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Pharaoh Tutankhamun: a novel 3D digital facial approximation


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This article offers a novel and original facial reconstruction of pharaoh Tutankhamun based on data published in the biomedical and Egyptological literature. The reconstruction adopts the Blender 3D software, running the add-on OrtogOnBlender, which allows for a refined presentation of the soft tissues. The present reconstruction is also compared to other approaches produced in the past.
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Italian Journal of Anatomy and Embryology 127(1): 13-22, 2023
Firenze University Press
ISSN 1122-6714 (print) | ISSN 2038-5129 (online) | DOI: 10.36253/ijae-14514
Citation: Cicero Moraes, Michael E.
Habicht, Francesco M. Galassi, Elena
Varotto, Thiago Beaini (2023) Pharaoh
Tutankhamun: a novel 3D digital facial
approximation. Italian Journal of Anat-
omy and Embryology 127(1): 13-22. doi:
10. 36253 / ij ae-14 514
Copyright: © 2023 Cicero Moraes,
Michael E. Habicht, Francesco M.
Galassi, Elena Varotto, Thiago Beaini.
This is an open access, peer-reviewed
article published by Firenze Univer-
sity Press (
ijae) and distributed under the terms
of the Creative Commons Attribution
License, which permits unrestricted
use, distribution, and reproduction
in any medium, provided the original
author and source are credited.
Data Availability Statement: All rel-
evant data are within the paper and its
Supporting Information les.
Competing Interests: The Author(s)
declare(s) no con ict of interest.
Pharaoh Tutankhamun: a novel 3D digital facial
C M (BS PD ..), M E. H (PD), F
M. G (MD PD),*, E V (PD), T B (PD)
1 Arc-Team Brazil, Sinop-MT, Brazil
2 College of Humanities, Art and Social Sciences, Flinders University, Adelaide-SA, Aus-
3 Forensic Anthropology, Paleopathology and Bioarchaeology (FAPAB) Research Center,
Avola, Italy
4 Faculty of Dentistry, Federal University of Uberlândia, Uberlândia-MG, Brazil
*Corresponding author. E-mail:
Abstract. is article o ers a novel and original facial reconstruction of pharaoh Tut-
ankhamun based on data published in the biomedical and Egyptological literature.  e
reconstruction adopts the Blender 3D so ware, running the add-on OrtogOnBlender,
which allows for a re ned presentation of the so tissues.  e present reconstruction is
also compared to other approaches produced in the past.
Keywords: anat omy, anthropology, facial reconstruction, 3D, endocast, palaeoradio-
logy, pharaoh, Tutankhamun.
Born Tutankhaten (the living image of Aten) in ca. 1325 BC, in the 11th
year of the reign of Pharaoh Akhenaten, his probable father, succeeded him
under the name “Tutankhamun” at the age of 9, until his death approxi-
mately a decade later (Hawass & Saleem, 2016). His reign took place dur-
ing the 18th Dynasty, between the years 1333/1336/1356 BC-1324/1327/1346
BC (Hawass et al., 2010, Hawass & Saleem, 2011, Rühli & Ikram, 2014). Still
young he may have married his half-sister Ankhesenamun with whom he
supposedly had two stillborn foetuses, one at 5-6 and the other at 9 months
of gestation, both mummi ed and present in his tomb, KV62, found by the
British Egyptologist Howard Carter (1874-1939) in 1922 in the Valley of the
Kings, Egypt (Hawass et al., 2010, Hawass & Saleem, 2011, Rühli & Ikram,
2014, Hussein et al., 2013).
From the  rst autopsy, performed in 1925 to the present, the life and
death of the young pharaoh have been shrouded in mystery, doubt, and
speculation (Derry 1927). A series of hypotheses were raised about the phar-
aoh’s state of health, some with more robust evidence, such as a diagnosis
of malaria and Köhler’s disease that could have contributed to the death of
14 Cicero Moraes et al.
the young man (Hawass & Saleem, 2016, Hawass et al.,
2010), to others with less to no hard anatomo-patholog-
ical evidence such as murder due to brain injury, gyne-
comastia, Fröhlich Syndrome, Antley Bixler Syndrome,
Marfan Syndrome and even an occasional hippopota-
mus attack (Rühli & Ikram, 2014, Hussein et al., 2013).
More complex familial neurological conditions have also
been hypothesised linking, in particular, Akhenaten and
Tutankhamun (Ashraan, 2012).
When he carried out the rst analysis on Tutankha-
mun’s body, Howard Carter did not indicate what could
be the cause of the pharaoh’s death: it was only in 1968
that the rst X-ray images were made on that body,
revealing more data and along with these, also new
speculations, such as the one that attributed the death
to a possible blow to the head (Boyer et al., 2003). It was
then in 2005 that a computed tomography scan was per-
formed on the body, bringing more internal structural
information and, once again, highlighting the debate
about the ndings, since, if on the one hand the team
agreed on the exclusion of the assassination hypoth-
esis, on the other hand there was no consensus about a
possible knee fracture that could have been caused in
a time near Tutankhamun’s death (Guardians, 2005a).
In 2010, a new study, this time with the DNA of some
pharaohs and family members, brought new information
about the health status and potential family ties between
these individuals. anks to this study, it was known,
for example, that Tutankhamun suered from malaria
and Köhler’s disease and that he was closely related to
Akhenaten (KV55) and to the two foetuses found in his
tomb (Hawass et al., 2010).
Because he is a historical gure of great notoriety,
Tutankhamun’s facial appearance (Fig. 1) has always
been a matter of general interest, even more so because
of his possible familial relation to Akhenaten, known
for breaking with the old religious and artistic tenets of
ancient Egypt, which causes fascination and perplexities
on the part of scholars and the general public, raising
hypotheses ranging from the aforementioned syndromes
and conditions linked to endogamy, to sensationalist,
unscientic extrapolations.
Precisely because of this popularity, the pharaoh’s
face has been the target of a series of facial approxima-
tions using forensic techniques over the last few decades.
In 1983, forensic artist Betty Pat Gatliff (1930-2020)
reconstructed Tutankhamun’s face from a plaster skull
moulded from radiographs taken of the skull by physical
anthropologist Joe Young. e face was revealed during
a meeting of the Miami Society of Egyptology and pub-
lished in Life magazine in June of that year (Sandomir,
2020, Taylor, 2001).
In 2005 the then Secretary General of the Supreme
Council of Antiquities of Egypt, Dr. Zahi Hawass, pre-
sented to the world the result of the work coordinated
with three teams that individually developed three facial
reconstructions of Tutankhamun, based on the segment-
ed skull from the computed tomography that had been
carried out that same year. e Egyptian group was led
by biomedical engineer Khaled Elsaid, who performed
the reconstruction digitally with the aid of a 3D edi-
tor and was aware of the pharaoh’s identity. e French
team, on the contrary, was led by forensic specialist
Jean-Noel Vignal and the face was modelled analogously
by anthropological sculptor Elisabeth Daynes. Both also
knew that it was the young pharaoh, while the American
team, made up of physical anthropologist Susan Antón
and forensic sculptor Michael Anderson, carried out the
work completely blindly, without knowing who it was
and generating, like the French team, an analogue sculp-
ture of the face. Even though there were slight variations
between the faces, the nal result was very pleasing to
Dr. Hawass, in his own words: “In my opinion, the shape
of the face and skull are remarkably similar to a famous
image of Tutankhamun as a child, where he is shown as
the sun god at dawn rising from a lotus blossom (Guard-
ians, 2005b).
Furthermore, Pausch and colleagues created a bidi-
mensional facial approximation of the prole of Tut-
ankhamun performed from X-ray images, with the aid
of the MorphMan 4.0 soware (Pausch et al., 2015).
Finally, in the year 2022, Andrew Nelson, segment-
ed and printed the skull of Tutankhamun, based on his
computed tomographic scans, passing it on to the sculp-
tor Christian Corbet so that he could proceed with the
analogue facial reconstruction. e work was presented
in December of that year and served as the basis for a
documentary made by the North American broadcaster
PBS (Havis & Murray, 2022).
Biological anthropology is the branch of science that
aims to study humankind and its biological characteris-
tics. Primarily performed on real anatomical specimens,
in recent decades it has been possible to act on volumet-
ric digital records or images. Current technology allows
producing three-dimensional material from photographs
Pharaoh Tutankhamun: a novel 3D digital facial approximation
and bidimensional images of CT scans, which signi-
cantly increases the possibilities of analysis. erefore,
none of the conclusions of this article are nal and are
intended only to present the techniques used, as well
as to foster new questions about this person of unique
historical importance. For this, the analysis by digi-
tal deformation of a skull with characteristics similar
to those recorded by the Pharaoh are proposed, a facial
approximation using forensic techniques was also per-
formed, and analyses of the peculiar characteristics of
the shape of this skull, as well as an approach regarding
the brain capacity estimated by the volume of the skull
were made. Facial approximation is an auxiliary facial
recognition technique that uses the skull as a basis to
approximate the face of the individual in life. e his-
tory of this technique has always been shrouded in con-
troversy (Stephan, 2003) mainly due to the diculty
in dening what is scientic (objective) and what is art
(subjective) in its approach. e present work avoids the
use of the term reconstruction, replacing it with anoth-
er one more consistent with its reality, that is, forensic
facial approximation (Stephan, 2015), or simply facial
approximation (FA). It is not just a question of adapt-
ing the name, but of using complementary approaches,
based on the analysis of data extracted from living indi-
viduals, as will be explained later, in order to obtain a
face supported by the maximum of objective references,
leaving little room for subjective interventions by the
3D Reconstruction of the Skull
As mentioned above, the FA technique requires a
skull to be made, thus the researchers sought spatial
references for it so that it could be reconstructed in 3D.
e team that composed this work has a broad and long
experience in the structural reconstruction of scenari-
os from a single photo (Moraes, 2013b) and skulls from
several photos (Moraes, 2013c) or orthographic images
(Moraes, 2013a). Two works carried out by the authors of
this publication used skulls modelled from the intersec-
tion of two-dimensional data (photos), such as the case
of the pseudo-Sophocles in 2020 (Galassi et al., 2020) and
Saint Vincent de Paul in 2022 (Moraes et al., 2022a).
Seeking a more robust and reliable base to provide
skull structural data, the researchers searched for articles
that oered capture data from tomographic slices and
skull X-rays, complemented with some anthropometric
measurements. us, a vast collection of X-ray captures
was studied in the work of Boyer et al. (2003), where pro-
portions could be raised from semi-orthographic images,
but without available scale parameters. e visual obser-
vations and measurements were adjusted by the publica-
tion of Hawass and Saleem (2016), which reported the
general dimensions of the skull in the X and Y axes. e
study by Habicht et al. (2021) reinforced the available
measures, complementing with others, providing a gen-
eral adjustment for the three axes: X, Y and Z.
Two other materials, even though they are not peer-
reviewed publications, were shared by the creators who
had access to the tomography performed on Tutankha-
Figure 1. Photograph of Tutankhamun’s head (le) and 3D skull test overlay over it. Base image credit: L0019350 A mummied human
skull (Creative Commons):ed_head.jpg
16 Cicero Moraes et al.
mun’s skull and oer potential two- and three-dimen-
sional references to the skull. One of them is a video on
YouTube ( ) made avail-
able by Corbet where, at a given moment, it is possible to
see the projection of the eyeball. Knowing that, accord-
ing to Taylor (2001) the diameter of such a structure is
25 mm, it would be enough to convert the pixels into
millimeters and an important measure in the X axis can
be found, since the deformation of perspective does not
change the measurement in that region drastically. e
important measure in this case is the distance between
the frontomalar orbital points (fmo-fmo). Another even
more precise reference is present in an article on the website ( ) about the
same approximation performed by Corbet and Nelson
(Havis & Murray, 2022), where there is a screenshot with
the visualisation of the pharaoh’s skull in the axial, sag-
ittal and coronal planes, accompanied by the measure-
ments in millimeters of the frames, thus a conversion
from pixels to millimeters would be enough to know the
measurements of such structures.
e presence of all the aforementioned materials,
formally published or not, demonstrates the abundance
of data available on Tutankhamun. It is thus possible to
join the fragmented data, in order to reconstruct three-
dimensionally, with a good degree of compatibility with
the real anatomical structures, what would be the skull
of the young pharaoh.
With all the data of proportions and measurements
available, a skull resulting from the CT scan of a virtual
donor underwent a process known as anatomical defor-
mation (to be explained below), so that the segmented
bone structure adapted to the congurations of the skull
of Tutankhamun, generating the model that would be
used in the facial approximation (Fig. 1).
3D Facial Approximation
Forensic facial reconstruction (FFR) or forensic
facial approximation (FFA), or simply facial approxi-
mation (FA) (Stephan, 2015) is an auxiliary recognition
technique, which reconstructs/approximates the face
of an individual from his skull and is used when there
is little information for the identication of a subject
(Pereira et al., 2017). It should be noted that the tech-
nique is not about identication, such as those oered by
DNA or comparative analysis of dental arches, but about
recognition that can lead to subsequent identication.
The present work uses the same step-by-step
approach discussed in Abdullah et al. (2022), starting
with the complementation of the missing regions of the
skull, followed by the projection of the prole and struc-
tures of the face from statistical data, generating the
volume of the face with the aid of the anatomical defor-
mation technique and nishing with the details of the
face, conguration of the hair and generation of the nal
e modeling process was performed in Blender 3D
soware, running the add-on OrtogOnBlender (http://
index.html) and its submodule ForensicOnBlender.
e program and its add-on are free, open source and
cross-platform, hence they can run on Windows (≥ 10),
MacOS (≥ BigSur) and Linux (=Ubuntu 20.04).
In the case of this work, a desktop computer with
the following characteristics was used:
Intel Core i9 9900K 3.6GHZ/16M processor; 64 GB
of RAM memory
GPU GeForce 8 GB GDDR6 256-bit RTX 2070
Gigabyte 1151 Z390 motherboard; SSD SATA III 960
GB 2.5”
SSD SATA III 480 GB 2.5”
Water Cooler Masterliquid 240V
Linux 3DCS (
Linux3DCS ), based on Ubuntu 20.04.
OrtogOnBlender has cephalometry tools, for which
it is necessary to distribute a series of anatomical points
on the surface of the skull (S, N, A. B, t11, t21, t16, t26,
Go R, Go L, Gn ans Me) and proceed with the calcula-
tion of the angles. e cephalometry chosen was that
of the Universidade de São Paulo (USP) ( https://bit.
ly/3pKzP5Q ).
e results (Table 1) suggest maxillary prognathism
(class II) and mandibular retrognathism, corroborating
the ndings of Pausch et al. (2015).
Initially, the skull was aligned to the Frankfurt
horizontal plane and received a series of projections
for the middle limits of regions belonging to the bones
(distance between gonions on the X axis, nasospinale
point on the Z axis, position of the incisors on the Z
axis and position of the chin on the Z axis) and so tis-
sue (eyeball positioning on the X, Y and Z axes, border
of the nasal wings on the X and Z axes, lips on the X
axis, eyelids on the X axis and size of the ears on the Z
axis) (Moraes & Suharschi, 2022). e projections cover-
ing the orbit downwards show a lower region within the
expected proportions, with the dimension on the X axis
between the gonion slightly larger than the average pro-
Pharaoh Tutankhamun: a novel 3D digital facial approximation
portion, but still within normal limits. e positions of
the average and proportion of the ns point (nasospina-
le) coincided with that of the skull, the incisors as well,
although, in general, they projected slightly downwards,
which may indicate that the teeth are slightly larger
than the average and projection. e mental region was
positioned a little above the markers, indicating that the
mandible may be smaller than the expected average/pro-
portional structure (Fig. 2A), such characteristics cor-
roborate the results of the USP cephalometry. A series of
36 (18 symmetrical) so tissue thickness markers, based
on measurements performed with ultrasound in 204
adult Egyptians, were distributed on the frontal portion
of the face, in order to trim the limits of the skin in such
regions (Fig. 2B). For the tracing of the nose, statistical
data from 110 adult individuals of various ancestries
were used. A base template for the projection is availa-
ble at OrtogOnBlender/ForensicOnBlender, based on the
work of Moraes and Suharschi (2022). Once the projec-
tion of the nose was established, a prole line was drawn
using the limits of the pronasal point and the so tissue
thickness markers as a reference (Fig. 2C). To cover the
regions not contemplated by the so tissue thickness
markers and to complement the volumetric approxima-
tion, the mesh of a virtual donor, composed of the so
tissue, skull and endocranium, was imported and posi-
tioned in the same space as the skull of Tutankhamun
(Fig. 2D). Structural deformations are performed on the
mesh, in order to convert the donor’s skull into the skull
of the individual to be approximated: as a side eect, the
so tissue mesh also suers such deformation, resulting
in a face with the characteristics of Tutankhamun (Fig.
2E). Although the neck region did not undergo major
changes, the most important part of the process gener-
ated a prole that was very compatible with the projec-
tion made from the so tissue thickness markers and
the nasal projection (Fig. 2F). As discussed in Abdul-
lah et al. (2022), the pre-configured face of another
approximated individual is imported into the scene
and deformed to t the current face (Fig. 2G). Such a
face already has hair that are adjusted according to the
intended conguration (Fig. 2H) and the same applies to
the material and texturing, which receives a complemen-
tary pigmentation, according to the historical data gath-
ered and the individual’s ancestry (Fig. 2I).
Two approaches related to facial approximation were
worked on, one more objective and scientic and the
other more subjective and artistic.
e scientic approach consisted of a bust equipped
with elements closely linked to the statistical aspects of
the approximation and, since the initial stage of the pro-
cess was composed only of data collected from CT scans
and measurements of living individuals and a compatible
population, it was possible to generate an anatomically
coherent image. In addition, to reduce the incompatibil-
ity in the region of the orbit, images were generated with
closed eyes, as well as to avoid speculations about skin
tone, the color chosen was the gray scale (Figs. 3-5).
The most artistic approach consists of a colour
image, with open eyes, eyebrows and face painting (Figs.
6-8), based on data present in the press release of the
approximations carried out in 2005 (Guardians, 2005b),
where Dr. Hawass cites the JE 60723 sculpture (https:// Although it contains speculative ele-
ments about the individual’s appearance, as it is one
aspect of this work that will be also presented to the
general public, it provides the necessary elements for a
complete humanisation, very dicult to achieve with
just exposing the skull and decient in the objective
image in grayscale with eyes closed.
As mentioned above, when the structure of the vir-
tual donor was deformed, a segmentation correspond-
ing to the endocranium was also adapted to the skull of
Tutankhamun (Fig. 9A, B), hence that it was possible to
raise its volume to ≈1587 cm³/ml. e measurement of
head circumference resulted in 58.45 cm.
Such data were plotted as a graph, containing the
volume of endocrania and circumferences of the heads of
another 40 facial approximations, resulting in 41 samples
(Fig. 10). It is evident that in this sample the endocra-
nium, combined with the circumference of Tutankha-
mun’s head, is positioned among the largest volumes. e
work by Neubauer et al. (2018) with the measurement of
modern endocrania, presents a general average (men and
women, n=89) of 1328±164 ml, therefore the endocrani-
um studied in this article is 259 ml above, corresponding
to +1.58 SD. e volume of the endocranium is dierent
from the volume of the brain, so that, in order to identify
a factor to be used for the conversion, the virtual donor’s
brain was reconstructed directly from its computed
tomography, with the aid of semi-automatic and manual
Table 1. Acronyms based on craniometric points are summarised at
this link: .
Angle Result (°) Observation
Maxillary occlusion 22.03 10 degrees above normal
SNA 87.91 Maxillary prognathism (Class II)
SNB 79.24 Mandibular retrognathism
ANB 8.67 Skeletal class II
SNGn 70.62 Clockwise rotation of the mandible
Mandibular plane 34.73
SNGoGn 36.81 Vertical growth trend
18 Cicero Moraes et al.
segmentation tools in the free, open source and cross-
platform software Slicer 3D (,
using as a reference the structure presented in the work
by Ritchie et al. (2018). According to the calculations
raised, the volume of the brain is 9.81% smaller than that
of the endocranium, so if the endocranium resulted in
Figure 2 A-I Steps of the forensic facial approximation process.
Pharaoh Tutankhamun: a novel 3D digital facial approximation
1587 cm³, the brain would have a volume of 1431.21 cm³.
Knowing that the average for men (n=2466) is 1233.58
cm³, Tutankhamun’s brain is 197.73 cm above it, there-
fore, at +2.01 SD, a signicantly large brain volume.
When observing the population cluster (Moraes et
al. 2022b), based on midface measurements (fmo-fmo,
ec, G and N), it can be seen that the skull of Tutankha-
mun has more anity with the population of articially
remodeled skulls (Fig. 11), which can be explained by its
atypical structure.
Figure 3. Objective version - 3/4 view face.
Figure 4. Objective version – face prole.
Figure 5. Objective version - frontal face.
Figure 6. Coloured version – 3/4 face.
20 Cicero Moraes et al.
This new facial reconstruction of Tutankhamun
adds to the body of Egyptological and anatomical-
anthropological literature on the famous pharaoh and
can be of help to both elds of research by highlighting
the possibility of a new modelling technique based on
the use of digitised graphic information.
To Dr. Richard Gravalos for providing the virtual
donor CT scan used in this study.
Abdullah J.Y., Moraes C., Saidin M., Rajion Z.A., Hadi
H., Shahidan S., Abdullah J.M. (2022) Forensic Facial
Approximation of 5000-Year-Old Female Skull from
Shell Midden in Guar Kepah, Malaysia. Appl. Sci. 12
(15): 7871.
Figure 7. Coloured version – face prole (lateral view).
Figure 8. Coloured version – frontal view.
Figure 9. Tutankhamun’s endocranium segmented (le) and virtual
donor brain segmented (right).
Figure 10. Distribution chart with data on endocranial volume
(horizontal) and head circumference (horizontal), with means
based on the work of Neubauer et al. (2018), Ritchie et al. (2018),
Hofman (1984) and PAHO (2020).
Pharaoh Tutankhamun: a novel 3D digital facial approximation
Figure 11. Population cluster with the placement of Tutankhamun in black.
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Skhūl V é o nome dado a um fóssil com idade entre 80.000 e 120.000 anos antes do presente (AP), descoberto por Theodore McCown e Hallam L. Movius Jr., em 1932, no Monter Carmel, Israel [A_SMITHSONIAN_2022]. Inicialmente foi classificado como um exemplar de Homo heidelbergensis em face às robustas e arcaicas características do crânio, posteriormente como Paleoanthropus palestinensis, durante os anos de 1940 uma série de outros estudos foram efetuados até que, finalmente, foi estabelecido que, na verdade, tratava-se de um Homo sapiens arcaico ou humano arcaico [A_Grant_2018]. A discussão acerca do que seria um humano moderno e um humano arcaico não conta com um consenso, de modo que os pesquisadores procuraram classificar as características estruturais do crânio Skhūl V comparando-os com humanos modernos e outras amostra do gênero Homo, como os heidelbergensis e neanderthalensis [A_Grant_2018] [A_McCown_1939] [A_Vasilyev_2015]. Algumas características arcaicas podem ser observadas como ossos esfenóides maiores, toro supraorbital pronunciado, região zigomática com uma curvatura significativamente alta, espessura óssea considerável e testa relativamente retraída. Outros indicam elementos sapientes ou modernos como a abobada craniana alta e longa, inclusive a supracitada região supraorbital foi classificada como uma morfologia neandertalóide-sapitente. O mesmo pode ser observado na região do queixo, pois, apesar de contar com a estrutura ausente nos neandertais, a mesma é significativamente menor do que a curvatura média de um humano moderno. A capacidade craniana geralmente atribuída a Skhūl V é de ~1520 cm³ [A_Grant_2018] [A_Vasilyev_2015], no entanto, parece se tratar de um erro advindo do cálculo externo do crânio pela fórmula de Person, para se estipular o volume do endocrânio. O próprio estudo, publicado em 1939 indica que, ao se mensurar o volume do endocrânio utilizando água, o valor encontrado foi de ~1450 cm³ [A_McCown_1939], mesmo assim acima da média dos humanos modernos, indicando uma afinidade mixada entre aqueles e o neanderthalensis, cujo volume geral é geralmente maior do que a média do H. sapiens. Tais características fomentam um debate amplo sobre a classificação do crânio apresentado neste estudo, de modo que alguns estudiosos propõe que, na verdade, pode se tratar de uma espécie em transição que mostra semelhanças com o Homo sapiens moderno [A_Grant_2018].
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Michael E. Habicht, Archäologe und Ägyptologe. Gesamtwerk der Jahre 2002-2023 Liste und Inhaltsvorschau aller Monographien und Fachbeiträge in den Forschungsbereichen Klassische Archäologie, Ägyptologie, Anthropologie, Museologie und Medizingeschichte. Auch die Romane unter dem Pseudonym Alexander P. Dyle sind gelistet. Wichtige Information: Das Buch enthält keine kompletten Texte der Publikationen, sondern Inhaltangaben und direkte Links, sofern der Fachbeitrag im Internet frei verfügbar ist. ASIN: B0CK9K3H99
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Die Umbettung der Königsmumien des Neuen Reiches Die Mumien der Könige des Neuen Reiches wurden mehrheitlich nicht in ihren Gräbern, sondern in zwei großen Mumienverstecken (DB 320 und KV 35) gefunden. Die Priester des Amuns hatten sie dort am Ende der 21.Dynastie dort versteckt. Zuvor sind die Mumien zum Teil mehrfach umgebettet worden und ihrer ganzen Schätze beraubt. Diese wurden zum Teil für die Bestattung der Könige der dritten Zwischenzeit wiederverwendet. Aktualisierte Neuauflage.
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Der zweite Band der Serie zu Mumien und Mumiengeschichten befasst sich mit den Mumien des Alten Ägyptens. Verschiedene Mumien von der Prädynastik bis zur Römischen Epoche werden vorgestellt und zeichnen die Entwicklung der Mumifizierungstechnik und den Wandel in der Bestattungskultur nach. Zahlreiche Mumien von Königen und Königinnen werden vorgestellt, ebenso die einbalsamierten Körper der Bevölkerung. Zu den vorgestellten Mumien gehören: Ranefer, Königin Meresanch III., König Seqenenra Taa, Ahmose I., der Beamte Nebiri, das Ehepaar Kha und Merit, die Könige Thutmosis III. und IV., Amenhotep III., die geheimnisvolle Mumie aus dem Grab KV 55 (Echnaton?), Tutanchamun, die Herrscher der Ramessidenzeit: Ramses II, seine Ehefrau Nefertari, Merenptah und Siptah. In der zweiten Zwischenzeit und der Spätzeit werden verschiedene bekannte Mumien vorgestellt: Asru (Manchester), Nes-Khons (Kairo) und Sha-Amun-en-su, welche leider im Brand des Nationalmuseums von Rio erst kürzlich zerstört wurde. Mumien mit Portraits in Wachsenkaustik bilden den Abschluss des Buches. Erweiterte Neuauflage mit der neuen forensischen Gesichtsrekonstruktion von Tutanchamun.
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Die Metternichstele: Ägyptische Magie in der Spätzeit. Die Stele gehörte einst dem Fürsten von Metternich und ist die größte, schönste und kulturhistorisch wichtigste Horusstele. Diese Stelen bilden Horus ab, wie er über Schlangen und Skorpione triumphiert. Die Stele trägt auch die umfangreichste Sammlung magische Sprüche von allen bekannten Stelen. Sie sind eine wichtige Textquelle zur Magie der Spätzeit der Ägyptischen Hochkultur. 57 Seiten, Abbildungen in Farbe und Schwarzweiß. Neuauflage.
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Mais uma vez a técnica de deformação anatômica se mostrou útil na aproximação facial de hominídeos extintos, uma vez que supre a ausência de marcadores de espessura de tecido mole, indisponíveis para o gênero/espécie Homo floresiensis. A composição de um modelo resultante da interpolação de dois análogos modernos oferece ao público geral uma versão da face mais coerente com a mistura de elementos de espécies diferentes, evidenciados no crânio LB1.
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O presente capítulo tem por objetivo apresentar os resultados de um estudo efetuado com 35 exames de tomografia computadorizada (CT-Scan) anônimas de moldavos e comparar os números com estudos semelhantes efetuados em brasileiros [A23] [A19] e malaios [A13]. O trabalho procurou investigar estruturas cranianas em projeção mé-dia ortográfica (2D) a fim de que funcionassem como preditores para a dimensão de importantes regiões frontais da face como a posição das pupilas, linha central dos lábios (ch-ch), asas nasais e a projeção lateral do nariz, a partir de modelos tridimensionais do crânio. Atenção: Este material utiliza a seguinte licença Creative Commons: Atribuição 4.0 Internacional (CC BY 4.0).
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Forensic facial approximation was applied to a 5000-year-old female skull from a shell midden in Guar Kepah, Malaysia. The skull was scanned using a computed tomography (CT) scanner in the Radiology Department of the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia using a Light Speed Plus scanner with a 1 mm section thickness in spiral mode and a 512 × 512 matrix. The resulting images were stored in Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) format. A three-dimensional (3D) model of the skull was obtained from the CT scan data using Blender's 3D modelling and animation software. After the skull was reconstructed, it was placed on the Frankfurt plane, and soft tissue thickness markers were placed based on 34 Malay CT scan data of the nose and lips. The technique based on facial approximation by data extracted from facial measurements of living individuals showed greater anatomical coherence when combined with anatomical deformation. The facial approximation in this study will pave the way towards understanding face prediction based on skull structures, soft tissue prediction rules, and soft tissue thickness descriptors.
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A estimativa de ancestralidade a partir do crânio é uma das abordagens mais desafiadoras no processo de aproximação facial forense. Existem várias técnicas disponíveis, desde aquelas com a mensuração de algumas regiões do crânio ,outras com estimativa de rating e até aquelas baseadas em inteligência artificial. É fato que nenhuma delas oferece um grau de certeza de 100% em face aos resultados, abrindo espaço para estudos que possam complementar essa área da antropologia. No caso da aproximação facial forense, algumas características relacionadas à ancestralidade podem fazer significativa diferença na compatibilização da aproximação com a face real.
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Sex differences in the human brain are of interest for many reasons: for example, there are sex differences in the observed prevalence of psychiatric disorders and in some psychological traits that brain differences might help to explain. We report the largest single-sample study of structural and functional sex differences in the human brain (2750 female, 2466 male participants; mean age 61.7 years, range 44-77 years). Males had higher raw volumes, raw surface areas, and white matter fractional anisotropy; females had higher raw cortical thickness and higher white matter tract complexity. There was considerable distributional overlap between the sexes. Subregional differences were not fully attributable to differences in total volume, total surface area, mean cortical thickness, or height. There was generally greater male variance across the raw structural measures. Functional connectome organization showed stronger connectivity for males in unimodal sensorimotor cortices, and stronger connectivity for females in the default mode network. This large-scale study provides a foundation for attempts to understand the causes and consequences of sex differences in adult brain structure and function.
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Modern humans have large and globular brains that distinguish them from their extinct Homo relatives. The characteristic globularity develops during a prenatal and early postnatal period of rapid brain growth critical for neural wiring and cognitive development. However, it remains unknown when and how brain globularity evolved and how it relates to evolutionary brain size increase. On the basis of computed tomographic scans and geometric morphometric analyses, we analyzed endocranial casts of Homo sapiens fossils (N = 20) from different time periods. Our data show that, 300,000 years ago, brain size in early H. sapiens already fell within the range of present-day humans. Brain shape, however, evolved gradually within the H. sapiens lineage, reaching present-day human variation between about 100,000 and 35,000 years ago. This process started only after other key features of craniofacial morphology appeared modern and paralleled the emergence of behavioral modernity as seen from the archeological record. Our findings are consistent with important genetic changes affecting early brain development within the H. sapiens lineage since the origin of the species and before the transition to the Later Stone Age and the Upper Paleolithic that mark full behavioral modernity.
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Tutankhamun foi um faraó da 18ª dinastia (Novo Império) do antigo Egito. Estudos médicos e radiológicos de seu crânio revelaram detalhes sobre o estado dos dentes e mandíbula da múmia. Já houve relatos sobre a relação mandibular, o prognatismo maxilar, retroganatismo e micrognatismo mandibular. Neste estudo foi feita análise cefalométrica com radiografia lateral e uma revisão da literatura a respeito da múmia do faraó Tutankhamun. Os resultados levam à conclusão de retrogantismo mandibular. Também estão presentes retenção de terceiro molar e fissura palatina singular incompleta.
Facial approximation was first proposed as a synonym for facial reconstruction in 1987 due to dissatisfaction with the connotations the latter label held. Since its debut, facial approximation's identity has morphed as anomalies in face prediction have accumulated. Now underpinned by differences in what problems are thought to count as legitimate, facial approximation can no longer be considered a synonym for, or subclass of, facial reconstruction. Instead, two competing paradigms of face prediction have emerged, namely: facial approximation and facial reconstruction. This paper shines a Kuhnian lens across the discipline of face prediction to comprehensively review these developments and outlines the distinguishing features between the two paradigms. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.