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Bond Futures Option Model

We present a pricing model for bond futures options. Assuming that the bond futures price at the

maturity of the option is lognormal, the model adopts the Black’s analytical closed-form solution.

For bond futures options, the futures price is taken directly from the market instead of being

calculated from the bond futures calculator.

Let

)t(BF

be a price process of a given bond futures, and T be a payoff maturity date. The bond

futures option with the underlying BT is a European type derivative security whose matured

payoff at the settlement date is given by

)X)T(BT(,0max −

(1)

where

(+1 for call, -1 for put) is the call-put index, X is the strike. Assuming that the bond

futures price at the maturity of the option is lognormal, the prices of bond futures options at time

zero are given by using the Black’s formula, which are

)]d(XN)d(NBF)[T,0(Pc 210 −=

(2)

)]d(NBF)d(XN)[T,0(Pp 102 −−−=

(3)

where c and p are the call price and the put price,

)T,0(P

is the discount factor, and

1

d

and

2

d

are given by

T

2/T)X/BFln(

d2

0

1

+

=

(4)

T

2/T)X/BFln(

d2

0

2

−

=

. (5)

The volatility

is defined so that

T

is the standard deviation of the logarithm of the bond

futures price at the maturity of the option.

The above pricing formulae are based on the assumption that the futures price is a martingale,

i.e., there is no drift term in the futures price dynamics.

There are closed-form solutions available for the Greek values for options described above. We

adopt closed-form solutions for Deltas and Gammas, which are given by

)d(Ne 1

rT−

=

for calls and

)1)d(N(e 1

rT −= −

for puts, (6)

TBF

)d(N

e

0

1

rT

= −

for both calls and puts. (7)

For Vega, Theta and Rho values, We employ numerical differentiation. Vega is calculated as

0v PPV −=

(8)

where

v

P

is the option price corresponding to an upper 1% shift of futures price volatility, and

0

P

is the initial option price. Theta is given by

0t PP −=

(9)

where

t

P

is the option value assuming one-day shift of value time while all else remains the

same. And rho is calculated as

0r PPrho −=

(10)

where

r

P

is the option value assuming 10 bp parallel shift of interest rates.

We test the bond futures option model in several cases. The first case is a call option, with the

value date of 20031212 10:54, the futures price of 111.0, the risk free interest rate of 0.01, the

volatility of the futures price of 0.05, and the option maturity of 20040221 10:54.

The second case is a put option with the same inputs as the first case except that the volatility is

0.10.

The testing results are shown in Table 1.

Table 1. Results for Bond Futures Options

Case

Price

Delta

Gamma

Vega

Theta

rho

1

1.5498

0.6620

0.1488

0.1809

-0.006257

-0.000301