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Assessment on the Socio-Economic Status of Manipur: A Study base on Economic Perspectives



The intention of the study is to investigate the socioeconomic status of the people of Manipur by utilising various sources, such as official documents and departmental data. The study aims to identify trends in socioeconomic status by conducting a thorough analytical assessment of data and information obtained from various departmental functions, spanning the pre-British, British, and present periods. The study also seeks to suggest sustainable alternatives for improving the socioeconomic status. To gather comprehensive and reliable data, several departments were visited and interacted with to conduct a professional and detailed study. The study's findings suggest that both the public and private sectors must implement more efficient strategies and economic models to improve socioeconomic conditions. The study emphasises the need for competent governance, investments, and entrepreneurship to elevate the socioeconomic status of Manipur's people, which is the primary focus of the study.
© 2023, WAJM All Rights Reserved 1
World Academic Journal of
Vol.11, Issue.2, pp.01-09, June 2023
E-ISSN: 2321-905X
Available online at:
Research Paper
Assessment on the Socio-Economic Status of Manipur: A Study base on
Economic Perspectives
A.S. Sochipem Zimik1
1Department of Business Administration, Assam University, Silchar, India
Author’s Mail Id:
Received: 15/Apr/2023; Accepted: 20/May/2023; Published: 30/Jun/2023
Abstract The intension of the study is to investigate the socio-economic status of the people of Manipur by utilizing various
sources, such as official documents and departmental data. The study aims to identify trends in the socio-economic status by
conducting a thorough analytical assessment of data and information obtained from various departmental functions, spanning the
pre-British, British, and present periods. The study also seeks to suggest sustainable alternatives for improving the socio-
economic status. To gather comprehensive and reliable data, several departments were visited and interacted with to conduct a
professional and detailed study. The study's findings suggest that both public and private sectors must implement more efficient
strategies and economic models to improve socio-economic conditions. The study emphasizes the need for competent
governance, investments, and entrepreneurship to elevate the socio-economic status of Manipur's people, which is the primary
focus of the study.
Keywords Socio-Economic Status, Sustenance, Economic Policies, & Investment
1. Introduction
The assessment of socio-cultural and economic aspects has
become increasingly significant in the contemporary era.
Despite its rich cultural history, the people of Manipur have
not been thoroughly evaluated in terms of their economic and
rational status. It is disheartening to witness that, apart from
Sangai deer and Shirui lily, the state is known for very little.
This lack of recognition has made it difficult for researchers
to understand the socio-economic status (SES) of the
population. SES, in common parlance, refers to revenue,
education, occupation, religion, culture, and practices. With
the advancements in technology and economic viability, this
study aims to propose an innovative approach to
comprehending the present SES and possible means to uplift
it shortly. The study has been bolstered by various
government initiatives, globalization, market opportunities,
and strategies, which have all had a positive impact on
economic viability. One unique characteristic of
understanding the socio-economic condition is through
comprehending the livelihoods of the people in Manipur.
Livelihood is directly related to an individual's skills,
knowledge, and income status [11]. Understanding the socio-
economic status (SES) requires examining variables such as
income, education level, status, assets, and esteem, as
highlighted [6], [9]. The main objective of this study is to
discuss the variables that define the SES of the area under
1.1 Significant of the Study
The study will closely investigate and thoroughly assess the
socioeconomic status (SES) of Manipur. It will analyze the
future projection and rationality in achieving a balanced
economic distribution for the weaker sector. The study will
consider the perspectives of policymakers and various
stakeholders, discussing the challenges and obstacles that
may arise in pursuing new opportunities and economic
growth. It will delve into the transformation of SES resulting
from British intervention and the contemporary era,
emphasizing the necessity of studying a new and dynamic
strategy to sustain and enhance the region's SES.
1.2 Aim and Scope
This study aims to highlight the economic status of the region
and identify potential areas for economic growth and
development. By exploring opportunities for investment and
collaboration between local stakeholders and investors, the
economic status of the people can be uplifted. However, the
study has found that several key issues need to be addressed,
including a lack of accountability, an inadequate
understanding of manpower, poor departmental relationships,
and a lack of organization in human resources. To address
these issues, corrective measures and programs need to be
implemented. Ultimately, the study seeks to provide the best
suggestions and ideas for leveraging the potential of the
region and promoting economic prosperity.
World Academic Journal of Management Vol.11, Issue.2, Jun 2023
© 2023, WAJM All Rights Reserved 2
1.3 Objectives
To analyze socio economy transformation with
reference to the people of Manipur
To analyzed the status of socio economy of the
people of Manipur
To suggest best alternatives in view of the socio
economic improvement perspectives
1.4 Methodology
To ensure that the study's goals and scope are in line with the
research conducted, it is evident that no previous research has
been conducted to evaluate the socioeconomic status of the
people of Manipur. Given the limited existing literature and
research contributions, it seems more feasible to adopt an
exploratory and descriptive methodology. Therefore, the
objectives will be achieved through qualitative analysis and
concept development. In order to gather the most pertinent
information, secondary data will be collected from diverse
sources such as journals, research papers, books, and official
or departmental reports. To comprehensively assess the
socioeconomic status, a detailed discussion on the
transformative aspects of the descriptive approach will be
carried out, while the current socioeconomic status will be
presented in a tabular format for a thorough evaluation. By
analyzing various alternative strategies, the most effective
and efficient recommendations can be made to address the
existing imbalance in socioeconomic status and facilitate
2. Related Work
Although enormous data and literature base on the socio-
economic status are available, only few literatures are found
feasible in view to the scope and objective of the study. Some
of the most relevant literatures are discuss as followed:
Descriptive methodology was utilized to conduct a thorough
study on the socio-economic status of students and encourage
them to view education as an essential challenge [7]. The
socio-economic status (SES) is influenced by multiple
factors, including education, stress levels, planning and
execution, natural environment, cultural influences, and
infrastructural development. Notably the rapid rise in
population and the urban-rural exodus has affected the
socioeconomic condition [1]. In contrast, socioeconomic
profile of a community based on their education status,
income, and nature of consumption were define [3].
Additionally, socio-economic status was categorized into
penury status, revenue generation, educational status, and
accommodation [13]. Positive correlation between student
performance and parents' economic, education, and
occupation, emphasizing the role of education in improving
SES were identified [5]. Education plays a vital role in
enhancing SES [19], which can result in better economic
situations and psychological well-being [15]. Health care is
also essential in improving SES, particularly for women and
children who are vulnerable to ill treatment [14]. Improving
SES can help eliminate unemployment and increase
adaptability to technological advancements [16]. Role of
education in reducing socioeconomic inequality [10]. Various
phenomena such as nature, nutrition, economic conditions,
political influence, and technology transformation have a
direct impact on SES [2], [4], [8]. Commercialization
activities can improve the socio-economic status of regional
people through infrastructure development, revenue
generation, market accessibility, technology transformations,
security, and quality of life. SES serves as an indicator of the
standard of living and economic progress [12], while the
impact of globalization on socio-economic conditions,
emphasizing the importance of developing skills, attitudes,
and knowledge for employability [12].
After conducting a thorough study of the literature, it is
evident that there is a significant gap in understanding the
socio-economic status of Manipur, and there is a lack of
serious research being conducted to address this issue.
Additionally, there is a lack of clear initiatives from a
research perspective, which has left many researchers
concerned. However, this study aims to analyze possible
corrective measures to improve the socio-economic status of
Manipur and bridge the research gap. The study will provide
rational and pragmatic alternatives to address this issue.
3. Theory: The Socioeconomic Journey
3.1 British Era
Although numerous literature contributions exist, there is a
significant need for retrospection of the concept details in the
selected study area. Fundamentally, the theory is explained
through factors such as income, education, the standard of
living, occupation, and culture. It is important to stipulate
what socioeconomic refers to in a larger spectrum and from a
research point of view. Depending on the inhabitant, people
residing in the state can be broadly classified into hill and
valley regions. Pre-British era, inhabitants of the hill area
followed a nomadic tradition and were territorially protective.
Agriculture was the most preferred occupation, followed by
hunting and a few trade opportunities. Due to a lack of
exposure, poor education, and market exposure, hill people
tend to live clandestinely. Infrastructure and hill terrain has
caused serious challenges in exposing and gearing toward
cultural transformation and socioeconomic improvement.
Contrarily, the valley experienced the glory of a princely
reign and even reached the zenith in history by invading
Myanmar and gaining more exposure to education and trade
practices. The geographical terrain of the valley has made the
region more favorable for accessibility and cultural
transformation. Although the mode of transportation
remained dormant with traditional methods, the Western
world experienced a huge impact with the industrial
revolution and advancements in transportation with the
invention of the steam engine and motorized transportation.
Both hill and valley people show a bond of connection
through ritual practices and cultural identity. However,
education and economic benefits were more prevalent for
valley people compared to hill people. Cultural exposure was
carried out with a few communities, including hill and valley
people, Myanmar, and neighboring states. It was horrific to
witness that the life span of Indians during British rule was
only 27 years due to poor medical facilities and the British
World Academic Journal of Management Vol.11, Issue.2, Jun 2023
© 2023, WAJM All Rights Reserved 3
mentality towards Indians. No significant improvements were
recorded in the area of health and medical services.
Remarriage seems to be common and believed to be less
prone to crimes, which may be due to the small population
and cultural and traditional rules that envelop individuals
systematically. Merchants, unlike the current era, were not
open and were subject to heavy taxation to control
commercial activities and profit-oriented behavior. This
seriously questions the socioeconomic status of people living
during the reign of the British. The banking system came into
existence post-India's independence from British control.
Before this, currency-less transaction systems were well-
executed, and goods and services were exchanged without
cash. The rich natural resources were not explored much
because there was a too much-unexplored territory and
geographical terrain to overcome. Religion and education
were introduced to the region, unlike when valley people
were more advanced in education at Kolkata. With the ever-
increasing conflict spreading Christianity, education provided
by the British was not encouraged by the valley inhabitants,
resulting in British education being transferred to the hill
areas. This made education and Christianity spread and
accepted by the people, but it also destroyed the practices and
rituals belonging to the region. It is argued then and now from
the standpoint of preserving the culture and identity of the hill
people that they were left exposed and vulnerable, making the
valley community think less of them to conserve their
religion and culture. Unlike other parts of the country, there
was no cultural transformation and exchange from
neighboring invaders, making the culture remain dormant. On
the bright side, the British education system had a great
positive impact in making education and development follow
up, leading to hypothetical states of positive impacts on the
hill people's prosperity and progress. However, the
infrastructure status was not developed unless it served the
purpose of the British strategic advantage, making the region
thrive with lesser social benefit. This leaves a great task for
the current government and regional bureaucrats to overcome,
which is a Herculean task.
3.2 Post-British Era: A Neo Socio Economic
Although the British have been widely regarded as exploiters
in historical narration, they may also be seen as a blessing in
disguise, particularly for the hill people. During their reign,
the British brought about significant socio-economic
transformation through education. Although the development
of infrastructure appeared to be in line with the British's
objectives of exploitation and administration, it also
contributed to the overall socio-economic development of the
region. The states in the region have adopted and invested in
various schemes to promote socio-economic development,
with education and agriculture being given priority. Despite
the lack of impact from the industrial revolution, the adoption
of the five-year plan was seen as a means of improving
infrastructure, boosting the economy, and raising living
standards. However, due to poor infrastructure, the policy has
had limited impact and heavily relies on supplies from
Myanmar and other states. Road transportation has become a
vital lifeline in the region, while rail, water, and air transport
services are absent. The population has increased
significantly since British rule, and efforts to control it have
been implemented. Communication facilities have also
significantly improved in recent years, with various
departmental functions developing. The provision of
electricity has been another essential transformation that has
improved the lives of people in the region. Although there are
three power plants, there is still a need for power supply from
other states, and they are currently managed by both private
and government interventions. The mining and industrial
sectors are still in a developing stage. Investment and credit
services in the area have been carried out, especially in
infrastructure development [11]; along with the state mission
of smart city. Resources and revenue generation are other
areas that need to be discussed in detail. Agriculture and
government employee act as major occupations, although
entrepreneur and business involvements are on the rise. The
middle-class population is the major and followed by below
poverty-level of population. Both public and private
enterprises act as key players in making the economic drive in
a systematic way with the rise in opportunity and needs.
3.3 Contemporary Era: Plethora of Transformation
The Common Era has played a significant role in promoting
the transition from a nomadic to a settled culture, to foster
opportunities for global peaceful coexistence. In retrospect,
this initiative has been effective in implementing model
policies. Globalization and proactive measures taken by the
state have made it easier to adopt these changes, based on
feasibility. As of 2011, the population was roughly 2.8
million, with a breakdown among different groups. The tribal
community represents 31% of the population, while the
Meitei community accounts for 68% and the scheduled castes
make up approximately 1% [18]. The percentage of job
opportunities available plays a crucial role in improving the
socioeconomic status of people. However, tribal and other
backward tribes are often underrepresented in the government
cabinet, with most positions held by those from the valley.
Additionally, it's important to examine the role of education,
which has a strong connection to religion and is a key factor
in socioeconomic development. The arrival of British rule
had a significant impact on these factors.
Table 1, highlights the special emphasizes of the teacher-to-
pupil relationship. This indicates the need for more teachers
at the lowest levels of schooling. As the number stayed 1:25
in comparison to the higher education ratio of 1:25.
Considering that the number of students in the lesser level of
education is much greater than the number of students in the
upper level of education. At the moment, the current state of
schooling is as shown in table 2. It has been observed that the
state is presently supporting the education industry. Policies
such as compulsory free schooling until the age of 14 are
examples of such policies. However, the state's contribution is
confined to lower education levels, while the unaided
contribution grows stronger as education levels rise [18].
Table 1: Average Teacher Pupil Ratio
Average Teacher Pupil Ratio
World Academic Journal of Management Vol.11, Issue.2, Jun 2023
© 2023, WAJM All Rights Reserved 4
Figure 1: Average number of Education School
On account of the education status, the state shows a positive
drive in making free education below 14 years old. A scheme
such as mid-day meals has attracted more students in the
government sector. However, the matter of fact is that higher
education as held accountable in making competent. The
average teacher and pupil ratio continued to decline from the
lower level as it progress on.
Figure 2: Gross Domestic Product of Manipur
The Five-Year Plan has been replaced by Niti Ayog, which
aims to better understand the opportunities and interests of
the people, employing a bottom-up approach to
policymaking. Based on the tabulations above, Niti Ayog
should focus primarily on the tertiary sector, followed by the
primary and secondary sectors, respectively. Table 3 shows
Manipur's gross domestic product output. It has been noted
that greater focus should be placed on the tertiary industry.
Making the state and investors concentrate more on the sector
and spend more in the top activities affiliated with the tertiary
sectors [18]. Although agriculture remains the dominant
occupation, there has been a cultural shift due to the influence
of media and marketing promotions, resulting in significant
changes in the socioeconomic status of the people. This raises
concerns regarding the sustainability of occupations such as
agriculture, fisheries, and other cottage industries. While the
marketing and retail sectors have not shown a significant
impact in the state, this creates opportunities for investors and
policymakers to focus on social development. Infrastructure
development remains a key area for improvement, with the
state implementing various initiatives such as smart cities to
provide more than basic infrastructure and facilities. The
existence of hospital services has led to a great improvement
in the lifespan of people. Privatization has also seen
significant growth in every sector, while trade with
neighboring states and Myanmar has increased. Sectors such
as tourism, manufacturing, cottage industries, and mining are
showing promising growth.
Bank of India and its associates hold the majority stake,
followed by nationalized, regional, and private banks. The
bank density is highest in the valley region, and the
purchasing power of the people is reflected in the bank's
assets. With an increasing number of branches in the state, the
national bank is witnessing promising prospects. However,
the majority of the branches are concentrated in the valley
region, with no foreign bank branches. From a consumer
standpoint, most people prefer to save money in banks.
Saving accounts are the least promising form of investment.
Despite an increasing population density in the valley, it is
apparent that the distribution of bank branches is uneven,
making the region less economically sustainable. With a
population of roughly 28 lakhs and only 196 branches, the
ratio of customers to branches is approximately 1:14286,
highlighting the need for more physical branches to improve
accessibility [18]. Despite the availability of ATMs and
digital payment support, the physical presence of bank
branches remains a critical aspect of the essential P's in
management, especially in building trust and confidence
among customers who have various queries related to
banking services, loans, and other facilities.
The table 4 thoroughly described the division of bank
branches between the hill and the valley, with the growing
number of branches in the valley region by all other banks
except State Bank of India (SBI) and Co giving particular
interest in both the region. One of the major variations in the
number of branches variation is due to increased population
density and extensive business transaction taking place [18].
Figure 3: No of Bank Branches in Manipur
As the number of branches in the valley increases, it becomes
necessary to prioritize establishing banking facilities in the
hill regions. Despite the high volume of transactions taking
place in the valley and the availability of bank branches and
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© 2023, WAJM All Rights Reserved 5
ATMs in urban areas, it is important to ensure that the public
is aware of banking options. To address issues such as fraud
and phishing, it is crucial to have branches where customers
can seek help. Additionally, the tourism industry in the region
would benefit from the establishment of foreign exchange
Figure 4: Percentage Amount Accounted for against Loan
One of the primary facilities available to the public is credit
facilities. The above tabulations 5 indicate the percentage of
funds issued on account of credit. On average, bank branches
issue approximately 35% to 40% of their deposited amount as
credit, except corporate banks that issue credit facilities up to
65% of their annual deposits received [18]. However, public
banks issue a significantly higher amount of credit than
corporate banks. Despite the lower amounts issued by
corporate banks, it has encouraged other banks to take on
more risk in issuing higher percentages of loans and credit.
Regarding the agricultural sector, it is important to note that
the state's production is not self-sufficient and heavily
dependent on other states and FCI supply. Poor infrastructure
and lack of railway tracks result in most products being
transported by road, leading to increased costs, time, and
prices. The dominant trend in fertilizer usage is as follows in
table 6:
Figure 5: Quantity of Fertilizer used (in Tons)
Source: Department of Agriculture, Manipur
Depending on the landmass the proportions of the distribution
of the fertilizers are uneven with a huge quantity of the
fertilizer concentrated in the valley while the hill regions are
less accessible to the fertilizers usage.
Graph 1: Average agricultural fertilizer distributed in Value
(Rs. in lakhs) Allocated in the Hills and Valley
Despite the significant differences in land mass and
agricultural practices between regions, it is unreasonable to
draw a hasty conclusion about the allocation of budget and
land usage as shown in graph 1. According to the analysis of
both tabulation 6 and graph 1, the steps made to improve the
output of the area are restricted due to the uneven spread of
fertilizer. This is followed by a short description of the efforts
that must be implemented in order for underprivileged
farmers to profit from agriculture subsidies [18].
Traditional agricultural practices persist in hilly regions,
whereas shifting cultivation remains relevant. Conversely,
modern cultivation methods are practiced in the valleys, with
a disproportionate share of the budget allocated to these areas.
This highlights the need for accountability and balance in
resource allocation.
3.3.1 Fisheries
"Approximately 18 fisheries farms are maintained to balance
the population of 28 lakhs in Manipur. However, despite the
existence of a fisheries department and opportunities for
revenue generation, the sector has not reached its full
potential due to the underutilization of freshwater resources.
The annual average production of 23868.5 tonnes and value
of 36240.75 lakhs indicate a significant potential for growth.
The Lok-Tak Lake alone accounts for roughly fifty percent of
the state's total fish production. The state spends Rs. 300
crores on fish imports, while there are 56,461.05 hectares of
land suitable for fish farming. This highlights the
irresponsible nature and lack of consciousness among the
public and policymakers in fully utilizing the favorable
features of the fish farming opportunity.
3.3.2 Forest
Forest covers approximately 80% of the state, and the
majority of its products include timber and firewood,
accounting for 85% of major product revenue compared to
the valley. Interestingly, minor forest products are equally
shared between the hill and valley regions. Apart from
timber, wood, and its by-products, the state has fewer
minerals and other elements that can contribute to revenue.
The forest reserves and national parks in the state have gained
global attention, with the Sangai deer, Shirui lily, and various
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© 2023, WAJM All Rights Reserved 6
forest species being considered valuable forest products. The
hunting and poaching lifestyle of hill tribal people has been
strictly controlled by implementing rules and penalties, as
well as preventing forest burning and deforestation. The
presence of endangered species has created an opportunity to
attract more tourists and generate revenue by presenting a
unique cultural identity and prospects for tourism industries.
3.3.3 Health
One of the most significant areas of focus for the government
is the provision of health services. Despite substantial
investments, growth and development in this sector have
remained stagnant. While state-funded hospitals are available,
the region has seen promising growth in privately-run
facilities. These services have gained attention from
neighboring countries and surrounding states [17], and have
contributed to a rise in life expectancy to 77.9 years - more
than double that of the British colonial period. Moreover, a
good health is essential for efficient and economic output
[22]. Low-cost health services have become a key feature,
attracting tourists seeking medical treatment and improving
the livelihoods of residents. This was especially evident
during the COVID-19 pandemic in privately-run hospitals. In
addition, the government has launched various initiatives
such as "Health for All", "SUMAN", "ASHA", "Hakshelgi
Tengbang", and other medical campaigns to improve
healthcare access. Another noteworthy initiative is the
"Anganwadi Schemes", which focuses on uplifting basic
healthcare in rural areas.
3.3.4 Labor
Citizens who fall into this category are crucial assets. As per
the report, the labor costs in the region are classified by skill
level, with skilled labor earning Rs. 278 per day, semi-skilled
labor earning Rs. 248 per day, and unskilled labor earning Rs.
225 per day. Despite the steep inflation, the labor costs that
meet basic survival needs have a narrow margin. To address
the shortage of labor and reduce costs, developmental
projects in rural areas recruit labor from the region through
the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee
Act (MGNREGA) scheme.
Graph 2: Agriculture & Skills labor Daily Wages
Over the past year, it has been noted that there is a significant
increase rise in the daily wages as highlighted in the above
graphs 2 [18].
Switzerland records the highest per-hour labor cost of $51,
and in Asia, Japan tops the list with $25 per hour. In the
automotive industries, the labor cost is estimated to be $148
in India and $234 in China. On cross comparing the standard
of labor costs globally and in Manipur, it has brought to the
notion of the standard of living that can be opted for as a
laborer. Ultimately, labor productivity serves as an indicator
of the hourly contributions made to the nation's economy.
Understanding labor productivity gives wider scopes to the
labor’s competence level with the help of technological
advancement along with the work-life balance.
4. The Issue
The state accounted for just 8% of the tax, which included
both taxable and nontaxable revenue sources, and was
exclusively dependent on central funding and a portion of the
central taxes. The state's core contributions account for
around 91% of overall income generation. Notwithstanding
the significant income shortfall, it has called to light the need
for the state to pay special attention to the entrepreneur and
tertiary sectors. Analyzing the trajectory of income creation
has revealed that tertiary sectors should be given special
consideration. Privatization has shown to be a more
trustworthy and efficient option. The public sector continues
to rely on conventional and cumbersome formalities, causing
the sectors to function behind Schedule. Another critical issue
is the lack of collaboration among various departments in the
public sector. There is a huge disparity among the community
in the states, primarily in the domain of development, with a
line of differences and mounting challenges. The valley
enjoys being the state's powerhouse and the strong feelings of
hill people demonstrate the difference in the form of separate
statehood and an unwillingness to share the budget and
governance with the valley. The state does not understand the
neighboring state of Assam and the governance model it has
chosen to overcome various differences and create a
coexistence environment. The autonomous hill council should
be the state's response to better coexistence. And Assam has
seen its success. Unethical fund laundering by bureaucrats,
contractors, and shop vendors has resulted in substandard
infrastructure and projects. Despite the possibility of easy
access, commodity prices are rising in comparison to
neighboring states. These are understandable in light of the
transportation costs and other unethical money demands from
various organizations. Other important areas where the
current government is working to reduce production are
drugs. This then harmed the public by raising the price of the
commodity in order to recoup any contributions made.
Furthermore, the valley people's move and intention in
claiming scheduled tribes has deeply hurt the hill people's
sentiment and built distrust. There are fewer information
technology institutions and opportunities or services that can
generate revenue by creating jobs in the development domain.
Inadequacy in delivering quality education and technical
impact has created a significant gap in the domain's future
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© 2023, WAJM All Rights Reserved 7
prospects. Despite a literacy rate of 80%, 26% of the total
population registered in the employment exchange due to
limited scope and opportunity.
Furthermore, the state's unemployed youth have become a
focal point, with an estimated 44.4 percent of Sanapati district
youth between the ages of 15 and 24 unemployed. There has
been no significant contribution in the fields of education and
research. Another horrifying issue is the deterioration of the
environment. The issues are related to global warming,
ecology, and the rapid reduction of agricultural land. Several
social organizations and communities have raised the issue.
Such a phenomenon occurs in valley regions where human
house constructions encroach on paddy crop fields. Drought
and a lack of irrigation have also contributed to the declining
trends caused by rising human populations. Farmers and the
lower middle class are still vulnerable to inflation and high
prices. These have caused the state to understand why the
constructive idea was not carried out in the light of raising the
socioeconomic status standard. This has rendered the state
unfavorable for any economic model capable of pivoting and
sustaining the state's SES. There is no logical connection
between the public and private sectors as a single entity as
well as a joint collaborator. The investment appears to be the
only option, but due to the slow return and high risk, it has
turned into a Herculean task for the investor. These have
made the state understand the reason why the constructive
notion was not carried out in the light of uplifting the
standard of socio-economic status. This has projected the
state unfavorable for any economic model that can pivot and
sustain the SES of the state. There is no rational linkage
between the public and private sectors as a single entity and
also a joint collaborator. Investment seems to be the only
option, however, due to the slow return and high risk, has
become a Herculean task for the investor.
5. Results and Discussion
To begin the positive prospect of moderating the economic
status towards positive inclinations, it is necessary to
thoroughly examine the opportunity and potentiality of the
people. The public should be free of the constraints of relying
on the government and its assistance for any future endeavor.
Improving the education system in the region is crucial, but
despite the implementation of new education policies, the
current model remains unchanged. This is evident in the fact
that government institutes continue to be the primary
providers of educational facilities, surpassing private
institutes as shown in Table 2. The state has a large workforce
and a high literacy rate, but due to a lack of industry and
private firms, a large proportion of employable youth remain
unemployed. This hinted at more opportunities for IT
companies to establish or BPOs companies to establish,
where many young people can find work. Another important
strategy is the Look East Policy (LEP), which the Indian
government has been working hard to implement. With the
policy in place for more than a decade, the policy is moving
at a faster pace. Aside from various other state policies, LEP
is one of the most promising for business transformations and
a platform for a large market. Instead of blaming each other,
the state and local community should focus on economic
reformation and adopting models, similar to the successful
economic reforms of 1991. This can be achieved by seeking
assistance from experts and intellectuals for effective
implementation. Manipur will serve as a gateway to India for
Southeast Asian countries. This has given rise to a research
question: Is the state well-prepared and manageable for
hosting visitors? Creating a robust business environment that
fosters investor confidence and promotes harmony is crucial.
This necessitates a strong emphasis on geopolitical stability,
as emphasized in the aforementioned section. The
sustainability of SES heavily relies on ensuring the safety and
long-term peace of the local community. Table 3 illustrates
the substantial contribution of the tertiary sector, which is
particularly reliant on geopolitical stability compared to the
other two sectors. It is worth noting that agriculture remains a
key player in economic sustenance and livelihood. However,
the state must justify and carefully assess the disproportionate
investment in this sector. Graph 1 reveals a significant
disparity in the allocation of resources, with 97% of fertilizer
being distributed to only 10% of the valley area, while the
hilly region, comprising 90% of the state's landmass, receives
a mere 3%. This highlights a substantial imbalance in the
utilization of arable land. Furthermore, it is important to
encourage the hilly region community to adopt modern
farming methods and utilize organic and non-toxic fertilizers.
Another crucial initiative that should be undertaken is
addressing economic leakage by encouraging the circulation
of cash within the community through the promotion and
purchase of local goods and services, as opposed to buying
imported branded and foreign products. Furthermore, any
unrest issues with the outfits should be resolved as soon as
possible to make the visitor feel secure and keep them away
from unethical practices. The central government has given
special consideration to road expansion and infrastructure
improvement. The only modes of transportation are air and
land transport systems. Railway construction will have a
significant impact on the state by lowering commodity prices
due to cheaper modes of transportation than the railway.
Currently, transportation from Nagaland and Assam is carried
out by truck, incurring a high transport cost and increasing
the risk of risk and damage. Allocation and investment
through FDI and various ADB organizations have allowed the
area's infrastructure to grow. Another area where the state is
lacking is technical support for existing industries, which has
resulted in less exposure and promotion of available
industries. Despite the abundance of online and marketing
platforms, local products have yet to reap the advantages of
technical and promotional support, as well as reduced transit
costs.. To overcome such differences in investment ideas,
entrepreneurs and start-ups must encourage. The Skill India
project, which was launched in tandem with new education
policies and vocational professionals, has been encouraged.
Notably, online education has not yet been implemented [21].
Another important area where the public is expected to
overcome challenges with government interventions is self-
help groups.
Based on the preceding discussion, it can be inferred that an
organized environment can be achieved through the
World Academic Journal of Management Vol.11, Issue.2, Jun 2023
© 2023, WAJM All Rights Reserved 8
collaboration of the government and various stakeholders.
Additionally, fostering collaborative governance with
neighboring states would facilitate resource sharing and foster
positive relationships. By establishing a robust supply chain
mechanism for fisheries, forest products, agriculture, and
entrepreneurship, along with Myanmar and neighboring
states, the sustainable development of the socioeconomic
system (SES) would be significantly enhanced compared to
neighboring states.
6. Conclusion and Future Scope
The study clinically examine on improving the state's living
standards and economic standing. The state's economy can
benefit from increased business turnover. Agriculture, tertiary
sectors, and entrepreneurs can all expect to do well. Despite
the individual's pursuit, discovering reliable avenues to
generate income from multiple sources remains elusive,
thereby increasing reliance on a single income stream. Self-
sufficiency and start-up India have devised novel ways for
people to become entrepreneurs. From the standpoint of
education, vocational training, and the New Education Policy
have simplified the acquisition of knowledge and skills. The
Skill India scheme was established with the goal of
empowering youth. The opportunity from various
investments, tourism industries, local products, and LEP will
direct the youth in a new dimension of revenue generation. Is
the state in a position to welcome visitors while also
supporting the economy? One of the main takeaways from
the study is that the practice of the disproportionate
distribution of funds must be investigated and controlled as
soon as possible. The unequal standard of living between the
hill and valley exemplifies this. Despite various reports from
departments, the media has remained dormant and silent,
forcing the public to raise the issue on social media. One of
the main focus points is to fill vacant unemployed ST vacant
posts through training and development for the smooth
operation of the administrations and to make the state youth
competent, which has been aligned with India's new
education policy. These have taken a serious research
approach to find a rational and in-depth study that is required
to improve Manipur's socioeconomic status. These are the
study's main points; also, the study put up a challenge to
examine the socioeconomic position for future research and
react to the number of adolescents employed in community
and societal parlance. Improved marketing assistance is
necessary, as well as a business strategy or platform that can
balance people's social and economic life.
The boons and challenges associated with the SES in the
region are thoroughly discussed and analyzed. Furthermore, it
is worth noting that future research can explore the
comparative analysis of the state's SES with neighboring
states as well as with more advanced and developing states.
Conflict of Interest
The authors whose names are listed certify that there are NO
affiliations with any entity financially in the subject matter or
materials discussed in this manuscript.
Funding Source
No fund were granted for the research study
Authors’ Contributions
The author demonstrated initiative by conducting a
comprehensive study to understand and examine the socio-
economic conditions of the public. The study involved a
thorough investigation of each relevant department and
highlighted their contributions.
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A.S. Sochipem Zimik earned his B.
Tech., MBA, and Ph.D. in tourism
industries BMSCE (2010), DSATM
(2014), and Assam University,
respectively. He has a working
experience of 3 years and nine months
as a corporate liaison. He has published
8 research papers in well-known
journals including Scopus and ABDC index journals. Apart
from research work, he is interested in sports, reading, and
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Labour is the prime contributor for the industrial growth and economic development of a country. It is known to be the segment which contributes significantly to the GDP of the Nation. Work is generally known to be the physical or mental engagement of the people in any economically productive activity for their livelihood. The Indian economy is characterized by the existence of a vast majority of employment in the unorganised sectors. Its dominance in the employment front is such that more than 90 per cent of the total workforce belongs to the informal economy. Planned Economic Development in the country can be achieved by eliminating poverty through employment and income generation. In this regard, Fisheries sector plays an important role in the developing countries of the world. The fisheries contribution to the Indian economy has enriched after the introduction of advanced technology to increase the yield per unit area of water attracting more foreign exchange. The problems of poverty and malnutrition faced in coastal areas can be simultaneously met through, planned utilization of available local resources and encouraging participation of the local people in the fishing occupation. Fisher folk are those people who engage in fishing activities. They are the victims of economic oppression and lives under social prejudices with low social status. There is a need to undertake systematic study on the life of the fishermen to seek solutions to their existing problems and to improve their overall status. This study will review into the work life of fisher folks in Thota Bengre village belonging to Mangaluru taluk in Karnataka State.
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The quality of life and economic development of economies and their regions is influenced by socio-economic indicators such as unemployment, healthcare and education, environmental issues or household equipment. The question remains whether these indicators within regions can also influence each other and whether they have positive or negative effects. The paper aims to describe the impact of the selected socioeconomic indicators on health personnel, which was also divided from the gender perspective. For this purpose, the regions of the Visegrad Group Plus countries at NUTS II level were selected. The research was performed in the period from 2004 to 2013. According to our results based on the Generalized Method of Moments with panel data, we found out that a change in household income and a change in the number of vehicles in the monitored regions have the greatest (positive) impact on staff in hospitals. The research may contribute to the discussion about levels of regional economic development and the related competitiveness in terms of the socio-economic approach, and it may also provide a basis for further discussion on its measurement and use of appropriate indicators.
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The main goal of sustainability is to focus on fulfilling the present needs of population with the ability to produce resources to fulfill the needs in future. With growing concern for the environment, sustainable development has become one of the primary goals of all nations throughout the world. In the same track, the need of sustainable assessment arises with awareness to mitigate global social, economic, and environmental issues. It can also be seen in the response of global policies implemented to solve these issues. This chapter discusses various sustainability assessment methods and a comparison of these sustainable assessment methods is also shown based on some important criteria.
Family Socio-economic Status Effect on Students' Academic Achievement at College of Education and Behavioral Sciences
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Gobena, G., "Family Socio-economic Status Effect on Students' Academic Achievement at College of Education and Behavioral Sciences, Haramaya University, Eastern Ethiopia", Journal of Teacher Education and Educators, Volume 7, Number 3, pp. 207-222, 2018.
Statistical Year Book of Manipur
Statistics, "Statistical Year Book of Manipur, 2018", Imphal: Government of Manipur, pp.1-267, 2018.
A stud on the socio-economic conditions for students of hiher education in Tiruchirappalli
  • K Vanitha
Vanitha, K., "A stud on the socio-economic conditions for students of hiher education in Tiruchirappalli", International Journal of Current Research, Volume 8, Issue 08, pp.37465-37472, 2016.
A Study on the Impact of Online Education in Building up the Career with reference to Coimbatore District
  • M Manoj
Manoj M., "A Study on the Impact of Online Education in Building up the Career with reference to Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu", World Academics Journal of Management, Volume 9, Issue.2, pp.01-07, 2021.
Examining the Socio-Demographic Factors that Determine Wokers' Decision to Hold Health Insurance in Adamawa State
  • N Umar
  • U Pariya
Umar N. & Pariya U., "Examining the Socio-Demographic Factors that Determine Wokers' Decision to Hold Health Insurance in Adamawa State, Nigeria", World Academics Journal of Management, Volume 9, Issue.3, pp.27-32, 2021.