Measuring transportation. Traffic, mobility and accessibility. ITE Journal

Ite Journal (Impact Factor: 0.15). 10/2003; 73(10)(10).
Source: OAI


This article compares three approaches to measuring transportation system performance and discusses their effects on planning decisions. Traffic-based measurements (such as vehicle trips, traffic speed and roadway level of service) evaluate motor vehicle movement. Mobility based measurements (such as person-miles, door-to-door traffic times and ton-miles) evaluate person and freight movement. Accessibility-based measurements (such as person-trips and generalised travel costs) evaluate the ability of people and businesses to reach desired goods, services and activities. Accessibility is the ultimate goal of most transportation and so is the best approach to use.

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Available from: Todd Litman, Oct 24, 2014
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    • "Walking is the most basic, active and most inclusive of all modes. Aside from delivering economic benefits such as vehicle or public transport cost savings, time savings and transport externality reduction (Litman, 2003), it also increases personal mobility options. In addition, it supports equitable access to opportunities , particularly to the most vulnerable transport users in our society such as women, children and the elderly (Borst et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Developing cities report higher walk shares in comparison to their developed city counterpart. Also, they present a strikingly different set of challenges and opportunities in their pedestrian environments. The need to enhance our understanding of environmental attributes, which encourage pedestrians to participate (or not) in walking and walking-related activities, has prompted this pedestrian-scale face-to-face questionnaire survey on one developing city. This paper has three aims, namely: examine the pedestrian decision making process, apply the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to empirically define the hierarchy of pedestrian needs (criteria), and examine the relative priorities of environmental attributes (alternatives) that satisfy the pedestrian needs, with the end goal of realising a positive walking environment. A total of 70 respondents were collected via face-to-face questionnaire survey which was rolled out in the Quiapo District (Manila, Philippines). Results of this study demonstrated the feasibility of AHP in supporting an evidence-based approach to defining the pedestrian need hierarchy. Moreover, it established that the most important criteria is protection rather than mobility. Traditionally, the design of pedestrian facilities (e.g. sidewalks/pathways) was premised on the need to move. Moreover, based on the survey, the relative priority of the criteria in the order of most important to least important priority is: protection, ease, equitable access, mobility, identity and enjoyment. This comprises the pedestrian need-hierarchy, which served as the theoretical framework of this paper. This paper presents an alternative approach at quantifying qualitative criteria and attributes that served relevant to the pedestrian decision-making process. Moreover, this research sheds light on the importance of a user-centred needs-assessment approach to better understand pedestrian decision-making and behaviour.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Transport Policy
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    • "Distance from home (DST) (1) ≤0.5 km, (2) 0.6–3 km, (3) 3.1–8 km, (4) N8 km[12,18,19]18Independence of mobility (IDP) (1) Self reliant, (2) with family members, (3) with group, (4) with caregiver, (5) others[18,19]19 Transportation modes used (TRM) (1) Walking, (2) bicycle, (3) motorcycle, (4) private car, (5) bus, (6) taxi, (7) three wheel vehicle (8) mass rapid transit system[12,14,6,22,36,26,27,15,21,11,7,17]20 Travel time (TTM) (1) b10 min, (2) 10–29 min, (3) 30–59 min, (4) ≥60 min.[19,20,18]21 Departure time (DPT) (1) Morning, (2) daytime, (3) evening, (4) nighttime[35]22 Activity time (ATT) (1) b10 min, (2) 10–30 min, (3) 30–60 min, (4) 1–2 h, (5) N2 h.[19,20,18]23 Residential location (RLC) (1) Inner zone, (2) intermediate zone, (3) outer zone.[14,21,18,29,7,34]24 Destination (HSRP) (1) Hospital, (2) shopping center, (3) religious place, (4) park.[13,19,18,17]Bus trips were common in all areas, as was the use of taxis. "
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    ABSTRACT: Urbanization and aging of societies are two global trends in urban areas, especially in rapidly developing countries. Mobility of the elderly to access to public spaces is hindered by inadequate transportation infrastructure and services. The current study assesses this mobility problem in terms of access to public spaces using various modes of transportation. It utilized a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods. The data were obtained from elderly people aged 60 and older living in three different urban areas of Bangkok. Data collection was done using a questionnaire-based survey. Logistic regression was utilized for determining the significant factors affecting mobility of the elderly. It was found that the ability to travel without assistance, the distribution of public spaces with accessible transportation services, urban density, and urban development patterns influenced the mobility of elders. This study suggests inclusion of universal design principles in public projects, community planning, and the integration of transportation planning and urban systems.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · IATSS Research
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    • "There is a trend of conversion of agricultural lands for residential activities enhancing the urban neighborhood character of the area. Litman (2010) states that it is more flexible to walk through a shorter distance like 100m, as a longer distance requires a combination of walking and usage of public transport. Walking link is often ignored, if the involvement of motorized link has taken place on public right-ofway . "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The quality of the neighboring environment plays a major role in encouraging people to walk when attending their daily needs. Although past studies have identified a relationship between neighborhood design factors and the level of walkability, this interdependence is poorly understood in urban planning in Sri Lanka. The purpose of this study is to determine factors and conditions that influence walkability in a selected neighborhood in the town of Panadura and develop a model to predict what design factors enhance walkability in the neighborhood area. Ninety three (93) factors that affect the walkability in urban neighborhood were identified as the findings of the literature review of this study. Seventy six (76) walkability factors identified through perception surveys were examined within a 100m radius of 70 buffered circles representing 140 participants’ residences through a questionnaire survey and field observations. Chi-square and Bivariate correlation analysis were carried out to identify the most decisive factors for walkability. Multiple Regression analysis was applied to develop a model to assess the level of walkability of residents in the selected area based on the most significant factors. The study has identified main nine variables that determine the level of walkability. Based on the significant values the model can be used to assess the level of walkability of the people in Sri Lankan context.
    Preview · Conference Paper · Aug 2015
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