Conference Paper

Introducing QRogue: Teaching Quantum Computing Using a Rogue-like Game Concept

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This paper narrows the gap between previous literature on quantum linear algebra and practical data analysis on a quantum computer, formalizing quantum procedures that speed-up the solution of eigenproblems for data representations in machine learning. The power and practical use of these subroutines is shown through new quantum algorithms, sublinear in the input matrix’s size, for principal component analysis, correspondence analysis, and latent semantic analysis. We provide a theoretical analysis of the run-time and prove tight bounds on the randomized algorithms’ error. We run experiments on multiple datasets, simulating PCA’s dimensionality reduction for image classification with the novel routines. The results show that the run-time parameters that do not depend on the input’s size are reasonable and that the error on the computed model is small, allowing for competitive classification performances.
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Community + Culture features practitioner perspectives on designing technologies for and with communities. We highlight compelling projects and provocative points of view that speak to both community technology practice and the interaction design field as a whole. --- Sheena Erete, Editor
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The computer game of quantum minesweeper is introduced as a quantum extension of the well-known classical minesweeper. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. Quantum minesweeper demonstrates the effects of superposition, entanglement and their non-local characteristics. While in the classical minesweeper the goal of the game is to discover all the mines laid out on a board without triggering them, in the quantum version there are several classical boards in superposition. The goal is to know the exact quantum state, i.e. the precise layout of all the mines in all the superposed classical boards. The player can perform three types of measurement: a classical measurement that probabilistically collapses the superposition; a quantum interaction-free measurement that can detect a mine without triggering it; and an entanglement measurement that provides non-local information. The application of the concepts taught by quantum minesweeper to one-way quantum computing are also presented.
This meta-analysis systematically reviewed math game studies published between 2010 and 2020 and evaluated them with respect to a) the type of pedogeological foundations inherent in games using Kebritchi and Hirumi's (2008) framework, b) the type of mathematics knowledge they facilitated (Bisanz & LeFevre, 1990; Rittle-Johnson, 2017), and c) their effect on math learning. Only 23 out of 26 studies used games based on a clear pedagogical approach and many studies measured multiple knowledge types. A direct instructional approach was most often used in games to target factual knowledge and resulted in an overall medium sized effect (g = 0.58), whereas procedural and conceptual knowledge were used by games using three types of pedagogical approach: experiential, discovery, and constructivist approaches but with mixed effect sizes. Overall, behaviorally oriented pedagogies are still dominant in math games and the effectiveness of each pedagogical approach varies as a function of knowledge type.
Quantum tic-tac-toe was developed as a metaphor for the counterintuitive nature of superposition exhibited by quantum systems. It offers a way of introducing quantum physics without advanced mathematics, provides a conceptual foundation for understanding the meaning of quantum mechanics, and is fun to play. A single superposition rule is added to the child's game of classical tic-tac-toe. Each move consists of a pair of marks subscripted by the number of the move (``spooky'' marks) that must be placed in different squares. When a measurement occurs, one spooky mark becomes real and the other disappears. Quantum tic-tac-toe illustrates a number of quantum principles including states, superposition, collapse, nonlocality, entanglement, the correspondence principle, interference, and decoherence. The game can be played on paper or on a white board. A Web-based version provides a refereed playing board to facilitate the mechanics of play, making it ideal for classrooms with a computer projector.
A digital computer is generally believed to be an efficient universal computing device; that is, it is believed able to simulate any physical computing device with an increase in computation time of at most a polynomial factor. This may not be true when quantum mechanics is taken into consideration. This paper considers factoring integers and finding discrete logarithms, two problems which are generally thought to be hard on a classical computer and have been used as the basis of several proposed cryptosystems. Efficient randomized algorithms are given for these two problems on a hypothetical quantum computer. These algorithms take a number of steps polynomial in the input size, e.g., the number of digits of the integer to be factored. AMS subject classifications: 82P10, 11Y05, 68Q10. 1 Introduction One of the first results in the mathematics of computation, which underlies the subsequent development of much of theoretical computer science, was the distinction between compu...
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