction with social support, and that effects of loneliness and satisfaction with social support on suicidal ideation were mediated by depression. The pattern of relationships was nearly identical for males and females. 4 Conclusions This study supports a model whereby loneliness and social support operate respectively as protective and risk factors for depression and suicidal ideation in ASD.
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Rumination has been implicated as a risk factor for suicidal ideation and attempts, yet the literature to date has not been synthesized. We conducted a meta-analysis of the association between rumination and both suicidal ideation and attempts to consolidate the existing literature (k = 29). Results indicated that the relationships between global rumination (k = 13; Hedge's g = .74, p <.001, 95% CI [.45, 1.04]), brooding (k = 12; Hedge's g < .63, p < .001, 95% CI [.35, .90]), and reflection (k = 12; Hedge's g = .38, p < .002, 95% CI [.10, .65]) with suicidal ideation were significant. Associations between global rumination (k = 3; Hedge's g = .26, p < .001, 95% CI [.08, .44]) and brooding (k = 4; Hedge's g = .47, p < .004, 95% CI [.02, .91]) and suicide attempts were significant, but reflection (k = 4; Hedge's g = .09, p < .646, 95% CI [-.54, .72]) was unrelated. However, given the limited studies included in suicide attempt analyses-and the exclusive use of cross-sectional designs and heterogeneity with regard to samples and measures-these parameters should be taken with caution. Generally, age, gender, race/ethnicity, and year of publication were not moderators, and there was little evidence for publication bias across effects, with the exception of the effect of global rumination on suicidal ideation. Several future research directions are discussed.
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When outcome variables are ordinal rather than continuous, the ordered logit model, aka the proportional odds model (ologit/po), is a popular analytical method. However, generalized ordered logit/partial proportional odds models (gologit/ppo) are often a superior alternative. Gologit/ppo models can be less restrictive than proportional odds models and more parsimonious than methods that ignore the ordering of categories altogether. However, the use of gologit/ppo models has itself been problematic or at least sub-optimal. Researchers typically note that such models fit better but fail to explain why the ordered logit model was inadequate or the substantive insights gained by using the gologit alternative. This paper uses both hypothetical examples and data from the 2012 European Social Survey to address these shortcomings.
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Traditional therapy with children who stutter has focused on providing a tool box of strategies that the child may use to manage his fluency, which may be combined with identification and desensitization of the thoughts and emotions associated with stuttering. Therapy targeted at supporting children to identify their thoughts and feelings, and aiding their understanding of the relationship between cognitions and emotions, can have an important impact on children's speech, even at a young age.
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Failure to reach data saturation has an impact on the quality of the research conducted and hampers content validity. The aim of a study should include what determines when data saturation is achieved, for a small study will reach saturation more rapidly than a larger study. Data saturation is reached when there is enough information to replicate the study when the ability to obtain additional new information has been attained, and when further coding is no longer feasible. The following article critiques two qualitative studies for data saturation: Wolcott (2004) and Landau and Drori (2008). Failure to reach data saturation has a negative impact on the validity on one’s research. The intended audience is novice student researchers. © 2015: Patricia I. Fusch, Lawrence R. Ness, and Nova Southeastern University.
Article
Purpose: This study evaluated the relationship between emotional regulation (ER) and adverse impact related to stuttering across the developmental spectrum, in preschool and school-age children, adolescents, and adults who stutter. An additional aim examined how these variables relate to the ways that individuals approach speaking (i.e., their agreement on whether their goal is to speak fluently). Method: Participants were the parents of 60 preschoolers and younger school-age children (ages 3-9 years), 95 school-age children and adolescents who stutter (ages 7-18 years), and 180 adults who stutter (ages 18-81 years). All participants completed surveys with age-appropriate measures examining ER and the adverse impact of stuttering. Older children and adults who stutter also answered questions regarding their goals when speaking. Multiple regression and ordinal logistic regression were used to examine relationships among ER, adverse impact related to stuttering, and goal when speaking. Results: In preschool children, adverse impact was significantly predicted by a parent-reported measure of ER skills; in school-age children and adults, adverse impact was significantly predicted by measures of the ER strategies cognitive reappraisal (CR) and expressive suppression. Less frequent use of CR by adults was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of having "not stuttering" as a goal when speaking. Differences in the significance and magnitude of these relationships were found across the life span. Discussion: For both children and adults who stutter, ER is a significant factor related to the adverse impact of stuttering; the relationship between ER and adverse impact may change over development. Accounting for individual differences in ER can improve understanding of why a person copes with stuttering in the ways they do, and this has notable implications for individualizing intervention for both children and adults who stutter. Supplemental material: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.20044469.
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This article highlights the value for speech–language pathologists of considering the overall stuttering condition—including speakers' experiences during and around moments of stuttering—in treatment with individuals who stutter. We first highlight a framework for conceptualizing the entirety of the stuttering condition. We then present recent research and clinical perspectives about stuttering to support the claim that speech–language pathologists who account for individual differences in how their clients experience stuttering are better positioned to treat stuttering more effectively. Ultimately, this will yield better treatment outcomes and help clinicians achieve greater gains in quality of life for their clients who stutter.
Article
Purpose This article presents several potential concerns with the common usage of the term fluency in the study of stuttering and people who stutter (or, as many speakers now prefer, stutterers ). Our goal is to bridge gaps between clinicians, researchers, and stutterers to foster a greater sense of collaboration and understanding regarding the words that are used and meanings that are intended. Method We begin by reviewing the history of the term fluency . We then explore its usage and current connotations to examine whether the term meaningfully describes constructs that are relevant to the study of the stuttering condition. Results By highlighting current research and perspectives of stutterers, we conclude that the term fluency (a) is not fully inclusive, (b) encourages the use of misleading measurement procedures, (c) constrains the subjective experience of stuttering within a false binary categorization, and (d) perpetuates a cycle of stigma that is detrimental to stutterers and to the stuttering community as a whole. Conclusions We recommend that researchers and clinicians cease referring to stuttering as a fluency disorder and simply refer to it as stuttering . Furthermore, we recommend that researchers and clinicians distinguish between moments of stuttering (i.e., what stutterers experience when they lose control of their speech or feel stuck) and the overall lived experience of the stuttering condition.
Article
Purpose Childhood-onset stuttering is a neurodevelopmental disorder that may cause pervasive negative consequences for adults who stutter. In addition to significant challenges in personal, social, and emotional domains, stuttering has been shown to impose an economic burden on adults who stutter. Intervention for adults who stutter has historically addressed speech fluency more so than the covert psychosocial aspects of the disorder. There is an identified clinical need for holistic, efficacious, and cost-effective stuttering interventions that meet consumer needs. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate a novel, integrated intervention that combined traditional fluency techniques with Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, from the perspective of the adults who stutter who participated in the intervention. Method Twenty-eight adults who stutter completed the intervention program. Participants were invited to complete an online post-program written survey (including qualitative comments) and a semi-structured interview to explore their evaluations of the program with respect to its authenticity, acceptability, and social validity. Results Participants perceived positive psychosocial changes as a result of the program, and were satisfied with the program overall. Qualitative thematic analyses of the written survey comments and the semi-structured interviews identified two major themes: factors specific to the intervention and factors specific to the therapeutic process. Several important sub-themes were also identified. Conclusion Findings support the authenticity, acceptability, and social validity of an integrated fluency and psychosocial intervention for stuttering. Findings also highlight the need for consideration of the consumer voice in the management of stuttering disorders, in keeping with person-centred care.
Article
Purpose Recent studies have shown that many children who stutter may have elevated characteristics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although childhood ADHD commonly persists into adulthood, it is unclear how many adults who stutter experience aspects of ADHD (e.g., inattention or hyperactivity/impulsivity). This study sought to increase understanding of how ADHD characteristics might affect individuals who stutter by evaluating (a) whether elevated ADHD characteristics are common in adults who stutter, (b) whether elevated ADHD characteristics in adults who stutter were significantly associated with greater adverse impact related to stuttering, and (c) whether individual differences in Repetitive Negative Thinking (RNT) and Effortful Control influenced this relationship. Method Two hundred fifty-four adults who stutter completed the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire, the Adult Temperament Questionnaire short form, and the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering. Data were analyzed via multiple linear regression to determine whether the number of inattention or hyperactivity/impulsivity characteristics was significantly associated with RNT, Effortful Control, or Adverse Impact related to stuttering. Results Almost one quarter of participants (23.2%; 60/254) self-reported experiencing six or more inattention characteristics, while fewer participants (8.3%; 21/254) self-reported experiencing six or more hyperactivity/impulsivity characteristics. Participants with lower Effortful Control and higher levels of both RNT and Adverse Impact were significantly more likely to self-report experiencing more inattention characteristics. Discussion Many adults who stutter may exhibit previously unaccounted for characteristics of ADHD, especially inattention. Results highlight the value of continued research on the intersectionality of stuttering, ADHD, and attention, and the importance of individualizing therapy to the needs of each unique person who stutters.
Article
Purpose It has long been known that stuttering behaviors vary across time and situation. Preliminary evidence suggests that this variability negatively affects people who stutter and that stuttering behaviors are more variable than adverse impact associated with stuttering. More information is needed to determine how variability affects people who stutter and what the clinical and research implications of variability may be. Method Two hundred and four adults who stutter participated in a mixed-methods study exploring (a) how variability of stuttering affects people who stutter in comparison to other aspects of the condition and (b) which aspects of the overall experience of stuttering are variable. Results Analyses indicated that variability is very commonly experienced by people who stutter and that it is among the most frustrating aspects of the condition. Qualitative analyses revealed that variability is experienced in all aspects of the stuttering condition, including the observable behavior other affective, behavioral, and cognitive reactions; and the adverse impact of stuttering. Notable individual differences were found in terms of which specific aspects of the condition were more variable for different respondents. Overall, analyses revealed that the variability of different aspects of stuttering can be viewed in a hierarchy from most variable to least variable: more external aspects (e.g., frequency, duration), more internal aspects (e.g., covert behaviors, physical tension), and cognitive–affective experiences (e.g., negative thoughts, feelings, and self-image). Discussion These findings suggest that variability is a common and burdensome aspect of the experience of stuttering and underscore the importance of considering variability in stuttering behavior, reactions, and impact in research, assessment, and treatment for adults who stutter.
Article
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation and living with stuttering while accounting for time, sex, and health-related confounders. Method: The data for this study come from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a nationally representative survey study that has followed 13,564 respondents over the course of 14 years. Responses to the question "Do you have a problem with stuttering or stam-mering?" at two time points were used to establish stuttering and non-stuttering groups. Regression analysis, propensity score matching, and structural equation modeling were used. Results: Compared to their fluent counterparts, males and females reported significantly elevated symptoms of depression. Although symptoms of depression among males who stutter were stable over time, depressive symptoms among females who stutter increased with age. Compared to males who do not stutter, males who stutter were significantly more likely to report feelings of suicidal ideation. There were no differences in suicidal ideation between females who do and do not stutter. Conclusions: Speech-language pathologists should be aware of the associations between stuttering and depressive symptoms, as well as the increased risk for suicidal ideation among males who stutter. Clinicians should be knowledgeable about symptoms of depression and suicidal ideation and be familiar with processes to refer as needed.
Article
National, state, and local actors seem ready to address the long-neglected mental health crisis system in the United States. Elements of an organized system of crisis care are in place in some states, including regional or statewide call centers, mobile crisis teams, and crisis care facilities. These necessary advances are not sufficient to address the urgent problems of increasing suicide rates, the inappropriate use of emergency departments to hold people in psychiatric distress, and the problematic reliance on inadequately trained law enforcement who frequently respond to mental health crises. This article describes the immediate challenges and opportunities that can launch nationwide reform in systems of care for individuals in psychiatric crisis. Five action recommendations describe clear, feasible next steps that can be taken to move these systems forward and meaningfully improve access and quality of care for people in crisis. The recommendations include a central coordinating role for Congress, an increase in federal authorization and appropriation of funds, enactment of a 5% Mental Health Block Grant set-aside, expanded funding for research and evaluation, and the pursuit of additional payment mechanisms by states and counties.
Article
Purpose Recovery and relapse relating to stuttering are often defined in terms of the presence or absence of certain types of speech disfluencies as observed by clinicians and researchers. However, it is well documented that the experience of the overall stuttering condition involves more than just the production of stuttered speech disfluencies. This study sought to identify what recovery and relapse mean to people who stutter based on their own unique experiences to account for both the stuttering behaviors and the broader adverse impact of the condition. Method In this study, 228 adults who stutter participated in a mixed-methods exploration of the terms “recovery” and “relapse.” Participants categorized themselves on whether they considered themselves to have recovered or experienced relapse. Data were analyzed thematically through the lens of the speaker self-categorizations to determine how adults who stutter define recovery and relapse regarding stuttering. Results Results indicate that, to adults who stutter, recovery from stuttering is associated with increases in positive affective/emotional, behavioral, and cognitive reactions to the condition and simultaneous decreases in associated negative constructs. These group-level definitions did not change as a function of whether respondents reported that they had experienced recovery or relapse themselves. Discussion Recovery or relapse from stuttering behaviors can occur independently from recovery or relapse from the broader adverse impact related to the condition, suggesting that researchers and clinicians should consider recovery and relapse as involving more than just a reduction or an increase in observable behaviors. These findings support recent research evidence further specifying the many individual phenotypes of stuttering, in that pathways to recovery and relapse can be experienced in different ways for people with different stuttering phenotype profiles.
Article
Purpose Prior research has explored how repetitive negative thinking (RNT) contributes to both the increased persistence and severity of various disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and eating disorders. This study explored the potential role of RNT in the experience of stuttering, with a particular focus on the relationship between RNT, adverse impact, and certain temperament profiles. Method Three hundred thirteen adults who stutter completed a measurement of the frequency/severity of RNT (Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire; Ehring et al., 2011 ), 207 completed a temperament profile (Adult Temperament Questionnaire; Evans & Rothbart, 2007 ), and 205 completed a measurement of adverse stuttering impact (Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering; Yaruss & Quesal, 2016 ). Analyses were conducted within and across instruments to ascertain how RNT, temperament markers, and adverse impact interrelate within individuals. Results Results indicated that RNT significantly predicts Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering impact scores with great effect and that certain temperament markers (specifically, Effortful Control and Negative Affectivity) moderate this relationship for specific sections of the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering. Conclusion By assessing RNT in people who stutter, clinicians can better understand individual differences in their clients, and this will allow them to make targeted diagnoses and develop more tailored intervention plans.
Article
Purpose This study explored group experiences and individual differences in the behaviors, thoughts, and feelings perceived by adults who stutter. Respondents' goals when speaking and prior participation in self-help/support groups were used to predict individual differences in reported behaviors, thoughts, and feelings. Method In this study, 502 adults who stutter completed a survey examining their behaviors, thoughts, and feelings in and around moments of stuttering. Data were analyzed to determine distributions of group and individual experiences. Results Speakers reported experiencing a wide range of both overt behaviors (e.g., repetitions) and covert behaviors (e.g., remaining silent, choosing not to speak). Having the goal of not stuttering when speaking was significantly associated with more covert behaviors and more negative cognitive and affective states, whereas a history of self-help/support group participation was significantly associated with a decreased probability of these behaviors and states. Conclusion Data from this survey suggest that participating in self-help/support groups and having a goal of communicating freely (as opposed to trying not to stutter) are associated with less negative life outcomes due to stuttering. Results further indicate that the behaviors, thoughts, and experiences most commonly reported by speakers may not be those that are most readily observed by listeners.
Article
Purpose Numerous frameworks and definitions have sought to differentiate what behaviors and experiences should be considered as a part of stuttering. Nearly all of these efforts have been based on the perspectives and beliefs of conversational partners and listeners. This outside-in approach to defining stuttering lacks validation from people who live with the condition. Method In this study, 430 adults who stutter participated in a qualitative exploration of the term stuttering . Data were analyzed thematically to determine speakers' perspectives about moment of stuttering and the overall experience of stuttering in their lives. Results To adults who stutter, the term stuttering signifies a constellation of experiences beyond the observable speech disfluency behaviors that are typically defined as stuttering by listeners. Participants reported that the moment of stuttering often begins with a sensation of anticipation, feeling stuck, or losing control. This sensation may lead speakers to react in various ways, including affective, behavioral, and cognitive reactions that can become deeply ingrained as people deal with difficulties in saying what they want to say. These reactions can be associated with adverse impact on people's lives. This interrelated chain of events can be exacerbated by outside environmental factors, such as the reactions of listeners. Discussion Data from this survey provide novel evidence regarding what stuttering means to adults who stutter. These data are used to update the adaptation of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as it applies to stuttering ( Yaruss & Quesal, 2004 ) to better account for the complex and individualized phenotype of stuttering and to develop a definition of the experience of stuttering that is based not only on the observations of listeners but also on the impact of stuttering on the lives of adults who stutter.
Article
Background: Stuttering Support Organizations (SSOs) are places where people who stutter can share their experiences with stuttering and lend support to each other. There is evidence that SSO participation may be helpful in reducing the negative impact of stuttering and promoting positive cognitive and affective changes in adults who stutter. The benefits of participating in SSO organizations for young people, however, are currently unknown. Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between attending a multi-day SSO convention and cognitive and affective changes among young people who stutter (YPWS). Methods: Twenty-two YPWS (ages 10 to 18) were recruited from the 2016 FRIENDS annual convention to participate in this study. FRIENDS is the National Association of Young People Who Stutter. A mixed methods approach was used to collect and analyze quantitative and qualitative data. The Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience with Stuttering (OASES) was administered at three times points: pre-convention, post-convention, and three months following the convention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven participants to further explain the quantitative results. Results: Analysis of OASES scores across the three time points indicated that there were significant decreases in the negative impact of stuttering between pre-convention and post-convention measures. Qualitative analysis of semi-structured interview transcripts revealed five themes related to community building, collaborative learning, cognitive and communicative changes, self-acceptance, and normalizing stuttering. Conclusion: SSOs may be beneficial in reducing the negative impact of stuttering and should be considered a potentially valuable addition to traditional therapy for stuttering.
Article
Purpose: This study described the proportion of children who stutter who exhibit Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms, manifesting in inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behaviours. Children who stutter with these challenging behaviours may not respond as quickly and successfully to stuttering treatment. A preliminary exploration of differences in treatment responsiveness for children with and without ADHD symptoms was undertaken. Method: Participants were 185 preschool children who stutter who had completed stuttering therapy within 3 months prior to study commencement. Differences between groups of children who stutter with and without elevated ADHD symptoms were investigated, in terms of pre-treatment stuttering features (stuttering severity and typography), demographic variables (age at onset, time between onset and commencement of therapy, family history and sex) and treatment data (post-treatment stuttering severity and number of sessions to achieve discharge criteria). Results: One-half (50%) of participants exhibited elevated ADHD symptoms. These children required 25% more clinical intervention time to achieve successful fluency outcomes than children without elevated ADHD symptoms. Findings suggest that more ADHD symptoms, increased pre-treatment stuttering severity, and male sex were associated with poorer responsiveness to stuttering treatment. Conclusion: The large proportion of children exhibiting elevated ADHD symptoms, and the increase in clinical contact time required in this subgroup to achieve successful fluency outcomes, is suggestive of the need for clinicians to tailor stuttering intervention to address these concomitant behaviour challenges. Findings support the use of careful caseload management strategies to account for individual differences between children, and strengthen prognostic information available to parents and clinicians.
Article
Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate self-acceptance and satisfaction with life with people who stutter and the influence of coping and resilience on the two factors. Method: Forty-seven people who stutter (PWS) and 47 people who do not stutter (PWNS) participated in an online survey. Participants completed a survey assessing 6 main areas: (a) background information, (b) satisfaction with life, (c) coping, (d) avoidance, (e) self-acceptance, and resilience. Results: Avoidant coping and maladaptive coping moderated the association between stuttering and self- acceptance but not satisfaction with life. Resilience was found to moderate the association between stuttering and self-acceptance as well as satisfaction with life. Conclusion: Stuttering was associated with lower self-acceptance at higher levels of avoidant coping and maladaptive coping. PWS who have lower levels of resilience were more likely to have a lower satisfaction with life indicating that higher levels of resilience could serve as a protective factor for having a greater satisfaction with life. Further, stuttering was associated with lower self-acceptance at lower levels of resilient attitude. Resilience and coping appear to protect against having diminished self-acceptance and satisfaction with life for PWS.
Article
Purpose: Stuttering behaviors and moments of stuttering are typically defined by what a listener perceives. This study evaluated participants' perceptions of their own experience of moments of stuttering. Method: Thirteen adults who stutter participated in a phenomenological qualitative study examining their experience of moments of stuttering. Analysis yielded several common themes and subthemes culminating in an essential structure describing the shared experience. Results: Speakers experience anticipation and react in action and nonaction ways. Many speakers experience a loss of control that relates to a lack of a well-formed speech plan or agency. The experience of moments of stuttering changes through therapy, over time, with self-help, and across situations. Many speakers experience so-called typical stuttering behaviors as reactions rather than direct consequences of trying to speak. Interactions with listeners can affect the experience of stuttering. Conclusion: Although research recognizes that the experience of the stuttering disorder involves more than just speech behaviors, people who stutter experience stuttering behaviors in time as involving more than just the disruption in speech. This finding has implications for both the theoretical understanding of stuttering and the clinical evaluation and treatment of the stuttering disorder.
Article
Importance Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) can have serious long-term consequences, including psychiatric disorders. However, few studies have assessed the association between TBI and risk of suicide. Objective To examine the association between TBI and subsequent suicide. Design, Setting, and Participants Retrospective cohort study using nationwide registers covering 7 418 391 individuals (≥10 years) living in Denmark (1980-2014) with 164 265 624 person-years’ follow-up; 567 823 (7.6%) had a medical contact for TBI. Data were analyzed using Poisson regression adjusted for relevant covariates, including fractures not involving the skull, psychiatric diagnoses, and deliberate self-harm. Exposure Medical contacts for TBI recorded in the National Patient Register (1977-2014) as mild TBI (concussion), skull fracture without documented TBI, and severe TBI (head injuries with evidence of structural brain injury). Main Outcomes and Measures Suicide recorded in the Danish Cause of Death register until December 31, 2014. Results Of 34 529 individuals who died by suicide (mean age, 52 years [SD, 18 years]; 32.7% women; absolute rate 21 per 100 000 person-years [95% CI, 20.8-21.2]), 3536 (10.2%) had medical contact: 2701 with mild TBI, 174 with skull fracture without documented TBI, and 661 with severe TBI. The absolute suicide rate was 41 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI, 39.2-41.9) among those with TBI vs 20 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI, 19.7-20.1) among those with no diagnosis of TBI. The adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) was 1.90 (95% CI, 1.83-1.97). Compared with those without TBI, severe TBI (absolute rate, 50.8 per 100 000 person-years; 95% CI, 46.9-54.6) was associated with an IRR of 2.38 (95% CI, 2.20-2.58), whereas mild TBI (absolute rate, 38.6 per 100 000 person-years; 95% CI, 37.1-40.0), and skull fracture without documented TBI (absolute rate, 42.4 per 100 000 person-years; 95% CI, 36.1-48.7) had an IRR of 1.81 (95% CI, 1.74-1.88) and an IRR of 2.01 (95% CI, 1.73-2.34), respectively. Suicide risk was associated with number of medical contacts for TBI compared with those with no TBI contacts: 1 TBI contact, absolute rate, 34.3 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI, 33.0-35.7; IRR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.68-1.83); 2 TBI contacts, absolute rate, 59.8 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI, 55.1-64.6; IRR, 2.31; 95% CI, 2.13-2.51); and 3 or more TBI contacts, absolute rate, 90.6 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI, 82.3-98.9; IRR, 2.59; 95% CI, 2.35-2.85; all P < .001 for the IRR’s). Compared with the general population, temporal proximity since the last medical contact for TBI was associated with risk of suicide (P<.001), with an IRR of 3.67 (95% CI, 3.33-4.04) within the first 6 months and an incidence IRR of 1.76 (95% CI, 1.67-1.86) after 7 years. Conclusions and Relevance In this nationwide registry-based retrospective cohort study individuals with medical contact for TBI, compared with the general population without TBI, had increased suicide risk.
Article
A mindfulness meditation exercise was incorporated into a stuttering treatment program for an adult male who stutters. Speech disfluencies were analyzed before and after mindfulness meditation and implementation of fluency shaping techniques. Findings suggested that including a mindfulness meditation exercise into a treatment program may be helpful for people who stutter.
Article
One obstacle potentially hindering research on suicide is the assumption that assessing suicide may make individuals more likely to engage in suicidal thoughts or behaviours; a concern expressed by ethics committees, researchers, and clinicians. However, decisions which are overly cautious and restrictive when approving research proposals will hinder important research in this area. The present aim was to conduct a meta-analysis to examine whether asking about suicide or exposure to suicide-related content in research studies led to changes in participants’ levels of distress, suicidal ideation, or suicide attempts. A systematic search of peer-reviewed and unpublished literature from 2000 to 2017 identified 18 studies. Exposure to suicide-related content led to significant, albeit small, reductions in suicidal ideation (g = -.13, p < .001) and a lower likelihood of engaging in suicidal behaviour (OR = .714, p < .05). The reduction in suicidal ideation was moderated by age such that adolescents showed nearly twice as large a reduction in suicidal ideation from pre- to post-exposure as adults did. Thus, evidence to date suggests that asking research participants about suicide does not increase risk, and may be associated with small benefits. Ethics review boards should calibrate their consideration of the risks associated with participation based on the available evidence and relative to the cost of depriving potential participants of any benefits that participation may offer.
Article
Purpose: Social anxiety disorder is a debilitating anxiety disorder associated with significant life impairment. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate overall functioning for adults who stutter with and without a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder. Method: Participants were 275 adults who stuttered (18-80 years), including 219 males (79.6%) and 56 females (20.4%), who were enrolled to commence speech treatment for stuttering. Comparisons were made between participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (n = 82, 29.8%) and those without that diagnosis (n = 193, 70.2%). Results: Although the socially anxious group was significantly younger than the non-socially anxious group, no other demographic differences were found. When compared to the non-socially anxious group, the socially anxious group did not demonstrate significantly higher self-reported stuttering severity or percentage of syllables stuttered. Yet the socially anxious group reported more speech dissatisfaction and avoidance of speaking situations, significantly more psychological problems, and a greater negative impact of stuttering. Conclusion: Significant differences in speech and psychological variables between groups suggest that, despite not demonstrating more severe stuttering, socially anxious adults who stutter demonstrate more psychological difficulties and have a more negative view of their speech. The present findings suggest that the demographic status of adults who stutter is not worse for those with social anxiety disorder. These findings pertain to a clinical sample, and cannot be generalized to the wider population of adults who stutter from the general community. Further research is needed to understand the longer-term impact of social anxiety disorder for those who stutter.
Article
Purpose: The aim of this study was to (1) document the experiences of enacted stigma (external stigma, experienced discrimination) and felt stigma (anticipation and expectation of discrimination or negative treatment by others) in adults who stutter, (2) investigate their relationships to each other, and (3) investigate their relationships to global mental health. Method: Participants were 324 adults who stutter recruited from clinicians and self-help group leaders in the United States. Participants completed an anonymous web survey consisting of measures of enacted stigma, felt stigma, and global mental health. Data analysis focused on obtaining descriptive statistics for enacted stigma and felt stigma, and performing correlational analysis between these variables, and also between these variables and global mental health. Results: Most participants reported experiencing several different forms of social devaluation and negative treatment from other people at some point in their lives (i.e., enacted stigma), although they rarely experienced these events during the past year. Most participants agreed that they anticipate future stigmatizing experiences (i.e., felt stigma). Enacted stigma in the past year demonstrated a significant positive relationship to felt stigma. Both enacted stigma in the past year and felt stigma demonstrated significant negative relationships with global mental health. Enacted stigma in the past year and felt stigma were unique predictors of participants' global mental health. Conclusions: People who stutter experience discrimination and social devaluation, and they anticipate future stigmatizing experiences. Both of these types of stigma, enacted and felt, are associated with reduced mental health in adults who stutter. Assessment and therapy with adults who stutter should address these aspects of stuttering.
Article
Purpose: Speech-language pathologists routinely assess physical tension during evaluation of those who stutter. If speakers experience tension that is not visible to clinicians, then judgments of severity may be inaccurate. This study addressed this potential discrepancy by comparing judgments of tension by people who stutter and expert clinicians to determine if clinicians could accurately identify the speakers' experience of physical tension. Method: Ten adults who stutter were audio-video recorded in two speaking samples. Two board-certified specialists in fluency evaluated the samples using the Stuttering Severity Instrument-4 and a checklist adapted for this study. Speakers rated their tension using the same forms, and then discussed their experiences in a qualitative interview so that themes related to physical tension could be identified. Results: The degree of tension reported by speakers was higher than that observed by specialists. Tension in parts of the body that were less visible to the observer (chest, abdomen, throat) was reported more by speakers than by specialists. The thematic analysis revealed that speakers' experience of tension changes over time and that these changes may be related to speakers' acceptance of stuttering. Conclusion: The lack of agreement between speaker and specialist perceptions of tension suggests that using self-reports is a necessary component for supporting the accurate diagnosis of tension in stuttering.
Article
Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify potential relationships between self-stigma (stigma awareness and stigma application) and stress, physical health, and health care satisfaction among a large sample of adults who stutter. It was hypothesized that both stigma awareness and stigma application would be inversely related to measures of physical health and health care satisfaction, and positively related to stress. Furthermore, it was anticipated that stress mediated the relationship between self-stigma and physical health. Method: A sample of adults who stutter in the United States (n=397) completed a web survey that assessed levels of stigma awareness and stigma application, stress, physical health, and health care satisfaction. Correlational analyses were conducted to determine the relationships between these variables. Results: Higher levels of stigma awareness and stigma application were associated with increased stress, decreased overall physical health, and decreased health care satisfaction (i.e., discomfort obtaining health care due to stuttering, and adverse health care outcomes due to stuttering), and these relationships were statistically significant. Stress was identified as a mediator between stigma application and physical health. Conclusion: Because adults who stutter with higher levels of self-stigma are at risk for decreased physical health through increased stress, and lower satisfaction with their health care experiences as a result of stuttering, it is important for professionals to assess and manage self-stigma in clients who stutter. Self-stigma has implications for not only psychological well-being, but stress, physical health, and health care satisfaction as well.
Article
Background A potential approach to suicide prevention that has not been closely examined, but which holds promise in terms of widespread dissemination without major side-effects, is physical activity (PA). This systematic review and meta-analysis set out to: (a) explore associations between PA and suicidal ideation (SI) levels, and (b) investigate the effect of PA interventions on SI. Methods Major electronic databases were searched from inception up to 05/2017 to identify quantitative studies reporting an association between PA and SI. A quantitative correlates synthesis and random effects meta-analysis were conducted. Results Fourteen of 21 studies in adults (67%) (n=130,737), 7/14 (50%) in adolescents (n=539,170) and 2/3 (67%) in older adults (n=50,745) found a significant negative association between PA- and SI-levels. Pooled adjusted meta-analysis of 14 effect sizes over eight studies and 80,856 people found that those who were “active” versus those who were “inactive” were less likely to have SI (OR=0.87, 95%CI=0.76–0.98). Additionally, meeting PA guidelines conferred a significant protective effect against SI (OR=0.91, 95%CI=0.51–0.99, P=0.03; N studies=3, n people=122,395), while not meeting guidelines was associated with increased SI (OR=1.16, 95%CI=1.09–1.24, P<0.001; N=4, n=78,860). Data from the intervention studies (N=3, n=121) was mixed and limited. Limitations Our findings are based mainly on cross-sectional studies, while the majority of studies did not include a rigorous physical activity assessment. Conclusions The current study suggests that higher PA levels are associated with lower SI. However, the associations observed need to be confirmed in prospective observational studies and controlled trials.
Article
Purpose: The experience of passing as fluent, also called covert stuttering, has been uncritically framed as an inherently negative pursuit. Historically passing has been understood as a repression of one's true, authentic self in response to either psychological distress or social discrimination. The authors of this paper seek a more nuanced understanding of passing. We ask, how must a person relate to herself in order to pass as fluent? Methodology: This is a qualitative research study in which the authors utilized the ethical theories of philosopher Michel Foucault to contextualize data obtained from semi-structured interviews with nine participants who pass as fluent. Results: Rather than a repression of an authentic self our data suggests passing is more usefully understood as a form of resistance by people who stutter to a hostile society. Participants learned from experiences of delegitimization that their stuttering had ethical ramifications. Consequently, they used a variety of self-forming practices to pass and thereby achieve the privileges that come with perceived able-bodiedness. Conclusion: Passing as fluent is not an inauthentic form of stuttering but a form of stuttering that is produced through the use of specific technologies of communication. These technologies of communication are constituted by the unique ethical relationship of the person who stutters with herself. Passing can be understood as an active form of resistance rather than a passive form of repression. By theorizing passing as fluent as an ethical relationship, we open up the possibility of changing the relationship and performing it differently.
Article
Purpose: Persons who stutter (PWS) and those with social anxiety disorder may exhibit fear of negative evaluation (FNE) and anxiety in social situations. However, the information processing biases that perpetuate these characteristics have had limited investigation. This study investigated judgment bias in social situations. Method: Participants included 50 adults who stutter and 45 age- and gender-matched fluent persons who do not stutter (PWNS), who made up the control group. Participants completed the Interpretation and Judgmental Questionnaire (Voncken, Bögels, & deVries, 2003), and threat scores were calculated. Results: There were no significant differences between PWS and PWNS in social threat or nonsocial threat scores. When the PWS group was divided on the basis of FNE and compared with PWNS participants without heightened anxiety (n = 35), the PWS with high FNE had significantly higher total social threat scores than the PWS with low FNE. The three groups did not differ in threat ratings for ambiguous or profoundly negative social situations. Conclusions: Judgment bias in PWS is mediated by the magnitude of FNE present; not all PWS exhibit judgment bias for social situations. Treatment implications include the need for psychosocial support addressing the negative impacts on quality of life and restrictions on social engagement that stuttering may cause in some individuals.
Book
This new edition to the classic book by ggplot2 creator Hadley Wickham highlights compatibility with knitr and RStudio. ggplot2 is a data visualization package for R that helps users create data graphics, including those that are multi-layered, with ease. With ggplot2, it's easy to: • produce handsome, publication-quality plots with automatic legends created from the plot specification • superimpose multiple layers (points, lines, maps, tiles, box plots) from different data sources with automatically adjusted common scales • add customizable smoothers that use powerful modeling capabilities of R, such as loess, linear models, generalized additive models, and robust regression • save any ggplot2 plot (or part thereof) for later modification or reuse • create custom themes that capture in-house or journal style requirements and that can easily be applied to multiple plots • approach a graph from a visual perspective, thinking about how each component of the data is represented on the final plot This book will be useful to everyone who has struggled with displaying data in an informative and attractive way. Some basic knowledge of R is necessary (e.g., importing data into R). ggplot2 is a mini-language specifically tailored for producing graphics, and you'll learn everything you need in the book. After reading this book you'll be able to produce graphics customized precisely for your problems, and you'll find it easy to get graphics out of your head and on to the screen or page. New to this edition:< • Brings the book up-to-date with ggplot2 1.0, including major updates to the theme system • New scales, stats and geoms added throughout • Additional practice exercises • A revised introduction that focuses on ggplot() instead of qplot() • Updated chapters on data and modeling using tidyr, dplyr and broom
Article
Objective: The Joint Commission recommends all patients be screened for suicide. However, differences in suicide attempt and death rates may affect how well tools predict risk across age groups. Our objective was to determine whether item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9) predicts risk for suicide attempts and deaths across age groups. Methods: PHQ9s completed by adult outpatients treated for mental health conditions in 2010-2012 at four Mental Health Research Network-affiliated healthcare systems were used to measure depression severity and suicidal ideation. Suicide attempts were identified via ICD-9 codes and suicide deaths via ICD-10 codes and state death certificates. Results: In all, 939,268PHQ9s were completed by 297,290 outpatients. Compared to those without, those with nearly daily suicidal ideation were 5-to-8 times more likely to attempt suicide and 3-to-11times more likely to die by suicide within 30 days, and 2-to-4times more likely to attempt suicide and 2-to-6 times more likely to die by suicide within 365 days. The increased risk of suicide death for those with any level of suicidal ideation persisted over two years. The relationships between suicide thoughts and attempts and deaths were similar across age groups. Limitations: Our sample was limited to outpatients completing a PHQ9 and relied on pre-existing clinical and administrative data. Conclusions: Suicidal ideation reported on the PHQ9 was a robust predictor of suicide attempts and deaths regardless of age, and this increased risk persisted for two years. Healthcare systems should address both the immediate and sustained risk for suicide for patients of all ages.
Article
Purpose: Stuttering can trigger anxiety and other psychological and emotional reactions, and limit participation in society. It is possible that psychological counseling could enhance stuttering treatment outcomes; however, little is known about how clients view such counseling. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of clients' experiences with, and perceptions of, a psychological counseling service that was offered as an optional adjunct to speech therapy for stuttering. Method: Nine individuals who stutter (13-38 years old) participated in semi-structured interviews. Six participants had taken part in psychological counseling; three participants did not do so. Interview data were analyzed using grounded theory as a guiding framework. Results: Four thematic clusters emerged from participants' accounts: insights into personal decision-making, why others may not participate in counseling, psychological counseling as a worthwhile part of therapy, and counseling as a necessary component in a stuttering treatment program. Conclusion: In addition to experiencing barriers and facilitators to help-seeking that are reported in related fields, participants accounts also revealed novel facilitators (i.e., a 'why not' mentality and the importance of having a pre-existing relationship with the clinician who offered the service) and barriers (i.e., viewing the service as a 'limited resource,' and, the overwhelming nature of intensive stuttering treatment programs). Findings suggest that clients value the option to access psychological counseling with trained mental health professionals to support the stuttering treatment provided by speech-language pathologists. Participants made recommendations for the integration of psychological counseling into stuttering treatment programs.
Article
Purpose: This study explored the relationship between self-acceptance of stuttering and (1) psychosocial factors (self-esteem, hostility towards others, emotional support, and perceived discrimination); (2) treatment history (support group participation, therapy duration, and perceived therapy success); and (3) previously reported variables in self-acceptance of stuttering, which include age and stuttering severity. Method: Participants were 80 adults who stutter who were recruited with assistance from the National Stuttering Association and Board Certified Specialists in Fluency Disorders. Participants completed an electronic survey composed of an acceptance of stuttering scale, psychosocial scales, and a participant information questionnaire. Results: Statistical analysis identified significant correlations between participants' reports of self-acceptance of stuttering and self-esteem, perceived discrimination, hostility towards others, and perceived therapy outcome. Self-esteem was positively correlated with self-acceptance, while hostility towards others and perceived discrimination was negatively correlated with self-acceptance. Participants who perceived their therapy outcome to be successful were significantly more likely to report higher levels of self-acceptance. No significant relationships were found between self-acceptance of stuttering and support group participation, emotional support, stuttering severity, and participant age. Conclusion: This exploratory investigation has provided a foundation for future studies on the self-acceptance of stuttering. The findings indicate common psychosocial variables in self-acceptance of stuttering and of other disabilities. The significant relationships between self-acceptance of stuttering and psychosocial and therapeutic variables found need to be further explored to identify its causalities and clinical implications. Learning outcomes: The reader will be able to (1) discuss the importance of assessing self-acceptance of stuttering, (2) summarize the literature on self-acceptance of disability, and (3) describe the significant findings related to self-acceptance of stuttering and psychosocial, therapeutic variables.
Article
Rumination has been shown to be positively associated with suicide ideation. Yet, only few studies have attempted to explain potential mediators of this association. Perceptions of entrapment are a core component of recent psychological models of suicidality and might mediate the relationship between rumination and suicide ideation. Possible mediator effects were investigated in an online sample (n = 142) and a clinical sample (n = 226) of adults receiving outpatient psychotherapy. Results demonstrated that perceptions of entrapment fully mediated the association between ruminative thinking and suicide ideation. However, the reverse relationship, where the association between entrapment and suicide ideation is mediated by ruminative thinking, was not supported. These findings suggest that the relationship between rumination and suicide ideation is explained by perceptions of entrapment. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key practitioner message: Ruminative thinking and perceptions of entrapment are associated with suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior. Perceptions of entrapment fully mediate the association between ruminative thinking and suicide ideation. Clinically, it could be useful to incorporate perceptions of entrapment into the psychosocial risk assessment of persons contemplating suicide.
Article
This study attempted to understand the relationship between causal attributions for stuttering and psychological well-being in adults who stutter. The study employed a cross-sectional design using a web survey distribution mode to gain information related to causal attributions and psychological well-being of 348 adults who stutter. Correlation analyses were conducted to determine relationships between participants' causal attributions (i.e. locus of causality, external control, personal control, stability, biological attributions, non-biological attributions) for stuttering and various measures of psychological well-being including self-stigma, self-esteem/self-efficacy, hope, anxiety and depression. Results indicated that higher perceptions of external control of stuttering were related to significantly lower ratings of hope and self-esteem/self-efficacy and higher ratings of anxiety and depression. Higher perceptions of personal control of stuttering were related to significantly lower ratings of self-stigma and higher ratings of hope and self-esteem/self-efficacy. Increased biological attributions were significantly related to higher ratings of permanency and unchangeableness of stuttering and lower ratings of personal control of stuttering. The findings demonstrate the importance of instilling a sense of control in PWS regarding their ability to manage their stuttering. Findings also raise questions regarding the benefits of educating PWS about the biological underpinnings of stuttering.
Article
Many people who stutter experience the phenomenon of anticipation-the sense that stuttering will occur before it is physically and overtly realized. A systematic investigation of how people who stutter respond to anticipation has not been previously reported. The purposes of this study were to provide self-report evidence of what people do in response to anticipation of stuttering and to determine the extent to which this anticipation occurs. Thirty adults who stutter indicated on a Likert rating scale the extent to which they anticipate stuttering and answered three open-ended (written) questions regarding how they respond to anticipation. All participants reported experiencing anticipation at least "sometimes," and 77% of the participants reported experiencing anticipation "often" or "always." The extent to which participants reported experiencing anticipation was not related to stuttering severity, impact, or treatment history. Analysis of written responses revealed 24 major categories, which were heuristically divided into action or non-action responses. Categories representing avoidance and self-management strategies were further divided into 14 and 19 subcategories, respectively. Participants were just as likely to view anticipation as helpful as they were to view it as harmful. Findings demonstrate that most, if not all, adults who stutter experience anticipation, and the majority of adults who stutter report doing so at least often. Adults who stutter respond to this anticipation by altering the speech production process in various ways. Results highlight the importance of the role that anticipation plays in how stuttering behaviors manifest themselves. The reader will be able to: (a) summarize existing literature on the anticipation of stuttering; (b) describe the role and extent of anticipation of stuttering in adults; (c) describe the various ways that adults who stutter respond to anticipation; (d) describe the importance of measuring anticipation in clinical and research domains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.