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Abstract and Figures
A new species of Thismia is described and illustrated for the Brazilian Amazon Forest. Thismia pseudomelanomitra belongs to Thismia subg. Ophiomeris sect. Pyramidalis and is morphologically similar to T. melanomitra. However, it can be recognized by its orbicular outer tepals with revolute margins, inner tepals connate over the tube opening forming a subglobose mitre, outer surface bearing prominent irregularly dentate ribs and irregularly foveae on top. The new species is known from a single locality, collected at São Nicolau Farm, in the northwest of Mato Grosso State. Herein, we provide a detailed description with illustrations, photographic plates, distribution maps, and preliminary conservation status.
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... Thismia Griffith (1844: 221) (Thismiaceae) comprises approximately 110 species, distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions, mainly concentrated in the Malay Peninsula, Neotropics and Australia (Merckx & Smets 2014;POWO 2023). In Brazil, the genus is represented by 19 species, 13 of which are endemic and occur in the Amazon, Atlantic Forest and Cerrado (Silva et al. 2023a(Silva et al. , 2023b; Flora e Funga do Brasil 2023). ...
Thismia violacea is described as a new mycoheterotrophic species discovered in an urban fragment semideciduous seasonal forest in the Brazilian Cerrado. Here we provide detailed morphological descriptions, with notes on the habitat, morphology, and a distribution map.
... mainly located in Mainland Southeast Asia (Chantanaorrapint 2008, Nuraliev et al. 2015, Chantanaorrapint et al. 2019, Chantanaorrapint & Seelanan 2021, Siti-Munirah et al. 2021, Siti-Munirah & Dome 2022, 2023, 17 spp. in Borneo Island , Dančak et al. 2020a, and eight species in the Atlantic Forest and Amazon Rainforest (Mancinelli et al. 2012, Engels et al. 2022, Silva et al. 2020, 2023a, 2023b. Some of the novelties appeared to significantly amend our knowledge on ecology and distribution of the entire genus. ...
A new species, Thismia paradisiaca (Thismiaceae), discovered on the basis of a record at the iNaturalist platform is described and illustrated. The new species is recorded for the Pacific slope of the Western Cordillera of the Andes. It is assigned to sect. Ophiomeris, differing from all the other species of the section by having dimorphic stamens, incurved upper outer tepal, and lateral outer tepals slightly revolute at their bases. In addition, pollen morphology of T. paradisiaca is described, and interaction of pollen with a dipteran found inside the floral chamber is discussed. Finally, a distribution map of the genus in Colombia and a taxonomic key for the subgen. Ophiomeris are provided. Resumen Una nueva especie, Thismia paradisiaca (Thismiaceae), descubierta a partir de un registro en la plataforma iNaturalist es descrita e ilustrada. La nueva especie se registra para la vertiente Pacífica de la Cordillera Occidental de los Andes. Se asigna a la sect. Ophimeris, diferenciándose de todas las demás especies de la sección por presentar estambres dimórficos, tépalo superior externo incurvado y tépalos externos laterales ligeramente revolutos en sus bases. Además, se describe la morfología del polen de T. paradisiaca y se discute la interacción del polen con un díptero que se encuentra al interior de la cámara floral. Finalmente, se proporciona un mapa de distribución del género en Colombia y una clave taxonómica para el subgen. Ophiomeris.
In the present study, we describe and illustrate Thismia mantiqueirensis, a new mycoheterotrophic species belonging to the subgenus Ophiomeris, section Ophiomeris, from the Altomontane Dense Ombrophilous Forest in Mantiqueira mountains, southeast Brazil. We provide the description, taxonomic, ecological, and conservation comments, as well as images and illustrations of the new species.
A new species of the mycoheterotrophic genus Thismia Griff. (Thismiaceae), Thismiasumatrana Suetsugu & Tsukaya, from West Sumatra, Indonesia, is described, based on a rehydrated herbarium specimen from National Museum of Nature and Science, Japan. Thismiasumatrana is closely related to T.clavigera (Becc.) F.Muell. but is distinguished by a much larger flower.
Fairy lanterns (Thismia Griff.) is a genus of poorly known mycoheterotrophic plants with unclear infrageneric classification. Commonly used approaches that utilize just a single or few traits in higher-level taxonomy lead to an apparently artificial system. In this contribution, four new species from Sarawak, northern Borneo, are described and illustrated. Thismia acuminata, T. laevis and T. nigra belong undoubtedly to section Sarcosiphon. Thismia viridistriata exhibits a high morphological variability with some individuals fitting section Scaphiophora based on the presence of a column on the top of the mitre, but otherwise perfectly matching the morphological characteristic of section Sarcosiphon. Five-locus (SSU, ITS, LSU, matR, atpA) phylogeny inference revealed paraphyly or polyphyly in the studied infrageneric taxa and showed that the importance of some traits traditionally used in Thismia taxonomy was overestimated. Most of the markers provide comparable phylogenetic signal; LSU performs best and is highly recommended for further phylogenetic studies. On the other hand, ITS is hypervariable and thus informative only within (sub)sections, as well as on intraspecific level, as proven in T. viridistriata with two distinct ITS (and also LSU and matR) alleles and two morphotypes within a small geographic area, which leads to an assumption of strong reproductive isolation even among nearby populations. For delimitation of species, the key trait appears to be the structure of the connective and any of the molecular markers used here. Fulltext of the paper available here: http://rdcu.be/JfiH
Thismia nigricoronata is described as a new species in family Burmanniaceae. Both morphological and phylogenetic analyses indicate that this new Lao endemic is allied to T. taiwanensis in section Glaziocharis, and it can be differentiated on the basis of its longer vestigial stem leaves, reflexed free outer perianth lobes and ornamented, vibrantly coloured outer surface of the perianth tube. The infrageneric taxonomy of Thismia is reviewed, the genera Geomitra and Scaphiophora are officially reduced to sectional status in Thismia, and all species are enumerated in systematic order. A key to all currently accepted subgenera, sections and subsections is presented to facilitate further examination of their phylogenetic integrity in light of apparent conflict between the traditional morphology-based system and the emerging DNA-based classification.
A new species, Thismia
hongkongensis S.S.Mar & R.M.K.Saunders, is described from Hong Kong. It is most closely related to Thismia
brunonis Griff. from Myanmar, but differs in the number of flowers per inflorescence, the colour of the perianth tube, the length of the filaments, and the shape of the stigma lobes. We also provide inferences on the pollination ecology and seed dispersal of the new species, based on field observations and interpretations of morphology. The flowers are visited by fungus gnats (Myctophilidae or Sciaridae) and scuttle flies (Phoridae), which are likely to enter the perianth tube via the annulus below the filiform tepal appendages, and exit via small apertures between the filaments of the pendent stamens. The flowers are inferred to be protandrous, and flies visiting late-anthetic (pistillate-phase) flowers are possibly trapped within the flower, increasing chances of pollen deposition on the receptive stigma. The seeds are likely to be dispersed by rain splash.
Köppen's climate classification remains the most widely used system by geographical and climatological societies across the world, with well recognized simple rules and climate symbol letters. In Brazil, climatology has been studied for more than 140 years, and among the many proposed
methods Köppen's system remains as the most utilized. Considering Köppen's climate classification importance for Brazil (geography, biology, ecology, meteorology, hydrology, agronomy, forestry and environmental sciences), we developed a geographical information system to identify
Köppen's climate types based on monthly temperature and rainfall data from 2,950 weather stations. Temperature maps were spatially described using multivariate equations that took into account the geographical coordinates and altitude; and the map resolution (100 m) was similar to the
digital elevation model derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Patterns of rainfall were interpolated using kriging, with the same resolution of temperature maps. The final climate map obtained for Brazil (851,487,700 ha) has a high spatial resolution (1 ha) which allows to observe
the climatic variations at the landscape level. The results are presented as maps, graphs, diagrams and tables, allowing users to interpret the occurrence of climate types in Brazil. The zones and climate types are referenced to the most important mountains, plateaus and depressions, geographical
landmarks, rivers and watersheds and major cities across the country making the information accessible to all levels of users. The climate map not only showed that the A, B and C zones represent approximately 81%, 5% and 14% of the country but also allowed the identification of Köppen's
climates types never reported before in Brazil.
Two new species of Thismia (Thismiaceae) from T. subg. Ophiomeris sect. Ophiomeris are described for the Brazilian Amazon Forest, in the Open Ombrophilous Forests of the State of Acre. Here we provide detailed morphological descriptions, with illustrations, distribution maps and preliminary conservation analyses.
Knowledge on the mycoheterotrophic genus Thismia (Thismiaceae) in the neotropics is scarce, where the majority of species are known from Brazil, with 13 currently accepted species, of which seven are endemics. All the 15 known species of the genus in the Americas, except T. americana, inhabit forests below 1300 m a.s.l. Two species of Thismia are known from Colombia, T. panamensis from the Chocó biogeographical region and T. glaziovii from the Amazonian region. Here we describe a third Colombian species, T. andicola sp. nov. distinguished by having outer surface of the floral tube light blue and densely punctate with sky-blue metallic dots, inner tepals 4.6–5 mm long and stigma obovoid, covered adaxially by regularly distributed simple uniseriate multicellular trichomes. It is collected in the buffer zone of the Tamá National Park, Norte de Santander and is the first species of Thismia recorded from the Andes, and the first American species found above 2000 m a.s.l. We provide a description, drawings, photographs, distribution map, and the provisional conservation status of the new species. A key to species of Thismia sect. Ophiomeris species is also included.
Thismia petasiformis is described and illustrated as a new achlorophyllous mycoheterotrophic species discovered in the Brazilian Amazon Forest. The species belongs to Thismia subg. Ophiomeris sect. Pyramidalis by the presence of horizontal cylindrical roots, terete stem with scattered leaves, pyramidal stigma, and stamens flattened with connective not dilated, interstaminal lobes absent and ovary with parietal placentation from the base to the top of the ovary. Thismia petasiformis differs from T. fungiformis by the perianth tube apparently trigonous with slightly curved sides, annulus inconspicuous, and inner perianth lobes forming a single hat-shaped mitre. We present a taxonomic treatment for T. petasiformis, with a detailed description, illustrations and a preliminary assessment of its conservation status following IUCN categories and criteria.
We present novelties in Thismiaceae for the south of the Brazilian Amazon, resulting from botanical expeditions in the north of the Mato Grosso State. The occurrence of four species is recorded: Thismia hyalina; T. melanomitra; T. singeri and a species new to science: T. ribeiroi. These are the first records of the family Thismiaceae, as well as of the genus Thismia and these species for the Mato Grosso State. Thismia melanomitra is a new species for the flora of Brazil and T. singeri is the second record of the species for Brazil. In this study, we also describe and illustrate the new species Thismia ribeiroi.
This accessible, comprehensive glossary covers all the descriptive terms for plants that one is likely to encounter in botanical writing, including everything from magazine articles to plant field guides, scientific papers, and monographs. An essential companion, it presents 3,600 botanical terms, accompanied by full definitions and detailed illustrations to aid in identification, all laid out in a clear, easy-to-use fashion. It will be indispensable for plant scientists, conservationists, horticulturists, gardeners, writers, and anyone working with plant descriptions, plant identification keys, floras, or field guides.
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