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Changemaker Education: Reframing Learning And Teaching For A World Of Change



This is the introductory chapter to our book International Models of Changemaker Education. The first part of the chapter addresses some of the reasons why educating people to embrace their power as changemakers matters and what changemaker education both is and is not. The chapter also includes brief summary descriptions of the entire book.
All around us we see evidence that we are living in a world of accelerating
change, volatility, and hyperconnectivity. The magnitude and reach of these
shifts have brought humanity to an unprecedented moment in history, as
changes in patterns of urbanization, technological innovation, demographics,
and global connectivity bump into each other, triggering even more change
across our social and environmental systems. We live in an age of transforma-
tion with no end in sight.
For educators, in particular, the implications of these changes are vast
and give rise to a number of critical questions. What knowledge, skills, and
competencies are most important for young people to learn now and in the
future? In what ways and to what degree do teachers and others responsible
for curriculum, assessment, and educational policy need to adapt their work
to account for a world of rapid, exponential, and constant change? How do we
design educational programs and experiences that increase access, success,
and mobility for the neediest among us?
Pioneering educators in many countries are responding to these changes
by curating learning experiences that support the empowerment of young
people to thrive in this new worldand to create a better world for all. A
person who is empowered in this way is what we call a changemakeran
empathetic person who has the will and the skill to take action, to lead, and
to collaborate with others to solve real-world problems in their own lives, in
their communities, and across the globe. A changemaker lives for a better
Paul Rogers and Viviana Alexandrowicz
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xvi Introduction
The educators who are advancing such empowering learning experiences
are pioneering innovative approaches that break radically from the classic
industrial model of education. While these approaches do not always employ
the same language or methods, what they do share is a recognition that, col-
lectively, we need to redefine the experience of education and the very notion
of success for young people growing up in the modern world.
The editors of this volume believe that the time is ripe to bring together
voices from around the world who are responding to the challenge of remov-
ing the barriers that exist to every young person becoming a changemaker.
To this end, we sought to bring forward a group of practitioner-based case
studies that highlight the why, what, and how of changemaker education.
Changemaker education is a reality-based approach to learning, teaching, and
human development. It is reality-based in that it is a response to our collec-
tive awareness of the rapidity, constancy, and ubiquitous nature of change
across virtually every social and environmental system on earth. Thus, while
changemaker education is framed around a set of values, including empathy,
inclusion, equity, and social and environmental justice, at its core, change-
maker education is extremely pragmatic. In other words, if we as a species
do not adapt our educational systems to prepare the next generation to be the
creative and complex problem solvers the world needs, we will be failing
our children and potentially dooming our planet and humanitys long-term
chances for survival. There exists an imperative around changemaker educa-
tion that goes beyond transmitting the values of love and respect, even though
these core values are deep in the DNA of changemakers.
These words are not meant to be alarmist, but we should be alarmed.
Today, millions of children do not have access to basic education, let alone
changemaker education. These basic issues of equity (as outlined in the
United Nations Sustainable Development Goal #4 whose stated mission is to
Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learn-
ing opportunities for all) must become the concern of everyone involved
in education from classroom teachers, to educational researchers, to policy
makers, and to curriculum designers. We simply cannot afford to waste the
creativity and spirit of millions of young people around the world, especially
young girls.
In addition to dealing with basic issues of educational equity, we also must
address the issues of outdated teacher preparation practices, the lack of diver-
sity in the teaching profession, especially a lack of BIPOC teachers, and the
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global teacher shortage. Although the teacher shortage is different in different
regions and countries, the status of the teaching profession and teachers as
professionals must also rise to the surface of mainstream educational conver-
sations and stay visible until real change occurs.
The basic equation of education is the simple triangle of a learner, a
teacher, and a curriculum. In the case of changemaker education, what we
know is that changemaking is not simply a curriculum. A disempowered
teacher struggling to find her own voice is not in a position to transmit what
it truly means to be a changemaker. Teachers too are on a changemaker
journey. In this sense, changemaking is better caught than taught and indeed
can be done so regardless of whether a teacher is teaching math, science,
language arts, or physical education. Teaching is the mother of all profes-
sions and elevating the teaching profession is a critical lever to moving
forward with a vision of every young person realizing their own power as a
Of course, the curriculum is also an important factor, but given the explo-
sion in knowledge across content areas, fields, and disciplines, the larger
challenge is finding a way to keep the curriculum relevant when the future is
a moving target. Creating textbooks, tests, and assignments is easy in com-
parison with creating transformational educational experiences that launch
someone on the path to be a changemaker for life. In this regard, involving
community members and leaders in the process of education is essential, as
role models matter, especially when they arise from within the local context
that children and families relate to and understand. The main point here
regarding curriculum is that beyond the content and subject matter knowledge
(which is rapidly changing), we need a sustainable process, a collaborative
and co-creative model of learning, teaching, and knowledge creation where
each member of the learning ecosystem sees themselves as a learner and
comes to recognize that we need everyone to be a contributor to creating
knowledge, solving problems, and moving the world toward a more just and
sane future. Were in this together.
There are many bright spots on the curricular landscape that are providing
outstanding support for models of changemaker education. These include the
widespread adoption of social-emotional learning, project-based learning,
environmental and nature-based learning programs, and pedagogical move-
ments like the universal design for learning. These movements have made
their way into the mainstream of education and are clearly a part of a shift
toward more holistic views of learning and teaching. But, we believe more
is needed.
Specifically, what is needed is the call to take action. Indeed, in our
view, the most distinctive element of changemaker education is cultivating
a bias toward taking action. Its not enough to be well or be emotionally
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xviii Introduction
self-regulated or to have grit and resilience. Its not enough to know how
to solve problems or to collaborate on a team. Its not enough to understand
biodiversity and ecosystem services. What we need is for people to give
themselves the permission to tackle really big problems and to find ways to
collaborate and lead in service of a better world.
Our goal in this volume is to present to educators (at all levels and from
around the globe) a series of high-quality, data-informed, experience-based,
practical pedagogical models that can be adopted, adapted, and scaled in
other contexts around the world. This volume is not exhaustive in any way,
but it is designed to point toward the trend of powerful, innovative, and
impactful educational models that share a common endpoint: the opportunity
for each person to step into their power as a changemaker.
This book includes the work and voices of colleagues around the globe
who are making an impact on the education of children, youth, teachers,
administrators, families, and communities. Each chapter presents inspir-
ing stories of changemakers acting to improve the ecosystems, the culture,
the mind-sets, the curriculum, and the leadership of their organizations and
the communities they serve. In their own unique ways, all of the models
described in this publication improve young peoples lives and educational
opportunities in order to inspire them to change their world.
Synopsis of the Chapters
Chapter 1 by Mary E. Walsh, Amy Heberle, and Kirsten Rene at Boston
Colleges Lynch School of Education presents their intervention program
focused on addressing students basic (i.e., nonacademic) needs outside
school. This systemic, structured, tailored, and replicable approach supports
children in high-poverty, urban schools in reducing educational inequities.
City Connects currently serves 30,000 students and focuses on tailoring an
individual plan for individual students through identifying their strengths
and needs in social-emotional, physical health, family, and academic
The model allows students to access a customized set of services through
collaboration with families, teachers, school staff, and community agen-
cies. Through poignant student vignettes, the authors illustrate the proj-
ects research findings that point to the interventions significant impact on
achievement and other critical areas of students lives. Research findings
show that students in this program outperform comparison peers on measures
of academic achievement. In addition, in City Connects elementary schools,
students achieve significantly higher report card scores in reading, writing,
and math than students in non-City Connects schools by the end of fifth
grade. This impact endures through Grade 12, long after students have left
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an intervention school. This chapter provides key insights into how educators
and communities work as a team to change systems for the benefit of high-
risk student groups, including first-generation immigrants.
Chapter 2 features the United World Colleges (UWC) model by Lodewijk
van Oord from UWC Maastricht. This chapter provides the historical roots,
guiding principles, and philosophies for UWCs global education movement.
One goal that permeates UWCs work is realizing their mission of making
education a force that unites people, nations, and cultures for peace and a
sustainable future. This model presents a deliberate, diverse, engaged, and
motivated community in pursuit of the UWC mission. Students selected for
these colleges and pre-Kindergarten schools come from various ethnic, reli-
gious, and social backgrounds. van Oord describes a model where students
represent the crew, not passengers as active participants in the experiential
pedagogical approaches used.
Schools that follow this model incorporate approaches such as ongoing
community service, outdoor education, project-based learning, and discus-
sions of international affairs. One theory that grounds this model is Allports
contact hypothesis, which stresses the importance of high acquaintance for
students to coexist, share, live, and learn together. This theory leads to get-
ting to know others in profound and meaningful ways and explains what
resources are needed, as well as the challenges, the lessons learned, and the
contexts in which the model works best. This chapter presents a compelling
example of why educators should consider the nature of the contexts where
students live and learn, and the type of real-world experiences they want and
need. It reminds educators that educational models must be adaptable to be
effective in different parts of the world.
Chapter 3 introduces a qualitative case study by Laura Hay on the Native
American Community Academy (NACA) based in New Mexico. This study
explores how NACA has helped their students succeed by providing a cur-
riculum and instructional framework that includes: (a) a commitment to
community and service that focuses on providing extracurricular programs
and internships, (b) a wellness philosophy that offers student support services
such as free, high-quality mental health services and which supports families
with healthcare, nutrition, and social services on the school site, (c) an inte-
grated curriculum that promotes a culturally and community-based education
and rigorous college preparation, and (d) a culture and language context that
uses native literature, language, and culture for college preparation and spe-
cific coursework that includes storytelling, oral traditions, cultural history,
and community presentation.
Hays study reveals a collective process of reimagining education, align-
ing practices to community values, and the importance of a schoolwide
support system approach to serving students, families, and teachers. The
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xx Introduction
NACA model shows the importance of incorporating what Hay calls rela-
tional components of culture that focus on positive relationships, integrated
social-emotional learning, restorative justice, belonging and agency, and an
enabling physical and symbolic environment. This chapter demonstrates that
unlike traditional school systems, which often frame Native American youth
in terms of deficits, NACA frames young people in terms of their strengths,
as assets to their community, and as the next generation of leaders.
Chapter 4 by Amy and Kei Franklin presents a case for developing emo-
tionally intelligent (EI) educators who are able to guide their students effec-
tively in the development of socio-emotional skills. The authors showcase
models for EI training in two schools. They argue that the most effective
and efficient way to develop socio-emotional skills in students in order to
help them become effective and ethical changemakers is to surround them
with teachers who embody these attributes and skills. Goals for adult training
include the development of EI concepts, skills, and shared language with the
teachers, individually and collectively, so they can model and instruct these
skills in the classroom.
One school initiative describes intensive coaching of introspection. This
initiative promotes the development of instruction that incorporates themes
of equity, empathy, inclusion, justice, respect for diverse perspectives and
needs, collaborative problem solving, self-awareness, and choice. The second
school initiative focuses on how social and emotional skills can be mobilized
to engage complex topics with skillful respect, compassion, courage, trans-
parency, and impact on student engagement. This chapter demonstrates how
teachers may be prepared to address and facilitate dialogues about issues
like racism, marginalization, and sexual identity. The authors transparent
description of challenges and successes invites reflection about the feasibility
of engaging teachers and students in creating classroom pedagogy and struc-
tures that nurture empathy, curiosity, agency, respect, and ethical principles
as key qualities for the development of changemaker citizens.
Chapter 5 by Santa Cruz et al. spotlights the University of El Desarrollos
(UDD) teacher education program, an Ashoka Changemaker-designated uni-
versity in Chile committed to social responsibility and entrepreneurship. In
their chapter, they describe a program that offers teacher candidates innova-
tive, nontraditional courses designed to prepare them in Personal Leadership
and Teamwork and Forming Citizens for the Twenty-First Century. The
authors focus on one of seven internship options consisting of workshops
and field experiences geared to prepare early childhood teacher candidates.
In the internship, candidates apply design thinking to identify problematic
issues at a care center and develop solutions to benefit the children they serve.
Example implementation projects include renovating the playground and cre-
ating a mobile library that serves children in the community.
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The chapter presents data obtained from student reflection papers on the
takeaways from the experiences. Findings suggest teacher candidates involved
in the internship saw themselves as changemakers. They also showed high
levels of incorporation of changemaking values and abilities, including col-
laborative and empathetic skills, in their practices. A key challenge identified
was excluding the educational communities from the changemaking process
facilitated by the teacher education program, for example, not inviting the
feedback of the care centers teachers in addressing the teachers needs. This
chapter stresses the importance of two-way community engagement and the
value of working in non-school settings as part of teacher training.
Chapter 6 by Catalina Cock Duque and Ariel Safdie from Fundacion Mi
Sangre tells the story of the organizations work with Colombian youth for
peacebuilding. For these youth, hope is scarce. They have grown up in a
country and communities devastated by guerrilla violence and organized
crime rings. The authors present the PAZALOBIEN, which is an educational
model that seeks to strengthen young peoples curiosity and life skills through
art, play, and social entrepreneurship. The intent is to form changemakers or
peacebuilders, free and responsible human beings, capable of living at peace
with themselves and their environment, conscientious of their rights. The
educational initiative has developed tools that support the youths develop-
ment of hope by (a) strengthening and weaving together protective ecosys-
tems of parents, decision makers, and community leaders and (b) developing
the youths twenty-first-century skills, such as self-awareness, positive rela-
tionships, the capacity to make healthy decisions, and the ability to transform
ideas into concrete actions.
The PAZALOBIEN approach uses simple tools to shift the balance of
power between educators and participants. The model is based on three pil-
lars: (a) breaking rigid vertical education structures, (b) flexibility to adapt
curricular activities depending on the context, age, and groups to support
childrens learning by doing, and (c) incorporating socio-emotional support
such as educators connecting with and listening to students. This chapter
reinforces the importance of establishing human connections as essential
to supporting youth. It stresses the importance of helping the development
of young leaders who inspire and empower each other through shared lived
experiences for the greater good.
Chapter 7 by Kate Dickinson-Villaseñor dives into the heart of change-
making education in action by describing students engagement in passion
projects. These projects promote student-led extended inquiry experiences
of their choosing that use students passion to teach and inspire others
through celebration and sharing. This pedagogy promotes academic skills,
research, literacy, numeracy, scientific and social inquiry, writing, speaking,
and visual and performing arts. Dickinson-Villaseñor presents ideas for the
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xxii Introduction
process of motivating students to select topics they deeply care about. She
depicts a variety of societal issues students have focused on over the years
such as being biracial, service animals, transgender rights, and lighthearted
issues, especially in the early grades, such as cooking and magic. She also
provides ideas for products including fundraising, murals, and campaigns,
resulting from engaging in empathy, teamwork, problem solving, and
Passion projects honor children as the owners of knowledge, experience,
and wonder and offer children an opportunity to lead. The chapter includes
templates for developing passion projects and suggestions for connecting with
families and community partners. Dickinson-Villaseñor provides insights on
challenges, such as measuring learning growth, and stresses that teachers
must take a developmental approach to help students become changemakers.
This approach means letting students take ownership in choosing and tackling
problems they deeply care about and allowing them to grow into addressing
larger societal issues.
Chapter 8 by Carmen Pellicer et al. provides a close look at their Fundacion
Trilemas educational model based on Rubiks approach to instruction. The
school model simultaneously integrates six fundamental areas for effective
instruction: curriculum, methodology, assessment, organization, leadership,
and personalization. The authors compare the implementation of these areas
to a Rubiks cube where all the sides must be moved in a systematic way
to achieve the greatest impact on students transformation. One important
aspect that characterizes Trilema schools is their use of vertical projects
that students develop across the different grade levels. These projects pro-
vide opportunities for in-depth learning that fosters curiosity and creative
Trilemas distinctive instructional approach uses a four drawers meta-
phor that includes four fundamental questions guiding planning and instruc-
tion that must ask themselves: (a) What actions do I need to take to encourage
students to actively collaborate and interact with each other around course
content? (b) What activities will best encourage students to think? (c) What
should I do in order for students to show what they know and what they
have been learning? and (d) What should I do to maintain ethical tension,
to help them be better people and changemakers? Trilema schools prioritize
self-assessment and metacognition, integrate them throughout the learning
process, and allow for a more personalized and continuous follow-up of
students academic and social progress. This chapter helps explain how col-
laboration, real-world experiences, and engagement with local community
networks bring the real world into the classroom and the classroom into the
real world in order to prepare students for the future real-life situations that
they will face.
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Chapter 9 by Polly Akhurst et al. tells the story of the Sky School (now
Amala School), an organization working with refugee youth in seven coun-
tries to provide them with access to quality secondary education. The model
addresses critical areas, including social innovation, peacebuilding, people
and societies, literacies, arts and cultures, STEM, and innovation. The pro-
grams can be accessed in person and online. Part of the programming is
designed to meet the needs of students to acquire technology skills, commu-
nicate with others outside the classroom, and conduct research on the internet.
Akhurst et al. present ideas for partnership with community organizations in
low resource environments located in the contexts where refugee youth live.
A critical element of the Sky programs is the capacity-building aspect where
community members, former refugees, and alumni become facilitators. The
authors cite examples of impact, including a youth becoming an entrepreneur
and peace builder in Kenya and a community president in Greece. They share
the concept of a context proof curriculum that can be used with refugee
youth groups worldwide. Sky School is a replicable model that offers dis-
placed youth an opportunity for a high-school diploma and helps develop
transformative competencies including: learning to create new value, taking
responsibility, and managing complexity. Akhurst explains how, after expe-
riencing the approaches used by the Sky School, students can develop as
active, responsible, and compassionate problem solvers and innovators who
are able to embrace uncertainty and complexity in our present world.
Chapter 10 by Maria Isabel Valente-Pires and Luiza Nora focuses on a
learner-centered approach to changemaking education with their VOAR
model (from the Portuguese language meaning attachment, daring/entre-
preneurship, autonomy, and responsibility). In this model, educators
create environments where students develop autonomy, responsibility, initia-
tive, critical spirit, and ownership to understand the impact of their actions
in their communities. To accomplish this goal, the school promotes attach-
ments via a tutoring system that provides small group and individual support
to help children develop their personalities and academic life. Educational
approaches incorporate a collaborative project-based methodology that cen-
ters around doing projects instead of studying topics.
In addition, the authors describe their teaching is researching philosophy
for engaging students as assets in the learning process. This approach uses
three levels of knowledge: (a) what is already known, (b) what people want to
know, and (c) structuring knowledge. At the first level, students identify what
they already know about a topic and what they dont know. The second level
triggers planning, researching, setting up, and presenting a product. The third
level confirms the acquired knowledge, presented in a variety of ways. In
addition to enriching the students academic lives, this model helps develop
conscious citizens. By using students councils and school assemblies,
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xxiv Introduction
children and teenagers can debate about their needs and problems, make
important decisions, regulate the schools life and make respected and sup-
ported intervention initiatives, such as solving pollution or addressing the
needs of people experiencing homelessness. This chapter validates the fact
that through pedagogical models such as VOAR, schools are able to contrib-
ute to the development of free and strong personalities in youth, capable of
connecting with others and keeping a positive outlook in life.
Chapter 11 by Asma Hussain, Beatriz Alonso, and Elena Bretón presents
the methodology and process of the Design for Change (DFC), an organiza-
tion that engages children and youth in developing changemaking projects.
The chapter introduces the DFCs Feel, Imagine, Do, and Share (FIDS) step-
by-step framework that has impacted 2 million children and youth across 65
countries. Children use this simple design thinking model to plan and act
on the problems and challenges they face through a lens of empathy, driving
them to be active citizens of society. According to the young changemakers
interviewed for the chapter, they have felt empowered by this method that
facilitates collaboration, brainstorming ideas, and moving from self-doubt to
implementing change in the community.
The authors present educational impact evidence that includes being an
inclusive initiative with high participation of rural and urban schools and
equal numbers of girls and boys, addressing problems such as alcoholism
and disability. Studies in partnership with Harvard and consulting firms have
helped DFC collect data on their initiatives and results have shown that chil-
dren improve their twenty-first-century skills: creativity, motivation, confi-
dence, social consciousness, divergent thinking, planning, and collaboration.
The DFCs methodology helps change the mind-set of educators and families
that children are not too young or helpless to solve the small and big problems
they face as individuals, families, or communities. This chapter confirms that
by giving students the responsibility of taking action and by helping guide
their transformation process in a structured way, children will rise to the occa-
sion and show adults they can change the world.
Chapter 12 by Patricia Limaverde gives insights into an ecosystemic peda-
gogy utilized by a Brazilian school for environmental education. The author
explains how the nontraditional Vila School offers a space where children
learn through coexistence, establish their own goals, and carry out projects
such as cultivating plants, building toys out of junk, or holding socio-environ-
mental campaigns. The author describes a pedagogy that organizes content
in three interconnected axes: (a) a curricular web of incorporated lessons,
discussions, homework, and art projects that promote the relationship of car-
ing for oneself, caring for the environment, and caring for nature; (b) group
organization that leads to promoting key living skills such as collaboration,
appreciation for diverse opinions, and conflict mediation; and (c) learning
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scenarios in the form of eight laboratories to research and learn. The labs
include learning how to coexist with fauna, studying an orchard and fruits,
and using technology for sustainability purposes. Other learning scenarios
that prepare students for a real life include workshops on the visual arts for
concrete expression and theater to represent unlived experiences. This chap-
ter stresses how student development must be addressed in a comprehensive
way and beyond the traditional curriculum to build a better, more supportive,
humane worlda world open to coexistence in diversity.
Chapter 13 by Seth Sampson, Nancy Lewin, and Paul Rogers tells the
story of a collaborative project in Laredo, Texas,focused onaddress-
ing intergenerational povertyand preparing the next generation of teach-
ers.Based on interviews and participant observation, this chapter shares
the workof a wide range of stakeholders andcenters who are committed to
integratingcommunity-based(and other)resourcesinways that amplify and
reinforce thelocal knowledge andwisdom(known as thedichos)andthat
establish culturally responsive pathways supporting thelong-termdevelop-
ment ofyouthinLaredo.
The chapter includes the voices and experiences of young teacher candi-
dates and the tripwires or barriers they have had to overcome in order to
pursue their dreams of becoming teachers and presents a model of sophisti-
cated collaboration that is focused on solving concrete problems and support-
ing students and families in the community in culturally responsive ways that
lead to greater social mobility. The book also provides details of the practical
contributions from local, state, and national organizations which are work-
ing together to provide young people in Laredo greater avenues of access, a
powerful sense of belonging, and ultimately the tools required to succeed as
changemaker educators.
Chapter 14 by Viviana Alexandrowicz at the University of San Diego
describes the process followed by a teacher education department in its jour-
ney to integrate changemaking (CM) into its teacher preparation programs.
The author defines and explains CM in the K-12 educational context and
its relationship to preparing teachers who can implement CM pedagogy in
their classrooms. The chapter reviews educational theories that support CM
in education and shows the alignment of the CM principles to the California
Teaching Performance Expectations (TPEs) for teacher preparation.
The author presents seven steps taken for the integration of CM into the
philosophy and practice of the learning and teaching department. The steps
include (1) engaging faculty in introspection, (2) expanding knowledge about
CM, (3) sharing resources, (4) connecting theory and practice, (5) aligning
to teacher performance expectation and integrating into coursework, (6)
developing a changemaker school partnership, and (7) assessing the impact.
Alexandrowicz presents highlights of research findings based on students
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xxvi Introduction
perceptions of their preparation in becoming changemaker educators.
Outcomes presented for the initiative include identifying CM as one of the
departments core values and developing a CM center for K-12 education.
This chapter reminds readers of the critical role teacher education plays in
preparing educators who can effectively facilitate their students acquisition
of twenty-first-century skills for a world that continuously changes and for
one that does not yet exist.
The afterword presents a Young Changemakers views on how young peo-
ple can be supported by the educational ecosystems of which they are a part,
including teachers, adult mentors, and peers. Victor provides suggestions for
adults and youth about how to be resilient and persevere as a change maker.
The chapter provides readers with ideas on how they can encourage and guide
students development as conscious citizens who are intentional in noticing
what is going around them and learning how to take action.
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