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Re-Designing Teacher Education for National Transformation in Nigeria



The planning and implementation of policies on the training and utilization of relevant manpower for national development and transformation is not only essential but a necessity in all sectors of a nation especially in the education sector from which other sectors are resourced, that is why this paper is examining the focusing, planning and implementation of teacher education for national development and transformation in Nigeria. Teacher education in any country is the bedrock of adequate, efficient, effective, functional foundation and training of needed manpower for democracy, peace and social cohesion, multi-grade teaching, increased accountability etc to increase the human potentialities in outputs of teacher education and then apply talents and skills acquired for the attainment of sustainable development resulting in national transformation. Others include; implementation of policies and programmes for pro fessionalizing the teaching profession for national transformation, refocusing admission policies into teacher education programmes, redesigning quality training for those involved in and engaged in teaching, revitalizing the teaching profession through modification of specialized training, refocusing the teacher education through functional content/curricular reviewed to include ICT and entrepreneurship education.
Re-Designing Teacher Education for National Transformation in
Anho, J.E.
Department of Educational Administration and Policy Studies,
Delta State University, Abraka
The planning and implementation of policies on the training and utilization of relevant manpower for
national development and transformation is not only essential but a necessity in all sectors of a nation
especially in the education sector from which other sectors are resourced, that is why this paper is
examining the focusing, planning and implementation of teacher education for national development and
transformation in Nigeria. Teacher education in any country is the bedrock of adequate, efficient,
effective, functional foundation and training of needed manpower for democracy, peace and social
cohesion, multi-grade teaching, increased accountability etc to increase the human potentialities in
outputs of teacher education and then apply talents and skills acquired for the attainment of sustainable
development resulting in national transformation. Others include; implementation of policies and
programmes for pro fessionalizing the teaching profession for national transformation, refocusing
admission policies into teacher education programmes, redesigning quality training for those involved in
and engaged in teaching, revitalizing the teaching profession through modification of specialized training,
refocusing the teacher education through functional content/curricular reviewed to include ICT and
entrepreneurship education.
Keywords: *Re focusing, *Trans formation, *planning *implementation, *profession *Quality
Stellar (1980:240) viewed planning as “a proposal for the future organization of an enterprise which
makes clear the present status of the enterprise; its intended direction and a clear cut statement of the
procedures of getting to its intended objectives”. More precisely, Aghenta (1993), assert that planning is
concerned with goals, means and ends process and controls.
According to Anho (2010), in planning, policies are formulated, goals are set, feasibility study carried out
and forecast or projections made. Planning is therefore a process in which one decides in advance what is
to be done, what to do, how to do it and who is to do it. Planning is a process of assessing the future
requirements for a specific task to be achieved and making provision for its realization in the present.
This paper will therefore use and refer to planning as a set of decisions designed to impact on the future
of the education sector clearly defining the procedures and achieve set objectives which stipulated from
with reference to teaching as a procession. While implementation refers to the carrying out or the
execution of the various course of actions determined at the planning stage of policies aimed to achieve
specific objectives of in the education sector (Anho, 2010).
According to Maduabum (2006), a relationship exists between educational policy, planning and
implementation; while policy and planning are statements of aims and ideas which lead to
implementation, implementation is the actualization of such policies and plans. The planning of the
training and utilization of relevant manpower for national development and transformation is not only
essential but also a necessity in all sector of a nation especially in the educational sector on which all
other sectors resource from. That is why this paper is looking at re-planning and implementation of
teacher education policies in tertiary institution for sustainable development and national transformation.
Teacher Education
Teacher Education in any country is the bedrock of adequate, efficient, effective, functional foundation
and training of needed manpower. The standard of education in a country is therefore largely a function
of quality of teachers in its educational system.
The purpose of teacher education is aptly stated in the National Policy on Education (2004) as: produce
highly motivated, conscientious and efficient classroom teachers for all levels of our educational system,
encourage further the spirit of equity and creativity in teachers, help teachers to fit into the social life of
the community and society at large and to enhance their commitment to national objectives, produce
teachers with the intellectual and professional background adequate to any changing situation not only in
the life of their country but in the wider world; and enhance teacher’s commitment to the teaching
In view of these laudable objectives of teacher education in Nigeria, can we ask the question successfully
whether teachers being trained and turned out from our tertiary institutions are sufficiently equipped to
meet the objectives and make the teacher to be well prepared professionally and knowledgeable enough in
his or her area of specialization i.e. in the content of the subject matter and to make him/her posses
techniques for teaching. That is the reason tertiary institution ought to equip the pre-service with adequate
competency and understanding of the relevance of education principles and methods required to be
transmitted to students as teachers.
Teacher education has been conceptualized in various ways; Nwana (1996) defined teacher education as
the training and/or the production of would be teachers for the pre-primary, primary, secondary schools
and colleges. Aleyidemo (2003) in his opinion saw teaching as a form of education designed to groom
those who teach or would like to teach or would be engaged in relevant professional services to schools,
colleges and ministries of education. Teacher education can therefore be said to be an education, which is
essentially concerned with those that would like to join the teaching profession.
Transformation and National Transformation
Transformation is associated with change which involves physical, mental, psychological, materials,
individual, institutions and organizational endeavour. National transformation agenda in Nigeria involves
having “a free and democratic society; a just and egalitarian society; a united, strong and self-reliant
nation; a great and dynamic economy; a land full of bright opportunities for all citizens” (FGN, 2004).
The national development goals of Nigeria was the foundation upon which the national policy on
education was built with the belief that education would serve as an instrument for national
transformation through the development of manpower to be in charge of the various sectors and
institution in the country and to formulate ideas for national development, and sustenance.
National transformation as it relates to this paper therefore, is a national act or instance or the process of
transforming or of effecting change of form, constitution, substance in education, this is seen in the
National Policy on Education (FGN, 2004) as exemplified in the national educational goals.
The inculcation of national consciousness and national unity;
The inculcation of the right type of values and attitudes for the survival of the individual and the Nigerian
The training of the mind in the understanding of the world around; and The acquisition of appropriate
skills and the development of mental, physical and contribute to the development of the society.
There is increasing self government and democratic principles in Nigeria which has crept into the
education sector also, demanding for qualitative increase in the development of the teaching form
especially from the low level through the middle to the higher level of human resources. Economic
development also depend on the level of human resources and in other for a country’s citizens to exercise
their basic democratic rights, higher- level of knowledge, analysis and skills are required to manage the
country’s increasing complex public and private affairs. To achieve this depends on the presence in our
education system of highly skilled teachers. Teachers therefore are very vital to the success of any
education system irrespective of the availability of other resources and fund.
Conventional approaches to teacher education, according to UNESCO (2002), have not met all the
demands of the profession. The new jobs of the teacher therefore include providing education for
democracy, peace and social cohesion, multi-grade teaching, increased accountability for achieving
learning targets; the development of learners who are self- managing and independent, skilled in critical
thinking and problem solving; the preparation of learners who are competent for knowledge-based
economics, capable in the use of information technology.
Teacher Education and Sustainable Development
Sustenance (something lasting or prolonged) according Chamber’s 21st Century Dictionary (2009) an
action or something that maintains, supports or provides a livelihood. Sustainable development is taken
from sustenance and it means different things to different people. According to the United Nations (2005)
world submit, sustainable development is the development that meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of the future generation to meet their own needs. Babalola (2006) sees it as
transformational development in any nation connotes the ability to progressively move the various
segments of the society as well as meet the interests and needs of the citizenry through properly managed
education. Therefore, education should be well managed and given to learners in the right quality and
quantity, to help to bring out the human potentialities in the outputs and make them to apply these talents
which may be in form of technical, human and conceptual skills for the obtainment of goals, leading to
sustainable development and national transformation. Ayodele (2004) affirmed that the history of the
development of any nation is always tied to the apron-string of well managed education. Amarachukwu
(2003) sees education management and training as the most important means of empowering human
beings with knowledge, skills and self confidence to participate fully in the development and
sustainability of-a nation.
The Challenges of Transformation and Teacher Education
Despite the focus of transformation of education as an agenda in the national development, the Nigerian
educational system as reported by Ushie and Agba (2010) is facing serious decline in its standard and as
observed by Ekaette (2001), the decline in the educational system is obviously affecting all other indices
and its obstructing the country’s march towards national transformation, progress and stability.
The systematic problem in the educational system are attributable to some factors such as lack of school
physical facilities and underfunding (Awab & Agba, 2007, Gulloma, 2009) industrial disputes
(Onyeonoru & Bankole, 2001; Jeja, 2002, Agba & Agba, 2008) and corruption among teachers, school
administrators and civil/public servant in Ministries of Education (Agba, lkoh, Ushie & Agba, 2008). The
implication of these challenges according to Obunadike (2013) is that efforts by successive Nigerian
government have been geared towards addressing the over publicized issues, giving little or no attention
to the profession of “teaching” and “the teacher” Obunadike (2013) therefore advocates the
professionalization of teaching and making the teacher the centre of education reform in Nigeria.
Professionalizing Teaching in Nigeria for National Transformation
Professionalization is taken from the word to profess, or profession going by its literarily definitions, it is
a type of job or work that needs special training or skill. Professionalize therefore according the Chamber
21st Century Dictionary (2004) is making into profession i.e. an occupation especially one that requires
specialist academic and practical training e.g. medicine, law, teaching, engineering, etc.
Professionalization is to give a professional status or character to its teaching by being characterized by
specialized training, pursue common goals or objectives by members, has standardized rules and
regulation, there is long period of training and standard entering point, and render service to the public.
The characteristics of a profession suggested by Greenwood (1957:45-45) have general acceptance which
distinguish a profession. These are summarized by Bobbit Robert, Robert, Docktor & James (1978) as
1. A systematic body of theory that underlines the profession. This implies that ongoing research changes
this body of theory and that training in itself is as intellectual as well as it is practical experience.
2. The members of the profession receive the sanction of the community in areas normally resourced to
society. These areas include control of training and admittance to the profession, confidential relations
between client, professional and evaluation of performance (and removal from the profession) Are
teachers admitted into the profession before practicing in Nigeria?
3. The members of the profession have professional authority in that they dictate what services the client
will receive - This is teachers’ participation in curriculum formation and implementation.
4. The regulative code of ethics is established and maintained by the profession. The code is both written
and informed, and it covers such areas as relations between professionals and clients and among
professional - Already taken care of by Teachers Registration Council of Nigeria (TRCN) and the Nigeria
Union of Teachers (NUT) code of Practice and Ethics.
5. A professional culture develops that include values, norms and symbols. Usually, the profession is
considered a career for the individual, and values of services, impartiality and rationality are established.
As Bobbit et al (1978) pointed out “not all occupations are well suited to these characteristics, but for
economic and status reasons most occupations are trying to become more and more professional”. They
do this by establishing association, publishing codes of ethics and by limiting entry into the occupation.
Considering the formation of various teachers union at various levels of education with their own code of
ethics, someone may easily conclude that teaching is now a profession. On the contrary, this has served as
a clog in the wheel of professionalization of teaching, with the multiplicity of groupings among teachers
with their shared loyalties to these different trade unions - Academic Staff Union of University (ASUU),
College of Education Academic Staff Union (CEDASU), and other unions and associations at the
secondary and primary schools such as Academic Staff Union of Secondary Schools among others
fighting and struggling among themselves for recognition.
This is therefore a great hindrance to professionalization. For other professionals like engineering,
whether an engineer works in the federal ministry, state and local government, or in private practice, once
he is registered as an engineer by (COREN) he is an engineer. The same goes for the Nigeria Bar
Association (NBA); those lecturing in the Universities or in private praciice all belong to the Nigeria Bar
Association. The Nigeria Medical Association is not different —whether a physician works at a
University Teaching Hospital, General Hospital, Community Health Centre or Private Clinic, he still
belongs to the Nigeria Medical Association (NMA).
It is therefore expedite to suggest that for national transformation, first the teaching profession has to be
professionalized by having a centralized. (professional body) for all teachers - University, Polytechnics,
Colleges of Education, Secondary and Primary Schools. The NUT is presently a large organization for all
teachers (secondary and primary), but it is weak due to various reasons which include lack of autonomy
enjoyed by other professional bodies like (NBA) Nigeria Bar Association, and the Nigeria Medical
Association (NMA).
According to Mohammed (1997) anyone can join the NUT. The teaching organization has no control over
new entrants into the profession and does not regulate the length of training for teachers to be registered.
The Federal Government of Nigeria reform programme under the administration of General Olusegun
Obasanjo, introduced the Teachers Registration Council of Nigeria with a vision statement as follows “To
control and regulate teacher education, training and practice at all levels and sectors of the Nigerian
education system in order to match teacher quality, discipline, professionalism, reward and dignity with
international standards” to provide excellence in education through effective registration and licensing of
teachers; and to promote professionalism through accreditation, monitoring and supervision of teachers
training programmes, mandatory continuing professional development and maintenance of discipline
among teachers at all levels of the education system TRCN (2005:11).
These lofty ideas of the Federal Government of establishing the Teacher, Registration Council would
have helped greatly in refocusing the teaching profession, if the rules can be strictly adhered to by the
various institutions and authorities of educational institution responsible for training teachers. However,
there are pertinent questions to be asked after considering statement by Ezewu (1985), in Baba (2000), a
profession is a body of persons engaged in a certain occupation whose members are specially prepared for
the occupation; who enjoy freedom to practice the occupation, who have clearly laid down conditions of
service, who have an association or union and, who are recognized as practicing that occupation.
Can we say teaching is now a profession when there are surgeons, lawyers, engineers, accountants and
other professionals teaching without learning the trade (teaching) i.e., not specially prepared for the
occupation and are not members of the Teachers Union? Professionalization of teaching should be
pursued with more vigour than mere establishment of registration council, so as to re-focus the
Refocusing the Admission Policies into Teacher Education in Nigerian Tertia institutions
Before the education ordinance of 1908, Taiwo (1980) and Fafunwa (1974), reported that there did not
exist any specific requirement that qualifies those to be trained as teachers. Anyone, that was able to pass
reading, writing, dictation, arithmetic, grammar, composition, geography and history subjects taught at
the primary schools and was deemed to be qualified and employed. This meant that primary school
graduates were certificated as teachers but were they actually taught the act/methods and principals of
teaching? What of such subjects tike sociology and psychology of the learner which are very necessary
for the teacher?
Presently, teachers are trained from the Faculties of Education in Universities, Colleges of Education and
Schools of Education in Polytechnics. While these have increased recently, there is no radical change in
the overall situation as observed by Nduanya (1995) and Lassa (1991). There is no specific requirement
for intending teachers to meet before being admitted into any of the existing training institutions.
A closer look at majority of student teachers in the Universities, Colleges of Education and Polytechnics,
reveals that they are those with deficiencies in other disciplines, and with lower UTME and Post-UTME
scores. At the University level, while some admit N.C.E. holders at credit level into 300 level, others
admit same into 200 level and in most Universities Diploma certificate holders and N.C.E. holders
(irrespective of grades) are both admitted into 200 level.
Thus, the recruitment procedures of entrants to the Education Faculties are not only haphazard but of poor
quality with low academic qualifications as compared with professions like engineering, law and
medicine. In consideration of the effects of the above phenomenon, there should be an improvement or
re-modification of the recruitment of new entrants (Admission) into the teaching profession’s
faculty/schools/department/units, they (entrants) should meet the high cut-off marks of education (a
minimum of 250 out of 400 marks and or 50 at the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination and at the
post UTME examinations like the other professional courses. The practice of choosing education as the
last resort or 2nd best should stop. Teacher’s education need highly intelligent entrants or professionals to
transform this nation to face the Global challenges. The higher the social status from which recruits
generally come, the higher the status of the profession, which reflects the caliber of recruits wishing to
come into the profession.
Improving the Teaching Profession in Nigeria through Modification of Specialized Training
In the recent past, Teachers Training Colleges were established to train teachers for the primary schools.
Primary school leavers spent four to five years to train as teachers, Grade Ill certificate and secondary
school certificate holders spent two years to train for the Teacher Grade II Certificate. Those with five
years cognate experience in teaching with TC II Certificate in addition to having two credits subjects at
the advanced level of the General Certificate of Education (GCE) teach in the secondary schools. In the
Universities, Colleges of Education and Polytechnics there are uncoordinated training programmes with
diverse duration of study from 2-6 years training.
While the National Policy on Education by the Federal Government of Nigeria (2004) section 6(56) states
that the minimum qualification for entry into the teaching profession shall be the Nigeria Certificate in
Education (NCE) and sub-section 58-65 stipulate this would be achieved including curriculum training
and promotion The documents however did not stipulate if the Nigeria certificate in education holders
should be restricted to the primary schools. However, the practice now is that, some holders of such
certificates teach in the Basic Education (UBE), programme i.e., the primary and junior secondary
schools. The document is also silent on who teaches in Polytechnics, Colleges of Education and Faculties
of Education in the Universities. However, it is the National University Commission (NUC), National
Council for Colleges of Education (NCCE), and National Board for Technical Education (NBTE)
stipulate the minimum qualification to teach in the various institutions.
Redesigning Quality Training for all Involve in Teaching at Nigeria Tertiary Institutions
The quality of the teacher is one of the most important factors that should be given consideration in the
Nigeria education system. The quality of training (academic and professional) the teacher has received,
the exposure, and his motivation status, all determine his effectiveness.
Yoloye in Efanga (2005) found that quality in education system includes quality of inputs, quality of
teachers, instruction and evaluation procedures. These variables can only be effective and sustainable if
there is proper supervision and management acquired from professional training.
Uchendu, Akuegwu and Nwi-we (2006) noted that despite the investments in the tertiary institutions, the
goals and objectives have not been achieved because the management at the faculty and department levels
are not effective in implementing student admission’s policy, supervision of instruction and teaching
effectiveness, and providing quality learning environment which according to the writers, Uchendu et al
(2006) have made the final output of the tertiary institutions half-baked, some not rising up to the
standard. Therefore, if the quality process of producing the products of Nigeria tertiary institutions is
decaying - which include faculties of education in universities, and schools of education in polytechnics,
colleges. of education, there must be total revisit to the institutions and faculties to improve the
teacher/learning process by improving the education teaching faculty, curriculum infrastructural facilities,
resources and management.
To re-focus the teaching profession for national transformation, Nigerian expect that all teachers in
tertiary institutions, faculties, departments, and units should undergo training in the methods and
technique of teaching whether they be engineers, doctors, accountant etc. Ukah (1985) puts it that the
University (higher education) teacher should be doubly ‘hated’ — firstly as a researcher and secondly as a
teacher. According to Ochuba (2000) many University teachers have little or no training in teaching
techniques which would help students to learn more effectively and satisfying.
Our tertiary education institutions should therefore use the pedagogical knowledge content through
training and or re-training to be able to teach confidently, efficiently and effectively for national
transformation. Umoh (2005) opined that without such balance and diversity in education, the prospects
of growth, social cohesion, equitable economic distribution and reduction of power will remain largely
out of goal. Therefore, teacher education will play a great role in enabling the products from own
educational system to be productive and able to sustain and develop the economy thus transforming the
Academic programmes rarely adequately prepare employees (lecturers/teachers) for their future position
and their accompanying responsibilities, consequently, many lecturers enter their career with no practice
and with no experience in using tools of their profession. Georglades (1980) also noted that with age
human beings suffer from diminished vitality creativity and flexibility. Ageing teachers can therefore be
assisted through training to remain vibrant, vital and productive.
Akpombo (2002) stressed the importance of training and development of human resources, that the
University system (Tertiary Education) worldwide is regarded as the citadel of knowledge, the fountain
and foundation of intellectualism, the most appropriate ground for the intellectual incubation of leaders of
tomorrow, and the greatest apparatus of socio-economic development in any country. This the reason the
utmost is expected from any one in the system or passing through tertiary educational system.
Manpower development affects the quality of the services rendered in a country and capable of
transforming a nation, Kulwart (2000) enumerated five significance of manpower development that the
vast reservoir of human talents could be harnessed to achieve industrial objectives through development
programmes, which makes human resources adopt to the changing technologies improvements; comprise
planned development and training and extends to every process of management to improve a manager, his
interactions with the group and his ability to get things done through the group. That formal and informal
development of people would be possible through well planned and executed development programme.
Reforming Nigeria Teacher Education with ICT for National Transformation
Tertiary institutions’ faculty/school/departments of education should be improved or re-engineered by
making them produce well inspired motivated and oriented teachers/lecturers with high professional,
discipline, competent academically and well articulated in the use of modern technology such as
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the teaching and improving of knowledge, attitude
and skills for all levels of education.
ICT for teaching teacher trainers and in teaching and learning generally will also help in re-focusing the
teacher education and teaching profession. There should be on integrated computer system such as word
processing, spread sheet for accounting and forecasting, data base management system, graphic facilities,
electronic mail, communication facility, electronic diary and scheduler. Others are data collection
facilities, data analysis, modeling simulation and experimental process control, fax link up and radio input
and storage. The Nigerian University Network for Education (NUNE) will assist greatly in e integration
of the main data files of the faculties/departments and units in tertiary institutions.
Computer Assisted Instruction (CAl) can be used to refocus the teaching profession i.e., using the
computer to supplement - not replacing personalized teaching but by providing students with sequences
of instruction. This enable students to learn at their own rate. Teleconferencing saves time and expenses;
this include audio-teleconferencing, video- teleconferencing, and computer-teleconferencing. This could
be very good in distant learning and it will enable students interact well with their teachers.
Computer Managed Instruction (CMI): The computer is used to supervise students, directing them to read
certain books or visit certain library films on their own. Students submit assignments for testing, making
and for further assignments. Computer manage instruction can serve as a supplemental technique in a
course or school.
The Internet Networks: The INTERNET is an international network for communication, for
interconnected computer networks through local, national and international networks all inter-
connected and can be used for educational purposes in various forms:
(a)A Wide Area Network (WAN) or Long Haul Network (LHN): This is used in the educational
institutions, companies, organizations and industries, globally ranging from cities, to states and countries.
The institutions, companies or organization can be digitally i.e. on-line connected to any part of the
(b)Metropolitan Area Network (MAN): This covers a city or a region. The coverage is within few
(c)Local Area Network (LAN): This is used to connect computers in a room, building, on a site of bank,
office, school. The coverage is geographically limited than the MAN.
(d)E-MaiI: This is a primary and most important communication tool used on the internet electronic mail
in sending messages or files to the accounts or messages of other users through a private mailbox which
works very much like the normal post office box. In educational setting, e-mail can be used to transfer
documents, get electronic copies of books, journals and magazines, exchange correspondences with
academic colleague, or lecturer and subscribe to news and information.
- Digital Library: Another lOT sub-device is the digital library. Some call it electronic, internet, or
computerized library. Staff and students can download and print information from the internet without
visiting the four walls of a library. There are also various software storage devices such as flash drive,
CD-ROM, Diskette/floppy disk.
- The Scanner: Computer output devices include; the scanner, which uses photo-electronic cells as an
image digitizer to quickly pass on printed materials, drawings, maps, graphs and photographs or pictures
for word processing or desktop system to make them ready for use (Nwosu, 2002:41).
- The Printer: The printer is an output device which produces printed copies or computer print-outs
known as hard copy. In education a lot of materials such as question papers, result sheets and report cards,
newsletters, brochure, bulleting, admission register, staff appraisal forms, questionnaire etc can be printed
from it.
Modeling and Simulation can also re-focus the teaching profession through the use of computer software
and hardware that promote modeling and stimulations.
Robotics-A Type of Computer: aided manufacturing system can be very useful in teaching. Robots can
mimic the teacher in a classroom setting.
Telecommuting can also be extensively used by lecturers/teachers and students to send and receive
lecture materials, instructions, assignments and grades without physically meeting in a classroom setting.
In addition to the above teaching and learning potentials offered by information and communication
technology, the internet is a viable educational research partner which every professional teacher and
would be teacher should embrace for national transformation.
In view of the above, the various governments, institutions and individuals in the country should develop
strategic plans for information technology development to ensure quality, effective and efficient academic
and applicable services for graduates of our higher institutions.
Revitalizing the Teaching Profession in Nigeria through Functional Content Training
Functional education is very essential in face of present Global economic challenges. Functional
education that produces teachers who are themselves functional will promote skill acquisition,
entrepreneurship, self employment, and will not only help the economy, which has worsened the
unemployment rate, it will also lead to the achievement of national economic empowerment and
strategies aimed at empowering people and also inculcating the right types of values, attitudes and skills
for the survival of the individual and the Nigeria society. Thus, the socio-economic needs of the
individual and community would have been addressed.
Entrepreneurship is the ability and willingness and awareness among staff and students to embark on the
exploration and exploitation of investment opportunities and other economic activities personally or
jointly. Such will open many development opportunities, which are available in this era of globalization
of trade, industry, commerce and education which could raise income per capita, create employment and
eliminate poverty. This will help to meet the National Economic Empowerment Development Strategies
(NEEDS) and the Millennium Development Goals (DGs) aims and objectives.
Thus, effective curricula change for eff6ctive skill acquisition and entrepreneurship education in the
Teacher Training Faculties of Education, Colleges of Education and Schools of Education in Polytechnics
is indispensable towards empowering people, producing a self reliant nation with a dynamic economy for
national transformation.
Teaching is a very important job for any nations’ survival. All economic, industrial, social and technology
activities of a nation rest on its educational system and policies. However, in the face of proliferation of
trade unions of teachers, non-implementation of engaging only professionally trained teachers in
teaching, admitting rejects from other departments into the faculties/departments/school of education
where teachers are trained, and the lowering of the cut-off marks for education and using the
preNCE/degree programmes to feed the faculties/departrrients of education, non-introduction of
compulsory functional, entrepreneurial, technical and vocational courses for all teacher’s trainers can not
help economically. It is advisable that the above issues should be properly addressed so as to refocus the
teacher education and the teaching profession for national transformation.
It is therefore, expected that tertiary education, faculty products are expected to perform certain tasks with
enormous trait which bestow confidence, capability, self reliance, professionalism and strategic
innovation, new sets of attitudes and culture for the attainment of the goals and objectives of the Nigerian
state; also acquiring acceptable sets of universal values for global citizenship.
The following are hereby recommended:
> Teaching should be professionalized in Nigeria.
There should be only one trade union for teachers — from the primary to the University level, all should
be under the umbrella of the Nigeria union of teachers or Nigerian Teachers Association.
The issue of compulsory registration of teachers before being engaged to teach should be implemented.
All those engaged (Engineers, lawyers, doctors, accountants etc) in teaching must undertake a one year
Diploma/Certificate course in education before being employed and those already employed should take
in service training in education to be qualified to teach.
> Effective curricula change for skill acquisition and entrepreneurship education in teacher training
faculties and schools of Education in University, Colleges of Education and Polytechnics is highly
advocated. The curricular reform or review should include ICT as a compulsory and general course
required to be passed before graduation. This will help Nigerian graduates to acquire the needed skills and
knowledge as well as applying such to real life in their field of teaching. Those who have already
graduated and are working sh6uld be re-trained on the job through seminars, and workshops in ICT. This
will make such teachers’ trainers and teacher trainees be refocused to the current happenings in the ICT
world as developed human resources is very essential to a nation’s growth, sustenance and
> Government at all levels - Federal, State and Local Government, in collaboration with foreign
companies and organization should initiate the quick internet networking programmes in all Universities
and other higher institutions.
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