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THE THREAT OF RELIGIOUS MODERATION TO RELIGIOUS RADICALISM

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Abstract

Religious moderation is very important. So that there will always be peace, religious moderation is needed in a pluralistic society. In the midst of the threat of radicalism, which is spreading rapidly and can be dangerous if this understanding of radicalism is embraced by many people, Religious moderation is a religious attitude that takes a fair attitude, is not inclined to be radical, and is not inclined to liberalism. All the arguments in Islam tend to always take a middle attitude, which means balanced. The purpose of this study is to understand and describe religious moderation to prevent the entry of radicalism and liberalism. The results of this literature research show that understanding and applying religious moderation can prevent and protect against being influenced by radicalism and liberalism. Religious moderation will create tolerance, peace and harmony between religious communities. To prevent acts of radicalism and extremism, an understanding of religious moderation is needed that is correct and in accordance with the Al-Qur'an and Al-Hadits
Profetika: Jurnal Studi Islam
Vol. 24, No. 01, 2023, pp. 01-06
P-ISSN: 14110881 I E-ISSN: 25414534
Copyright 2022 Authors
THE THREAT OF RELIGIOUS MODERATION TO
RELIGIOUS RADICALISM
Rahman Hakim1*, Mudofir2
1,2 Raden Mas Said State Islamic University Surakarta, Raden Mas Said State
Islamic University Surakarta
1* jurgenh4berm4s@gmail.com
Article History: Received March 3, 2022; Revised May 12, 2022; Accepted March 01,
2023
Abstract: Religious moderation is very important. So that there will always be peace,
religious moderation is needed in a pluralistic society. In the midst of the threat of
radicalism, which is spreading rapidly and can be dangerous if this understanding of
radicalism is embraced by many people, Religious moderation is a religious attitude that
takes a fair attitude, is not inclined to be radical, and is not inclined to liberalism. All the
arguments in Islam tend to always take a middle attitude, which means balanced. The
purpose of this study is to understand and describe religious moderation to prevent the
entry of radicalism and liberalism. The results of this literature research show that
understanding and applying religious moderation can prevent and protect against being
influenced by radicalism and liberalism. Religious moderation will create tolerance,
peace and harmony between religious communities. To prevent acts of radicalism and
extremism, an understanding of religious moderation is needed that is correct and in
accordance with the Al-Qur'an and Al-Hadits
Keywords: religious, moderation, Islamic, al-Qur’an, al-Hadits, Indonesia
INTRODUCTION
Islam is a very peaceful religion. Islam strongly advocates a tolerant attitude towards
other religions. A phenomenon that appears in the midst of society, some individuals
cause attitudes that do not represent Islamic society. [1]. Bhinneka Tunggal Ika is the
slogan of the Indonesian nation, which has united the nation. It has one meaning, and also
the role of the Indonesian language plays a big role in uniting the nation [1]. Muslims in
Indonesia must have a role in maintaining the stability of religious harmony because
Muslims are the majority people in Indonesia There are many threats of accusations of
radicalism. Because some Muslims do not meet the standard of moderation. In order to
avoid unwanted things, it is necessary to understand again what is meant by moderation.
So that in the future there will be no communication errors, which will lead to
misunderstandings [1]. Defining the meaning of “moderate Muslim” in the current
situation is quite crucial, because the term was created to identify the opposite traits,
namely radical Muslims. The importance of knowing the meaning of moderation so that
there is no misunderstanding needs to be addressed. If there is no indication of
moderation, it may fall into radical understanding [2]. There are only two alternatives. If
they are not identified as moderates, they will be accused of being radicals. [2].
Every time there are terrorist acts that occur in various places in the world, moderate
Islam appears to be able to overcome radicalism. Because moderate Islam is a solution to
acts of terrorism in the name of religion [3]. Mainstream Muslims must immediately
determine postulates in order to close the gap created by radicalism masked by religion,
by interpreting the basis of religion with their interpretation, which can harm mainstream
Muslims. Religious radicals who spread terror in various places often distort the basis of
religion for the sake of their evil deeds. [3]. The dividing line between moderate Muslims
and radical Islam in countries with legal systems based on the West (the majority of
Profetika: Jurnal Studi Islam
Vol. 24, No. 01, 2023, pp. 01-06
P-ISSN: 14110881 I E-ISSN: 25414534
Copyright 2022 Authors
countries in the Muslim world) is whether sharia should be applied, which makes the
difference between radical understanding and moderate Islam in developed and
developing countries, east and west, with an understanding of how sharia must be applied
in the local country [3]. World geopolitics is developing so rapidly that a study that
discusses moderation, or in Arabic, called "Wasatiyyah," is needed to develop drastically
into various dimensions and approaches. Many scholars have recently paid attention to
moderate Islam, thinkers from various fields, such as linguistics, socio-psychology, and
the development of human capital in Islam, both in the religious sphere and outside.
socio-political context or strategy. This widening can be observed from the common
opinion of modern scholars in defining "religion" as an organized collection of beliefs and
cultural systems held by a community which are an integral part of their worldview and
socio-cultural existence. [3].
Contextually, the terms "moderate Muslim" and "moderate Islam" are strongly
influenced by the region. Each region has its own peculiarities, so that it gives rise to
different meanings. In 1979, there was a revolution in Iran. It was against this background
that academics came up with the term "moderation" as a term coined by academics. Then,
gradually, the word was used widely by scholars, politicians, and even journalists.
Geneive Abdo is an American media journalist who is native to the Middle East and uses
the word "moderate Islamist" as opposed to the phrase "hardline Islamist." Recently,
many journalists have followed suit..[4].
The term moderation has a different meaning which is understood by what is believed
by western scientific understanding. The use of the term in western scholarship, is very
much ridden by the political content to be achieved to be achieved in the Muslim world.
All terms used in Islam basically refer to the teachings of the Islamic religion and its
foundations [4].
Twenty years after the long period of transition and consolidation of democracy in
Indonesia, researchers point to Islamic organizations having a large mass as an important
reason for the country's relative success. Many Muslim-majority countries that implement
a democratic system, including Egypt, Turkey, Senegal, Pakistan and Nigeria, end up
adopting authoritarianism. Interestingly, Indonesia, which is also a majority of the
population embraces Islam, continues to cultivate a democratic system. This is evidenced
by various indicators that show that Indonesia is a majority Muslim country that has
succeeded in implementing democracy and remains a democracy [5]. Compared to other
countries, Indonesia has succeeded in implementing democracy, especially in inter-
religious life. Thailand and the Philippines have returned to authoritarianism, while
enduring authoritarianism reigns in Singapore, Vietnam, Cambodia and Burma [5].
Indonesia is in the midst of major threats related to very serious problems of
corruption, rule of law, sectarianism, and economic inequality, Indonesia continues to
hold successful elections with changes of power, and state policies are largely made and
implemented by elected representatives who are widely responsible [5].
A great figure who is famous for his thoughts and ideas of religious moderation is
Yûsuf al-Qardhâwî [6]. Qardhâwî, who is very well known in the world with his expertise
in conveying ideas in terms of religious moderation, is a very productive figure and has
produced 130 books with various themes based on al-wasathiyyah principles. The concept
of al-wasathiyyah appears as an intermediary as a rope and ship to save the people of the
present and future.[7] The concept of al-wasathiyyah referred to here is a concept that has
a comprehensive and integral understanding of Islam as revealed to the Prophet
Muhammad [8]. Faith in the status of the Qur'an and Sunnah as references in legislation
and Islamic life guidance both in the individual and collective lives of society. For
Muslims who adhere to the understanding of al-wasathiyyah, they must be able to use the
two primary sources as a basis for life, whether social, economic, political, artistic,
cultural and others. Despite the demand for the significance of understanding nushûs in
Profetika: Jurnal Studi Islam
Vol. 24, No. 01, 2023, pp. 01-06
P-ISSN: 14110881 I E-ISSN: 25414534
Copyright 2022 Authors
certain cases, it must remain within the umbrella of maqâshidkulliyyah (general goals)
that Islam and its teachings want to achieve. Currently, the Indonesian nation is facing a
situation of increasing intolerance, radicalism, terrorism, and violent extremism [9].
METHODOLOGY
This study used a qualitative approach, in which the data obtained were not written in
numbers, but in a qualitative form, its nature provides analysis and presentation of the
object understudy in the form of narration. This research is library research where data
sources are obtained from books, journals, magazines, scientific articles, and the internet.
Data is collected by reading, analyzing, and analyzing as much as possible obtained from
the data source. In analyzing the data, the writer uses Miles and Huberman’s data analysis
methods, namely data reduction, data presentation, and conclusion drawing.
This study uses a qualitative approach. The data obtained from the source are then
presented in a qualitative form. Qualitative research is research that analyzes and presents
an object that has been studied in the form of words not in the form of numbers. This
research is a library research whose data sources are obtained from books, journals,
magazines, scientific articles, and the internet. Data were collected by reading, analyzing,
and analyzing as much as possible from the data source. In analyzing the data, the authors
use data analysis methods Miles and Huberman, namely data reduction, data presentation,
and drawing conclusions.[10]
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Islam is a balanced religion. Not leaning to the extreme right and not leaning to the
extreme left. The Qur'an mentions the Muslim community as a people who are not
excessive or just and balanced. Being a Muslim, should be wherever and whenever,
should prioritize balance. Balanced in terms of spiritual and physical. Prophet Muhammad
gave an example of how life must be balanced. Don't overdo it in all areas. [11], [12]
Moderation in Arabic means wasathiyyah, which comes from the word wasatha. In the
Qur'an moderation is termed al-Wasaiyyah which comes from the sentence in Surah al-
Baqarah verse 143 "ummatan wasaan". which means a society that has the characteristics
of justice, and balance and trustworthy people [13]. The term moderation became popular
among the Muslim community, when the discourse emerged to stem the movement of
extremism and radicalism as well as efforts to prevent violence in the name of religion.
[13]. The role of religion to maintain security conditions is very important [14].
Islam is very concerned about human sanctity. Norms in Islam maq'aid al-syar'ı'ah
emphasize human protection (ifal-nafs )[14]. Modernization is the beginning of
urbanization ignorance [15].
Developing countries have many sects of belief and are places where religions thrive
and thrive [16]. A lot of violence perpetrated by extremists [17]. Shifts in knowledge fuel
radicalism [18]. The term ''Islamic education'' is a new sentence in Islamic treasures [19].
Jimmy Carter sees issues of religion and women's rights based on the views of an Islamic
feminist figure named Zainah Anwar [20]. Transnational terrorism today has caused
division and swallowed up innocent people [21]. Lessons drawn from history are easier
for people to understand than theories [22]. Although national politics has inevitably
become a part of everyday life for Karen American Muslims. Islamophobia, racism, are
unfair acts [23]. Religions defend themselves in an increasingly heterogeneous culture
[24]. There has been a lot of destruction of archaeological sites in Syria and Iraq [25]. The
pattern of adolescent romantic style in Indonesia is more or less influenced by culture and
religion [26]. Al-Quran mentions, Muslims are said to be ummatan wasatan [27].
Economic and political movements since the last quarter century have facilitated the
revival of religions that cross national borders and pose new challenges for the nation [28]
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The Islamic revolution in Iran that occurred in 1979 changed the lives of women in a
former westernized country into an Islamic state of Iran [29]. The emergence of a
conservative Islamist ideology that tends to be more radical, its emergence began with the
collapse of the New Order regime [30].
In Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (KBBI), the term moderation means the tendency to
be at the midpoint between two extreme poles. Hashim Kamali stated, in Islam,
moderation is an essential aspect because it has many ramifications in various fields,
which is quite impressive in Islamic studies. Kamali also explained religious moderation
related to current moral virtues related to the life of each individual and related to the
nation and State. In Arabic, the term moderation is known as al-wasathiyah. In al-
wasathiyah language, derived from the word wasath. Al-Asfahaniy interprets wasath with
sawa’un, which is in the middle between two boundaries, or with justice in the middle.
The condition of Indonesian pluralism has existed for a long time both in terms of
religion, ethnicity, culture, and language. Islam in Indonesia utilizes local wisdom to
create inter-religious harmony. According to Ibn 'Ashur the word wasath has two
meanings. First, etymologically the word wasath means something in the middle of
something that has two equal ends. Second, in terms of terminology, the word wasath is
the values of Islamic teachings that are built based on a straight and centered mindset, not
excessive in carrying out an action. In line with this, as Aristotle quoted by M. Quraish
Shihab, the virtue of virtue is the middle between two despicable qualities. Thus the word
wasath is attached to goodness so that the doer of goodness itself is also called wasath
with the understanding of a good person. Therefore, he is always fair in giving decisions
and testimony. Therefore, Islamic moderation is an attitude. which tends to justice and
commendable deeds. People who in their lives do not exaggerate can be said to be
moderate. In other words, Islamic moderation can shape a person's mindset, attitude, and
behavior to love peace and justice. In everyday life, it is clear that moderate-minded
people will be tolerant and tend to be open to their community[9].
Talking about religious moderation in the Indonesian context is very important.
Because lately, the existence of the Indonesian nation has begun to be undermined and
undermined by radical and extremist ideas, which have indirectly threatened the safety of
the Indonesian nation. It can even be said that Indonesia is not yet free from acts of
intolerance and radicalism at this time. In some areas, suicide bombings occur because of
a shallow and narrow understanding of Islam about the teachings of the Koran and
Hadith. According to Azyumardi Azra, to build harmonious relations between religious
communities and create an inclusive atmosphere in religion. So it takes the ability of each
religious group. Deepening the understanding of doctrines and practices of other
denominations is a priority.
CONCLUSION
From the explanation and analysis above, conclusions can be drawn. First, religious
moderation is part of Islamic teachings. Because the commandment about religious
moderation is found in the Quran. Therefore, religious moderation is an attitude of living
in the middle, not leaning left, right, forward and backward, but in the middle of seeing
and solving a problem. Finally, the estuary of religious moderation is to create a tolerant,
peaceful, and harmonious atmosphere in multi-religious and multicultural life. Second,
religious radicalism is an attitude of life that tends to impose its opinion on others and is
willing to win on its own. In other words, radicalism is the attitude of someone who wants
change through revolution but puts peace aside. Finally, to achieve a change, the
perpetrators of radicalism and extremism must take violent actions to achieve the desired
goals. Religious moderation will create tolerance, peace and harmony between religious
communities. To prevent acts of radicalism and extremism, an understanding of religious
moderation is needed that is correct and in accordance with the Qur'an and Al-Hadits.
Profetika: Jurnal Studi Islam
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The DebateQuestion 1: Various commentators have frequently invoked the importance of moderate Muslims and the role that they can play in fighting extremism in the Muslim world. But it is not clear who is a moderate Muslim. The recent cancellation of Tariq Ramadan’s visa to the United States, the raids on several American Muslim organizations, and the near marginalization of mainstream American Muslims in North America pose the following question: If moderate Muslims are critical to an American victory in the war on terror, then why does the American government frequently take steps that undermine moderate Muslims? Perhaps there is a lack of clarity about who the moderate Muslims are. In your view, who are these moderate Muslims and what are their beliefs and politics? JLE: Our human tendency is to define what is normal or moderate in terms of someone just like “us.” The American government, as well as many western and Muslim governments and experts, define moderate by searching for reflections of themselves. Thus, Irshad Manji or “secular” Muslims are singled out as self-critical moderate Muslims by such diverse commentators as Thomas Friedman or Daniel Pipes. In an America that is politicized by the “right,” the Republican and religious right, and post-9/11 by the threat of global terrorism and the association of Islam with global terrorism, defining a moderate Muslim becomes even more problematic. Look at the situations not only in this country but also in Europe, especially France. Is a moderate Muslim one who accepts integration, or must it be assimilation? Is a moderate Muslim secular, as in laic (which is really anti-religious)? Is a moderate Muslim one who accepts secularism, as in the separation of church and state, so that no religion is privileged and the rights of all (believer and nonbeliever) are protected? Is a moderate Muslim one who accepts a particular notion of gender relations, not simply the equality of women and men but a position against wearing hijab? (Of course let’s not forget that we have an analogous problem with many Muslims whose definition of being a Muslim, or of being a “good” Muslim woman, is as narrowly defined.) In today’s climate, defining who is a moderate Muslim depends on the politics or religious positions of the individuals making the judgment: Bernard Lewis, Daniel Pipes, Gilles Kepel, Stephen Schwartz, Pat Robertson, and Tom DeLay. The extent to which things have gotten out of hand is seen in attempts to define moderate Islam or what it means to be a good European or American Muslim. France has defined the relationship of Islam to being French, sought to influence mosques, and legislated against wearing hijab in schools. In the United States, non-Muslim individuals and organizations, as well as the government, establish or fund organizations that define or promote “moderate Islam,” Islamic pluralism, and so on, as well as monitor mainstream mosques and organizations. The influence of foreign policy plays a critical role. For some, if not many, the litmus test for a moderate Muslim is tied to foreign policy issues, for example, how critical one is of American or French policy or one’s position in regard to Palestine/Israel, Algeria, Kashmir, and Iraq. Like many Muslim regimes, many experts and ideologues, as well as publications like The Weekly Standard, National Review, The Atlantic, The New York Sun and media like Fox Television, portray all Islamists as being the same. Mainstream and extremist (they deny any distinction between the two) and indeed all Muslims who do not completely accept their notion of secularism, the absolute separation of religion and the state, are regarded as a threat. Mainstream Islamists or other Islamically oriented voices are dismissed as “wolves in sheep’s clothing.” What is important here is to emphasize that it is not simply that these individuals, as individual personalities, have influence and an impact, but that their ideas have taken on a life of their own and become part of popular culture. In a post-9/11 climate, they reinforce the worst fears of the uninformed in our populace. The term moderate is in many ways deceptive. It can be used in juxtaposition to extremist and can imply that you have to be a liberal reformer or a progressive in order to pass the moderate test, thus excluding more conservative or traditionalist positions. Moderates in Islam, as in all faiths, are the majority or mainstream in Islam. We assume this in regard to such other faiths as Judaism and Christianity. The Muslim mainstream itself represents a multitude of religious and socioeconomic positions. Minimally, moderate Muslims are those who live and work “within” societies, seek change from below, reject religious extremism, and consider violence and terrorism to be illegitimate. Often, in differing ways, they interpret and reinterpret Islam to respond more effectively to the religious, social, and political realities of their societies and to international affairs. Some seek to Islamize their societies but eschew political Islam; others do not. Politically, moderate Muslims constitute a broad spectrum that includes individuals ranging from those who wish to see more Islamically oriented states to “Muslim Democrats,” comparable to Europe’s Christian Democrats. The point here is, as in other faiths, the moderate mainstream is a very diverse and disparate group of people who can, in religious and political terms, span the spectrum from conservatives to liberal reformers. They may disagree or agree on many matters. Moderate Jews and Christians can hold positions ranging from reform to ultraorthodox and fundamentalist and, at times, can bitterly disagree on theological and social policies (e.g., gay rights, abortion, the ordination of women, American foreign and domestic policies). So can moderate Muslims.
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Radical and extremist groups’ actions are totally opposite to the Islamic teachings. In warding off the radical movements and terrorism, an open concept of inclusive religious understandings are needed. This concept is known as religious moderation. This study aims to explore efforts in reducing the massive movement of radicalism and intolerance in the frame of basic religious practices. This qualitative study relies upon the literature research where data reduction, data presentation, and concluding are employed. The results showed that Islamic moderation is reflected in the moderate attitudes. Religious moderation stems from tolerance, peace, and harmony within a multi-religious society. Kelompok radikalisme dan ektrimisme telah melakukan tindakan yang sangat bertentangan dengan ajaran Islam. Oleh karena itu, untuk menangkal gerakan radikal dan terorisme diperlukan sebuah konsep beragama yang bersifat terbuka (inklusif). Konsep beragama yang inklusif ini disebut dengan moderasi beragama. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meredam dan meminimalisir masifnya gerakan radikalisme dan intoleransi maka dibutuhkan konsep beragama yang sederhana, tidak kaku dan mudah dipahami oleh masyarakat umum. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif yang bersifat penelitian pustaka. Penulis menggunakan metode analisis data yaitu reduksi data, penyajian data, dan penarikan kesimpulan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan moderasi Islam atau moderasi beragama merupakan sikap hidup yang berada di tengah, tidak condong ke kiri, kanan, ke depan dan ke belakang, tetapi berada di tengah dalam melihat dan menyelesaikan sebuah persoalan. Akhirnya, muara dari moderasi beragama yaitu menciptakan suasana yang toleran, damai dan harmonis di tengah kehidupan yang serba multiagama dan multikultural.
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Historical examples can often serve as more persuasive evidence, especially to the general public, than the most well-reasoned theory. It is not surprising then that in the later part of his career, David Hume chose this medium to communicate his philosophy. Hume's intentions and the outcomes of writing The History of England are well worth revisiting periodically. In this work, Hume cleverly uses political esotericism to push forward his two overarching goals. The primary goal was to disseminate the philosophy that harmony lies near the middle, at least in regard to political authority. This belief does not require all those who are governed and those who govern to be moderate in their views. In fact, on many subjects, Hume did not hold a view anywhere near the center; he merely promoted the notion that society should be governed somewhere near the median. If one wished to push governmental authority in one direction or the other, a society's culture must be pushed in that direction at the same time to avoid the instability that can lead to tyranny. Hume's secondary goal was to push the median view of his society toward one that favored a liberal state, a state that could only be sustainable if Hume's primary goal was achieved.
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