Content uploaded by Julia Hill

Author content

All content in this area was uploaded by Julia Hill on Mar 30, 2023

Content may be subject to copyright.

Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at

https://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=tmes20

International Journal of Mathematical Education in

Science and Technology

ISSN: (Print) (Online) Journal homepage: https://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tmes20

Examining the mathematics education values of

diverse groups of students

Julia L. Hill & Jodie Hunter

To cite this article: Julia L. Hill & Jodie Hunter (2023): Examining the mathematics education

values of diverse groups of students, International Journal of Mathematical Education in

Science and Technology, DOI: 10.1080/0020739X.2023.2184280

To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.1080/0020739X.2023.2184280

© 2023 The Author(s). Published by Informa

UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis

Group

Published online: 19 Mar 2023.

Submit your article to this journal

Article views: 205

View related articles

View Crossmark data

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL EDUCATION IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

https://doi.org/10.1080/0020739X.2023.2184280

Examining the mathematics education values of diverse

groups of students

Julia L. Hill aand Jodie Hunter b

aMelbourne Graduate School of Education, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia; bInstitute of

Education, Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand

ABSTRACT

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in examining val-

ues in relation to mathematics education research. Our exploratory

study examines the mathematics education values of culturally

diverse middle school students in New Zealand. We investigated

how student values differed across demographic variables includ-

ing school, ethnicity, gender and grades. Students completed an

online survey to indicate the importance of 14 different mathemat-

ics education values. The overall mean ratings for each of the 14

values determined the relative value importance across the sample.

One-way ANOVA assessed demographic group differences. Findings

showed that respect was rated as the most important value across

all student groups. Students from Pacific nations placed significantly

greater importance on accuracy, communication, family and recall

compared to the other ethnicities. Female students emphasized fam-

ily, practice, respect, risk-taking and utility more than males. We

argue that to provide equitable mathematics classrooms that sup-

port wellbeing, we need to recognize what diverse student groups

value and then transform pedagogy to align with and build from

students’ values. This article provides a contribution by offering a

way of understanding and highlighting similarities and differences in

student values which impact on students’ learning experiences and

wellbeing.

ARTICLE HISTORY

Received 28 February 2022

KEYWORDS

Aﬀect; mathematics

education values; equity;

culture; well-being;

wellbeing; engagement;

respect

1. Introduction

Values are central to education underpinning both purpose and practice within schools

(Allen et al., 2017). Over many years, mathematics teaching and learning typically focused

on students’ cognitive outcomes including knowledge, skills and academic performance

with less attention to cultural and holistic variables including values and wellbeing (Fan,

2021). Accordingly, mathematics education was positioned as a universal subject tran-

scending culture and values (Bishop et al., 2003). However, there has been growing

recognition that mathematics is embedded in culture and values and that mathematics is

a cultural product (D’Ambrosio, 1985). Mathematics education is inuenced by the values

CONTACT Julia L. Hill hill.j@unimelb.edu.au; juliaLhill@gmail.com Melbourne Graduate School of Education,

The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

© 2023 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor& Francis Group

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in anymedium,

provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered,transformed, or built upon in any way. The terms on which this article has been

published allow the posting of the Accepted Manuscript in a repository by the author(s) or with their consent.

2J. L. HILL AND J. HUNTER

of multiple stakeholders including broader society and community, curriculum designers,

schoolprincipals,teachers,andstudentsthemselves(Zhang&Seah,2021). Considering

values are subjective and environmentally constrained, this paper will focus on students’

perspectives of values in mathematics teaching and learning.

Increasing interest in exploring students’ values in mathematics education is evidenced

in the growth of publications in this area (Clarkson et al., 2019;Zhang&Seah,2021),

and the international research collaboration based around the ‘What I Find Important’

(WIFI) questionnaire (Seah & Wong, 2012). The WIFI studies aim to identify and map

co-constructed valuing through examining student and teacher values and classroom

interactions. Many of these studies have examined the values of groups of culturally

homogenous samples within a country or have undertaken comparisons of student values

across countries (e.g. Law et al., 2012;Pang&Seah,2021;Zhangetal.,2016). It appears

that there have been limited studies focusing on the values of marginalized groups of stu-

dents or the diversities of values of diering groups of students within the same system

(e.g. classroom, city, or country).

Students from dierent cultural groups frequently espouse dierent values and accord-

ingly their worldview is inuenced by their cultural background. Similar to many countries,

New Zealand has an increasingly diverse population which is reected in the composition

of students within the classroom and schools. This includes Pakeha (New Zealand Euro-

pean) (70% of the total population), indigenous M¯aori (16.5%), P¯asik¯apeople(fromthe

Pacic Islands) (8%), and those of Asian heritage (15%) (Stats NZ, 2018). Both M¯aori and

Pacic cultures draw on collectivism as a key value with strong obligations to the wellbe-

ing of a group (Hunter, 2021;Ueharaetal.,2018),thiscontrastswithPakehaculturewhich

displays a low level of collectivist value orientation (Podsiadlowski & Fox, 2011). Inter-

estingly, New Zealand has one of the widest levels of mathematics education achievement

disparity amongst OECD nations (OECD, 2018) with a long tail of under-achievement for

marginalized groups.

Earlier studies have highlighted that when students’ learning values are fullled and

arecongruentwiththevaluesintheirenvironment(e.g.teacherorpedagogicalval-

ues), students are happier, more engaged, feel like they belong and are respected, and

thus have greater levels of wellbeing in mathematics education (Hill, Kern, Seah, et al.,

2021;Sirgy,2021;Tiberius,2018). In contrast, disengagement, dislike and illbeing occurs

when student values are not being fullled or conict with their values in their math-

ematics classroom. We argue that to achieve equity in schooling requires teachers to

develop culturally sustaining pedagogy which draws upon the values and identity of stu-

dents as a strength in teaching and learning. Given the signicant equity issues in New

Zealand, there needs to be greater attention to students’ values to facilitate equitable

outcomesandtoaddressbothstudents’experiencesandwellbeinginthemathematics

classroom.

In this study, we explore what students value as most important when learning mathe-

matics.Specically,weaddressthefollowingresearchquestions:

(1) What mathematics education values are rated as most and least important by a

culturally diverse group of middle school students?

(2) How do fourteen mathematics education values dier in importance across student

ethnicities, genders and grades?

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL EDUCATION IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 3

2. Literature review

In this section, we explore the key mathematics values concepts, and secondly, review the

research exploring student values in mathematics education across dierent countries and

cultures,gradelevels,andgenders.

2.1. Dening values

Earlier denitions of values describe them as enduring beliefs that are linked to feelings

(Clarkson et al., 2000; Debellis & Goldin, 2006;Rokeach,1973). Values and beliefs are

closely interconnected (Debellis & Goldin, 2006; Grootenboer & Marshman, 2015). For

instance, someone can believe something is true (e.g. believing mathematics is about accu-

racy) and value it at the same time (e.g. accuracy is important in mathematics). Yet, there

are also marked dierences – beliefs are generally concerned with truths or correctness

andareespeciallystableovertime(Grootenboer&Marshman,2015). Values are slightly

less stable than beliefs and generally concern the degree of importance of some experi-

ence, object, or activity (Seah, 2019).Valuesaremoremotivationalinnaturegenerating

reasons to respond in specic ways whilst assisting individuals to plan and evaluate how

welltheirlivesaregoing(Halstead,1996;Tiberius,2018).Valuesarealsomorestrongly

connected to culture than are beliefs, with culture being a value system organized formally

and informally and serving to set norms and standards for people from dierent groups

to aid decision making (McConatha & Schnell, 1995;Schwartz,2012). The hierarchical

nature of values also dierentiates them from beliefs (Schwartz, 2012). At the highest level

are ‘ultimate values’ (e.g. relationships, life meaning, accomplishments) valued for their

own sake and most impactful on a person’s subjective experiences (e.g. wellbeing, happi-

ness). Underneath these are ‘instrumental’ values, being everything valued to achieve more

ultimatevaluese.g.valuingrespect,friendships,orfamilytofullltheultimatevaluingof

relationships (Tiberius, 2018).

In sum, we dene values as the core of culture (McConatha & Schnell, 1995), and the

hierarchy of things an individual cares about, an indication of what is important, and as the

foundation from which individuals base, plan and judge their lives, consequently, values

dene wellbeing (Seah, 2019;Tiberius,2018).

2.2. Values in the context of mathematics education

Within mathematics education, earlier theorizing classied values as part of an aective

system (alongside mathematical beliefs, attitudes and emotions) (Bishop, 1996;Debel-

lis & Goldin, 2006). More recently, values in mathematics have been conceptualized as

motivational or conative, conation representing the striving component of motivation

(Bishop, 1996;Emmons,1986;Seah,2019). Considering the high incidence of student

disengagement (Attard, 2013) and lack of persistence (Sullivan et al., 2013)reportedin

many mathematics classrooms, the conative qualities of values are especially important. In

our work we dene values and valuing in mathematics education as conative, as ‘an indi-

vidual’s embracing of convictions in mathematics pedagogy which are of importance and

worth personally. .. [shaping] the individual’s willpower to embody the convictions in the

4J. L. HILL AND J. HUNTER

choice of actions’ (Seah, 2019, p. 107). Put simply, values in mathematics education con-

cern important mathematical objects, experiences, or pedagogies that also drive students

tobehaveinwaysthatareconsistentwiththeirvalues.

Values in mathematics education have been categorized into three broad subtypes: gen-

eral education values (that is moral and ethical values aligned with purpose of education

e.g. valuing justice); mathematical values (the values of mathematics as a discipline, i.e.

rationalism, objectism, openness, mystery, control and progress); and mathematics educa-

tion values (any value associated with teaching and learning mathematics e.g. clear teacher

explanations or group work) (Bishop, 1996). These three value categories are not mutually

exclusive. For example, students may value respect more broadly (i.e. a general education

value) because mathematics supports understanding of equity and fairness. However, a

student may also value respect specic to their learning in the mathematics classroom

(i.e. a mathematics education value) because they desire friendships and support. Across

Bishop’s three value subtypes, mathematics education values are cited most often by stu-

dents and teachers, they have the most inuence on learning experiences, are most closely

tied to cultural values, and subsequently have received the most research attention (Seah,

2019). For these reasons our study focuses on students’ mathematics education values,

rather than general or mathematics values.

Students’ mathematics education values have been linked to various positive learn-

ing outcomes including learning preferences, positive classroom relationships, feeling

respected, academic engagement and student wellbeing in mathematics (e.g. Averill, 2012;

Guo et al., 2015;Hill,2018; Hill, Kern, Seah, et al., 2021;Hunter,2021; Kalogeropou-

los & Bishop, 2019). For instance, improvements in student mathematical engagement

werenotedwhenteachersalignedpedagogicalvaluestothevaluesoftheirstudents

(Kalogeropoulos & Bishop, 2019). Additionally, signicant similarities were noted between

students’ descriptions of their values including mathematics education values and wellbe-

ing in mathematics education indicating that addressing values can support wellbeing in

the subject (Hill, Kern, Seah, et al., 2021). However, mathematics education values are sub-

jective and vary from one student to the next, particularly across ethnicities, cultures and

demographics. To achieve equitable learning outcomes for diverse groups of students, it is

important to recognize these values dierences.

2.3. Values in mathematics education across countries and cultures

Values in mathematics education vary across countries and cultures in part because of dif-

ferences in cultural values or region-specic pedagogical practices (Hunter, 2021;Zhang,

2019). For example, across the WIFI in learning mathematics studies, dierences have

been noted in what students from dierent cultural contexts value as most important

with consistency in specic locations (Davis et al., 2019; Österling et al., 2015;Österling

&Andersson,2013). For example, studies (e.g. Law et al., 2011;Lim,2015;Zhang,2019)

with Chinese students found that they consistently emphasized accomplishments (e.g.

smartness, achievement, memory), eort, practice and teacher led learning (e.g. teacher

explanations, strictness, teacher board work). Another Australian study (with a predom-

inantly immigrant sample) reported students most valued achievement, open-endedness,

humanism, relevance and ICT, captured using the WIFI questionnaire (Seah & Barkatsas,

2014). Potentially, the emphasis on achievement may reect the social inequities faced by

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL EDUCATION IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 5

immigrant students. Other studies in New Zealand found similarities between collectivist

P¯asik¯aandM¯aori cultural values and students’ mathematics education values, such as

practice, family, peer support, respect and persistence (Anthony, 2013;Hill,2018;Hunter,

2021).

To a lesser extent other research has examined the dierences in values for students

from dierent cultures. A comparative WIFI study with students from mainland China,

Taiwan and Hong Kong found students across these regions shared the same six val-

ues (i.e. achievement, relevance, practice, communication, ICT and feedback). Yet, across

regions the importance attributed to each value diered, for example, Chinese mainland

students valued practice, achievement and relevance signicantly more than the other

regions, potentially because mainland China is more populous and has a greater emphasis

on high stakes exams. Using interviews, Dede (2019) revealed both similarities and dif-

ferences in values for German, Turkish and Turkish immigrant students. Utility, relevance

and rationalism were common among the three groups, fun was valued only by the German

and Turkish students. Germans valued consolidating knowledge, Turkish valued practice,

and communication was valued only by immigrant students. Like the Seah and Barkatsas

(2014)study,dierencesinsocialequalitiesandculturalvalueslikelyinuencedstudents’

values in mathematics.

Itappearsthattherearelimitedstudiesthathavespecicallyexploredculturaldiversi-

ties in students’ mathematics education values within a single country or region (e.g. Aktaş

et al., 2021;Anthony,2013;Hill,2018). Other cross-cultural values studies (e.g. Dede, 2019;

Seah & Barkatsas, 2014)usetheWIFIquestionnaire,however,thisdoesnotaddressunique

cultural values (e.g. family, respect, reciprocity) which potentially impacts on the responses

of Indigenous or other groups of marginalized students. For example, Hill (2017,2018)

investigated ethnic dierences in mathematics education values for M¯aori, P¯asik¯a, Asian

and European students within Auckland, New Zealand. She found all ethnicities mostly

valued utility. M¯aori and P¯asik¯a students rated collaborative and family values as most

important, and interestingly, Asian, and European students rated these same values as least

important, reecting the intersection of cultural values and students’ mathematics educa-

tion values. Another New Zealand study noted students from low socio-economic schools

(predominately M¯aori and P¯asik¯a students) emphasized more collaborative values than

students from high socio-economic schools (Anthony, 2013). Aktaş et al. (2021)explored

the values of Turkish students in Islamic schools to other studies with non-religious Turk-

ish students and concluded that students in Islamic schools espoused relevance to a lesser

extent. The researchers argue that Islamic beliefs emphasize utility mathematics values to

reveal hidden truths, thus relevance might be less salient than other values in mathemat-

ics education. The study reported in this article focuses on a single system (i.e. country)

uncovering the rich cultural diversities in mathematics education values across classrooms

in New Zealand.

2.4. Values in mathematics education across grade levels

As students develop and progress through school, both pedagogy and learning environ-

ments alongside students’ priorities and values can change. A longitudinal study with

American students highlighted that subjective mathematical task values (i.e. attainment,

intrinsic and utility values) declined as students progressed from grades 1 through 12

6J. L. HILL AND J. HUNTER

(Jacobs et al., 2002). Similarly, a Ghanaian study (Davis et al., 2019)comparedvalues

across primary to secondary grades and found that valuing increased for achievement, u-

ency, authority, versatility, ICT and knowing multiple strategies as students became older.

Additionally, senior secondary students valued relevance less than primary and junior sec-

ondary students and valued greater understanding and mastery potentially because high

stakes exams were introduced in secondary grades. Zhang (2019)reportedprimarystu-

dents in China attributed greater value to ability, eort, diligence, use of formulas and

memory than secondary students. Also, secondary students were more likely to value

knowledge and mathematical thinking. Another study by Tang et al. (2021)reportedjunior

secondary school as a critical period of change in Chinese students’ values, with values

switching across the primary to secondary school transition. Specically, primary students’

memorization and control values shifted to emphasize understanding and objectism in the

secondary years, whereas valuing ICT declined, and practice increased as students became

older.Interestingly,therearenotabledierencesacrossthesestudiesinrelationtoincreases

and decreases in student valuing as they progress through school.

2.5. Gender and values in mathematics education

Across research studies which examine gender dierences in relation to valuing in mathe-

matics education, there are both similarities and dierences. Here we dene gender as the

socially constructed characteristics of boys and girls (World Health Organization, n.d.)A

studybyBarkatsasetal.(2019)inHongKongfoundboysvaluedmeaningfulness,problem-

solving processes with mathematical understanding, and eort and practising (e.g. doing

lots of examples). In contrast, girls valued the use of mathematical discourse, autonomy and

greater opportunities for their voices to be heard. Similarly, Wong (1995) highlighted that

girls valued collaboration in mathematics whilst males preferred competition and prob-

lems solving. However, in studies from Anglo-western cultures, American girls and boys

showed similar values concerning the importance of performing well (e.g. Wigeld et al.,

1997). German, Swedish and American girls perceived mathematics education as less valu-

able (i.e. task value) than boys and less useful for future professional aspirations (Gaspard

et al., 2015;Hydeetal.,1990; Samuelsson & Samuelsson, 2016). In contrast with studies

reportinghighersocialvaluesamongstgirls,girlsinSwedennotedfeelinglessinvolved

in the mathematics classroom and during group work compared to boys (Samuelsson &

Samuelsson, 2016).

3. Research design and methods

3.1. Participants

Five schools throughout New Zealand were invited by email to participate in the study. In

New Zealand, there is a strong intersection between ethnicity and socio-economic back-

ground particularly for P¯asik¯aandM¯aori communities (Stats NZ, 2018). New Zealand

schools use a decile ranking system to indicate socio-economic status. Decile one indicates

that the school is within the lowest socio-economic area while decile ten indicates that the

school is in the highest socio-economic area. Overall, students from P¯asik¯aandM¯aori

backgrounds are more likely to attend low decile (and socio-economic) schools, whilst

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL EDUCATION IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 7

Tab le 1. Student demographics.

Student ethnicities

Asian European M¯

aori P¯

asiﬁka Row totals

Males 14 123 54 70 261 (46%)

Females 9 157 55 81 302 (54%)

Tollmouth (Dec. 1) 1 1 15 112 129 (23%)

Smith (Dec. 6) 16 149 43 14 222 (39%)

Jersey (Dec. 3) 4 99 18 4 125 (22%)

Totara (Dec. 5) 0 28 15 0 43 (8%)

Ranginui (Dec. 1) 2 4 19 22 47 (8%)

Grade 7 17 163 69 93 342 (60%)

Grade 8 6 118 41 59 224 (40%)

Column totals 23 (4%) 281 (50%) 110 (19%) 152 (27%)

Note: Deciles 1 and 3 =low sociodemographic schools, deciles 5 and 6 =medium demo-

graphic schools.

European Pakeha and Asian students tend to attend higher decile (and socio-economic)

schools. Given a key focus in this study was on the values of culturally diverse students,

all of the schools invited to participate were middle to low decile. The schools were also

selected to cover a range of geographic locations and to include both urban and rural areas.

All ve schools consented to take part which included 566 middle school students (Years

7 and 8). Student demographics variables are summarized in Table 1. Three low decile and

two medium decile schools are included here. The clustering of ethnicities by school decile

is reected in our study with most P¯asik¯aandM¯aori students attending the low decile

schools and European and Asian students attending the medium decile schools.

3.2. Data collection

Students completed an online Qualtrics survey during schooltime at the beginning of 2019,

recording the extent to which they valued 14 dierent mathematics educational values

listed in Table 2. Mathematics education values were considered to be any objects, experi-

ences, or pedagogies that students considered important for their learning of mathematics

(Bishop, 1996;Seah,2019). We developed the survey ourselves so that the cultural val-

ues of M¯aori and P¯asik¯a students – which are often missing from existing mathematics

values surveys (e.g. WIFI) could be included. Specically, the survey included three cultur-

ally derived mathematics education values – family, respect and belonging – from earlier

researchstudiesinNewZealandwithM¯aori and P¯asik¯a learners (Anthony, 2013;Aver-

ill & Clark, 2012;Hill,2018) and New Zealand policy documents (Ministry of Education,

2013). Also included were eleven mathematics education values derived from earlier sur-

veys (e.g. WIFI) and considered important by teachers and students in other studies –

accuracy, mathematical clarity, peer collaboration, persistence, practice, problem solving,

recall, risk taking, communication/talking, teacher explanations and utility (Clarkson et al.,

2000;Hill,2017;Hunter,2021;Seahetal.,2017;Seah&Wong,2012).

As it can be challenging for children to relate directly to values, each value was incor-

porated into a statement. For example, ‘maths when it is clear and makes sense to me’

represented the value of mathematical clarity. Students rated the importance of each value

byslidingamarkeralongalinefrom0onthefarleft(‘notimportanttome’)upto10on

the far right (‘very important to me’). Labels appeared only on the endpoints as anchors as

8J. L. HILL AND J. HUNTER

Tab le 2. The fourteen mathematics education values and their corresponding value statements.

Mathematics education values Value statement

Accuracy To get the correct or right answer in mathematics

Belonging Feeling like I belong, or I am connected to others in my mathematics class

Family To have my family (whanau) help or support me with my mathematics

Mathematical clarity Mathematics when it is clear and makes sense to me

Peer collaboration Working together with other children in mathematics

Persistence If I can’t solve a diﬃcult mathematics problem, I need to keep working at it

Practice To practice my mathematics lots so that I can improve

Problem solving Trying out diﬀerent way to see what works to solve a mathematics problem

Recall To be able to know my basic facts quickly

Respect Having respect for my mathematics teacher, and my teacher respecting me

Risk taking To have a go at answering a mathematics problem even if I think I might be wrong

Communication/talking Talking about my ideas with a group or with a partner

Teacher explanations My mathematics teacher needs to explain it to me properly so that I can understand

Utility Doing mathematics that is useful for my life outside of school

recommended by other surveys measuring aect and wellbeing constructs (Butler & Kern,

2016). A ten-point scale was selected because previous surveys (e.g. Andersson & Öster-

ling, 2019) exploring values in mathematics show ratings tend to skew to the upper end (i.e.

important rather than not important). Greater scale options can minimize this skewness

and provide greater variability in students’ responses (Dawes, 2008).

3.3. Data analysis

All statistical tests were conducted using the Statistical Program for Social Sciences

(SPSS21). To address the rst research question, we ranked the value means from the

highesttolowestonetodeterminewhichofthefourteenmathematicseducationvalues

were rated as most and least important. To determine if the importance of each of these

fourteen values diered signicantly from one another, across the whole sample and by eth-

nicity, gender and grade, one-way repeated measure ANOVA (using Greenhouse-Geisser

corrections) and post-hoc Bonferroni tests were used.

To explore if the individual mathematics educational values were signicantly more or

less important across student groups (research question two) fourteen one-way multifacto-

rial ANOVA were conducted using the mathematical educational values as the dependent

variable,and4xethnicity,2xgender,2xgradeand5xschoolasxedfactors.Levene

tests conrmed homogeneity of variances across these groups for each dependent variable

(p>.069). Main eects for ethnicity, gender and grade were explored. School main eects

were not investigated because of the unequal proportions of ethnicities in schools. Two-

and three-way interactions were also not explored because of low sample sizes in some

groups. A limitation of this study is that the results for the Asian students may potentially

reect the lower sample size (n=24) and subsequent lack of statistical power, rather than

anabsenceofstatisticalsignicanceforthisgroupofstudents.

4. Findings

Research Question One – What mathematics education values are rated most and least

important by a culturally diverse group of middle school students?

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL EDUCATION IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 9

Figure 1. Mean value ratings from highest to lowest across all students.

Note: Value means arerepresented by the circle symbol and summarized on the far right. Values are ordered from the highest

means at the top to the lowest means at the bottom.

Across all 566 students the highest rated (most important) value was respect

(M=8.56, SD =1.95), followed by teacher explanations (M=7.94, SD=2.33), risk tak-

ing (M=7.91, SD =2.13), recall (M=7.74, SD =2.50) then persistence (M=7.66,

SD =2.29) all displayed in Figure 1. Overall, the least important value was accuracy

(M=6.52, SD =2.75). The range for respect, risk taking and teacher explanations were

all skewed to the right indicating that students were more likely to rate these values as

‘important’ rather than ‘not important’. Statistically signicant dierences were found

across the fourteen values F(10.73, 5673.67) =6.30, p<.001. Across the whole sample

post hoc Bonferroni tests conrmed respect was rated signicantly higher than all other

values. The next seven highest rated values (i.e. teacher explanations, risk taking, recall,

persistence, family, practice, problem solving) did not signicantly dier from one another,

however, they were each signicantly higher than all the last seven values (i.e. utility, clarity,

belonging, collaboration, communication and accuracy).

Group dierences in value ratings were also investigated. Table 3summarizes the four-

teen value means and standard deviations across ethnicities, genders and grades with the

superscripts 1–5 representing the top ve and 14 the least important values. Overall, the

mean ratings for the fourteen values diered signicantly for each ethnicity (Asian, F(5.57,

169.07) =2.57, p=.25; European, F(9.91, 2885.78) =22.87, p<.001; M¯aori, F(9.41,

1025.82) =10.65, p<.001; and P¯asik¯astudents,F(10.42, 1699.10) =8.13, p<.001);

gender (males, F(10.19, 2766.1) =15.22, p<.001; females, F(10.56, 3304.63) =26.87,

10 J. L. HILL AND J. HUNTER

Tab le 3. Value means and standard deviations across all demographic groups.

Asian Euro M¯

aori P¯

asiﬁk¯

aM F Gr7 Gr8

Accuracy 7.83 (2.10) 6.3414 (2.66) 5.7614 (2.69) 7.2214 (2.85) 6.60 (2.72) 6.46 (2.77) 6.5014 (2.86) 6.5514 (2.59)

Belonging 7.09(2.39) 6.80 (2.60) 6.47 (2.75) 7.56 (2.41) 6.87 (2.50) 7.04 (2.66) 6.78 (2.63) 7.21 (2.53)

Clarity 8.04 (1.64) 7.21 (2.57) 6.57 (2.68) 7.64 (2.31) 7.42 (2.47) 7.08 (2.53) 7.08 (2.57) 7.47 (2.42)

Collaboration 7.57 (1.93) 6.68 (2.41) 6.56 (2.42) 7.63 (2.56) 6.94 (2.40) 6.99 (2.53) 6.96 (2.57) 6.94 (2.32)

Communication 7.09 (2.17) 6.70 (2.52) 6.49 (2.79) 7.64 (2.41) 6.69 (2.55) 7.15 (2.56) 6.88 (2.65) 7.00 (2.44)

Family 7.0414 (2.65) 7.27 (2.54) 7.504(2.58) 8.532(2.20) 7.22 (2.66) 8.004(2.34) 7.634(2.63) 7.67 (2.34)

Persistence 8.303(1.72) 7.555(2.23) 7.325(2.20) 8.03 (2.48) 7.685(2.23) 7.66 (2.33) 7.49 (2.40) 7.934(2.09)

Practice 8.265(1.91) 7.17 (2.53) 7.05 (2.43) 8.344(2.32) 7.25 (2.64) 7.745(2.33) 7.46 (2.53) 7.57 (2.42)

Problem solving 7.96 (2.27) 7.14 (2.26) 7.18 (2.06) 8.19 (2.34) 7.44 (2.23) 7.49 (2.34) 7.49 (2.32) 7.43 (2.25)

Recall 8.304(2.42) 7.614(2.36) 7.05 (2.72) 8.393(2.46) 7.773(2.47) 7.72 (2.53) 7.605(2.63) 7.963(2.29)

Respect 8.741(1.60) 8.471(1.85) 8.291(2.13) 8.891(2.01) 8.221(2.14) 8.851(1.72) 8.581(1.94) 8.531(1.98)

Risk taking 8.392(1.85) 7.912(2.03) 7.553(2.14) 8.12 (2.32) 7.764(2.11) 8.072(2.14) 7.922(2.13) 7.915(2.13)

Teacher explanations 8.265(2.30) 7.883(2.17) 7.682(2.28) 8.195(2.62) 7.812(2.25) 8.063(2.38) 7.863(2.46) 8.062(2.10)

Utility 8.13 (1.79) 7.38 (2.48) 6.90 (2.57) 7.74 (2.58) 7.21 (2.59) 7.59 (2.44) 7.22 (2.61) 7.71 (2.36)

Note: SD in brackets, M =males, F =females, 1–5 top ﬁve values, 14 lowest value.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL EDUCATION IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 11

p<.001) and grade (Grade 7, F(10.44, 3680.69) =16.52, p<.001; Grade 8, F(10.47,

2458.81) =16.52, p<.001). Tukey tests conrmed respect was rated signicantly more

important than all the other values by the European, M¯aori and P¯asik¯astudents,also

females and Grade 7 students. No signicant dierences were found for the Asian students

across any of the fourteen values, which could be attributed to the lower sample size of the

Asian students. For male students the top four values (i.e. respect, teacher explanations,

recall, risk taking) did not dier signicantly from each other, however these four values

were each signicantly higher than the last ve values (i.e. collaboration, belonging, com-

munication and accuracy). For females there were no signicant dierences between the

second to the seventh most important values (i.e. risk taking, teacher explanations, fam-

ily, practice, recall and persistence) whilst these seven each diered signicantly to all the

last four values (i.e. clarity, belonging, collaboration and accuracy). For Grade 7 students

the second to the sixth most important values did not dier signicantly (i.e. risk taking,

teacher explanations, family, recall, persistence) however they each diered to the last three

values (i.e. communication, belonging and accuracy). Grade 8 students’ rst three values

(i.e. respect, teacher explanations and recall) also the third to tenth most important values

did not dier signicantly from each other. However, the rst three values did signicantly

dier to the last ve values (i.e. belonging, communication, collaboration and accuracy).

All students rated accuracy as least important except the Asian students who rated family

as least important.

Research Question Two – How do fourteen mathematics education values dier in

importance across student ethnicities, genders and grades?

As summarized in Table 4, signicant dierences were discovered across dierent eth-

nicities for some values including accuracy, F(3, 503) =2.62, p=.051; communication

F(3, 503) =2.87, p=.042; p=.041; family F(3, 503) =2.09 p=.024; and recall F(3,

503) =2.81, p=.042, and these were attributed to P¯asik¯a students rating these values

signicantly higher than the other ethnicities.

Additionally, we noted dierences in value ratings by gender. Female students

rated family F(1, 503) =5.09, p=.023; practice F(1, 503) =7.14, p=.014; respect

F(1, 503) =7.44, p=.011; risk- taking F(1, 503) =10.49, p<.011; and utility F(1,

Tab le 4. Statistically signiﬁcant group diﬀerences across the values.

Values Group 1 Group 2 Mean diﬀerence Pvalue

Ethnic diﬀerences Accuracy P¯

asiﬁka European .87 .007

P¯

asiﬁka M¯

aori 1.41 <.001

Communication P¯

asiﬁka European .96 .001

P¯

asiﬁka M¯

aori 1.17 .002

Fami ly P ¯

asiﬁka Asian 1.47 .038

P¯

asiﬁka European 1.25 <.001

P¯

asiﬁka M¯

aori .99 .008

Recall P¯

asiﬁka European .79 .008

P¯

asiﬁka M¯

aori 1.34 <.001

Gender diﬀerences Family females males .78 .024

Practice females males .49 .008

Respect females males .63 .007

Risk taking females males .31 .001

Utility females males .38 .006

12 J. L. HILL AND J. HUNTER

503) =7.60, p=.012 signicantly higher than males. No signicant dierences were

observed across grades.

5. Discussion

In this article, we sought to examine what culturally diverse middle school students valued

as most important when learning mathematics. We drew on a survey design incorporating

value statements with a key focus on those mathematics education values that were rated as

most and least important and how these values diered across ethnicity, gender and grade

level. In the following sections we expand on the two research questions and discuss the

key ndings in greater detail.

5.1. The most and least important mathematics values overall

Our rst research question explored the relative importance of fourteen mathematics

education values. Earlier studies both in New Zealand and internationally indicate these

fourteen mathematics education values are valued to some extent by students in other class-

rooms (e.g. Averill & Clark, 2012;Seahetal.,2017;Seah&Wong,2012). In the study

reported in this article, across the whole sample the values respect, teacher explanations

and risk taking were rated most important and mathematical accuracy as least important.

These three top rated values (i.e. respect, teacher explanation and risk-taking) all had less

variability and were skewed to the higher end of the scale when compared to all other val-

ues, further supporting the importance of these values. The fourteen values in our survey

can be interpreted as ‘instrumental’ values, that when fullled can serve higher ‘ultimate’

values (Tiberius, 2018). For instance, students’ valuing of respect for and from their teacher;

also having a safe classroom climate to support risk-taking, might each serve the ultimate

valuing of positive relationships. Similarly, teacher explanations may serve the ultimate

valuing of positive relationships (i.e. valuing support), and/or learning competency (i.e.

explanations promote mathematical understanding). Typically, mathematics teaching has

often been more focused on developing academic skills and competency rather than cul-

tivating relationships. However, quality relationships are one of the strongest predictors

of wellbeing, an important aspect of learning across the curriculum, given that quality

relationships result in connections where individuals feel valued, respected and supported

(Kern, 2021;Seligman,2011).

Specic to mathematics education, previous research studies have highlighted that mid-

dle school students often cite positive classroom relationships as the highest contributor to

their wellbeing in mathematics (Clarkson et al., 2010;Hill,Kern,vanDriel,etal.,2021).

Also, perceived teacher support, warmth, or enthusiasm predicts students’ positive emo-

tions (e.g. enjoyment) towards mathematics; higher mathematical engagement and eort;

greater belongingness; self-ecacy; and lower feelings of hopelessness (Attard, 2013;Mur-

ray, 2011; Rimm-Kaufman et al., 2015; Sakiz et al., 2012;Winbergetal.,2014). Student

beliefs, attitudes and values towards mathematics have been reported as most impacted by

the relationships students have with their mathematics teachers (Grootenboer & Marsh-

man, 2015; Riconscente, 2014). Students often equate ‘good’ mathematics teachers with

those who provide clear, systemic and detailed explanations that specially address stu-

dents’ needs (Anthony, 2013; Österling et al., 2015;Seah&Peng,2012). Our ndings

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL EDUCATION IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 13

highlight specic areas which can potentially improve students’ experience in the math-

ematics classroom and can be built upon for responsive pedagogy. Given that the most

highly rated values mapped with positive relationships, teachers might specically tar-

get relational pedagogy or classroom practices which build on these student values as a

strength.

In contrast, accuracy was rated the least important value overall. This does not negate

theimportanceofaccuracyinmathematicsbutinsteadmayberelatedtothehigherstudent

ratings of risk-taking, practice and persistence which generally coincide with mathemati-

cal problem solving and learning from mistakes. The lower importance of accuracy aligns

with ndings from earlier studies also in New Zealand. For example, both Hill (2017)and

Hunter (2021) reported New Zealand students valued learning from mistakes over accu-

racy,withonestudentnoting‘it’sgettingstuwrongthersttimethenthenexttimeyou

getitright...You’reactuallyhelpingyourself,andthenyoucangetbetteratit’(Hunter,

2021, p. 14). For mathematics educators, identifying that students rated accuracy lower in

their values related to mathematics learning is important as it then provides an opportu-

nity to further investigate this area with students. For example, teachers may facilitate a

discussion with students related to when accuracy is important within mathematics while

still acknowledging the benets of risk-taking, solving problems through trial and error,

and learning from mistakes.

5.2. Group similarities and dierences in students’ mathematics education values

Our second research question explored similarities and dierences across demographic

groups for the fourteen mathematics educational values. Notably, respect was consistently

ratedasmostimportant,andformostgroupsrespectwassignicantlymoreimportant

than all other values. Earlier studies (e.g. Averill & Clark, 2012;Hunter,2021)haveconsis-

tently shown respect, dened as reciprocal student-teacher respect between students and

the teacher, as an important value to successfully learn mathematics for M¯aori and P¯asik¯a

students. However, it is interesting to also note the high rating of respect by European and

Asianstudentsasapreviousstudy(e.g.Hill,2017) found that European and Asian stu-

dentsrankedrespectasavalueoflowerimportancethantheirP¯asik¯aandM¯aori peers.

In this study the framing of respect in the value statement (see Table 2)indicatedreciprocal

respect, and interestingly, the ndings indicate that the valuing of respect in the mathemat-

ics classroom transcended both cultural and demographic groups. In recent years, in New

Zealand educational settings there has been increasing recognition of the importance of

developing pedagogy both responsive and aligned with M¯aori and P¯asik¯aculturalvalues

(Berryman & Eley, 2017; MoE, 2013). Respect is one of the key values identied and this

high rating by students may be related to greater recognition in both schooling and wider

society of the importance of building on such values.

In terms of cultural dierences, we found that P¯asik¯a students rated family, commu-

nication, accuracy and recall as signicantly more important than other ethnicities. All

of these values have links to cultural values as well as social practices in family and com-

munity settings. P¯asik¯a culture is founded on collectivism with familial obligations and

support an integral part of everyday life and of central importance for Pacic people (MoE,

2018;Ueharaetal.,2018). Similarly, communication and the process of talanoa, sharing

ideas, telling stories and talking with others are important cultural practices (Johansson

14 J. L. HILL AND J. HUNTER

Fua, 2014). The higher ratings of accuracy and recall are likely linked with family and com-

munity social practices related to attending church. Religious faith plays a signicant role

in P¯asik¯a communities with close to 70% of P¯asik¯afamiliesinNewZealandidentifying

as Christian (Stats NZ, 2018). A common practice for children in church is to rote learn and

orally present biblical readings where both accuracy and recall are highly valued (Dickie

&McDonald,2011). These ndings align with earlier research (Hill, 2017;Hunter,2021)

which noted an intersection between cultural values and mathematics education values.

All of these values have the potential for teachers to build upon them as strengths in rela-

tion to mathematics teaching and learning which is a means to address student wellbeing

and issues of equity.

Interestingly, overall P¯asik¯astudents’ratingsofvalueswereparticularlyskewed

towards being important rather than not important, more than the other ethnicities. For

instance, the mean rating for accuracy (the least important value overall) was rated 7.22

outof10fortheP¯asik¯a students compared to a mean of 5.76 for the M¯aori students,

6.34 for European and 7.83 for Asian students. Other studies point to P¯asik¯aandAsian

New Zealand students reporting more positive attitudes towards mathematics than other

ethnicities (Bonne, 2016). The higher rating of values by P¯asik¯astudentsinthisstudy

potentially indicates higher positive aect towards mathematics learning. An area of fur-

ther research could be the relationship between rating of values and disposition towards

mathematics. We also noted dierences in gender with females valuing family, practice,

respect, risk-taking and utility signicantly more than males. Female students emphasiz-

ing the pro-social and collaborative aspects of mathematics aligns with previous studies

(Barkatsas et al., 2019;Wong,1995). However, in contrast to our results, earlier studies

foundthatfemalestudentsoftenreportmathematicsaslessusefulthanmales(e.g.Gas-

pard et al., 2015) and males value problem-solving processes, eort and practising more

than females in mathematics education (Barkatsas et al., 2019). Incongruencies between

the pedagogical values in mathematics and STEM courses and the values of females may

partly explain the under-representation of females in these disciplines. Conversely, con-

sidering and drawing on values that are important to females can potentially lead to more

balanced gender representation in mathematics and STEM elds. We argue that the results

from this study provide an indication of the type of values alignment that would potentially

be productive to address ongoing engagement and participation in mathematics. Further

longitudinal studies could be used to investigate these gender dierences in mathematics

education values and to investigate the potential of values alignment on participation in

mathematics education.

6. Limitations and future directions

Our study highlights some interesting ndings and also points to future directions for

researchwhilewenoteseverallimitations.Surveysprovideanopportunityforconsistency

in their wording which reduces the potential for students to interpret the same items (or

values) dierently. Additionally, survey methods can reduce the complexity of ephemeral

and subjective constructs (e.g. wellbeing, attitude, or values) into something tangible and

measurable, however, a downside of this is that important aspects of one’s experiences can

be overlooked (Kern, 2021). Whilst qualitative methodologies provide greater richness of

data than surveys, a core aim of this study was to explore cultural and ethnic dierences

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL EDUCATION IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 15

acrosssimilarvalueswhichhavepreviouslybeenshowntobeimportantforstudentsin

other classrooms (e.g. Andersson & Österling, 2019;Hunter,2021;Seahetal.,2017). Thus,

we were more interested in the degree to which specic elements in mathematics learn-

ing were valued, and more importantly, how these same elements were valued dierently

across cultural groups. This has implications for culturally responsive teaching practices

which can result in more equitable learning outcomes in mathematics. Values are inher-

ently worthy and desirable to most people (Roccas et al., 2017) and students may perceive

values as broadly important even if they do not relate the importance to themselves speci-

cally (Gittelman et al., 2015). For instance, a student might value the utility of mathematics

as a subject, yet not value mathematics as useful for their lives personally. Social desirabil-

ity bias can be minimized by forcing students to rank rather than rate values (Roccas et al.,

2017). Further studies in New Zealand and internationally might consider both students’

ranking, and rating of their mathematics education values.

Whilst our sample size was relatively sizable, we cannot generalize our ndings to stu-

dents from other schools or countries. Most students were M¯aori or P¯asik¯athusthe

relative importance of the fourteen values (i.e. research question one) likely reected the

ratings of the students from these cultures. We grouped students from Southern (e.g.

India), Southeastern (e.g. Cambodia) and Eastern Asia (e.g. China) together, however,

students from these countries are not homogenous and often espouse diverse cultural val-

ues. Future investigations might include a larger Asian sample size and dierentiate these

students by country or jurisdiction.

7. Conclusions

In conclusion, this article has highlighted that while there are similarities, there are also

signicant dierences in what culturally diverse middle school students value as most

important when learning mathematics. We contend that in order to develop more equi-

table mathematics learning environments, greater understanding of students’ mathematics

education values is needed across dierent demographic groups. The challenge here for

educatorsisthatinmanycountries,includingNewZealand,ourclassroomsarebecom-

ing increasingly diverse. Educators need to be cognisant that students in their mathematics

classroom may have contrasting mathematics education values. Interestingly, we also noted

dierences in mathematics education values when analysing by gender.

Identifying students’ mathematics education values provides opportunities for educa-

tors to develop responsive types of pedagogies and to address student wellbeing (Tiberius,

2018). For instance, a mathematics student who values personalized learning support and

solving dicult problems will likely feel good and engage more when they experience

one-to-one teacher support and are provided with challenging tasks. Whereas that stu-

dent might disengage with and feel disheartened when they lack teacher support, and they

perceive their mathematical tasks as easy. Conversely, in cases where mathematics edu-

cation values may be important but not necessarily valued by students, or students may

hold values that might be potentially disruptive in a learning environment, educators can

surface these and then openly discuss when these values may (or may not) be useful or

appropriate.

This article provides a contribution in relation to documenting the mathematics edu-

cation values of a diverse group of students within New Zealand and analysing dierences

16 J. L. HILL AND J. HUNTER

in the mathematics education values according to dierent demographic aspects including

ethnicity, gender and grade. We view this as an important element in moving towards both

providing more equitable mathematics learning experiences for diverse students in New

Zealand and in other countries, and also a way in which we can begin to address wellbeing

in relation to mathematics teaching and learning.

Disclosure statement

No potential conict of interest was reported by the authors.

Data availability statement

The data that support the ndings of this study are available on reasonable request from the corre-

sponding author (Julia Hill). The data are not publicly available due to them containing information

that could compromise research participant privacy.

ORCID

Julia L. Hill http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8011-0319

Jodie Hunter http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5463-3709

References

Aktaş, F. N., Akyıldız, P., & Dede, Y. (2021). Students’ mathematics educational values

at religious vocational middle schools: A cross-sectional study. Education 3-13, 1–13.

https://doi.org/10.1080/03004279.2021.1981421

Allen, K.-A., Kern, M. L., Vella-Brodrick, D., & Waters, L. (2017). School values: A comparison of

academic motivation, mental health promotion, and school belonging with student achievement.

TheEducationalandDevelopmentalPsychologist,34(1), 31–47. https://doi.org/10.1017/edp.2017.5

Andersson, A., & Österling, L. (2019). Democratic actions in school mathematics and the dilemma

ofconictingvalues.InP.Clarkson,W.T.Seah,&J.Pang(Eds.),Values and valuing in mathematics

education: Scanning and scoping the territory (pp. 69–88). Springer.

Anthony, G. (2013). Student perceptions of the ‘good’ teacher and ‘good’ learner in New Zealand

classrooms. In B. Kaur (Ed.), Student voice in mathematics classrooms around the world

(pp. 209–225). Brill.

Attard, C. (2013). “If I had to pick any subject, it wouldn’t be maths”: Foundations for engage-

ment with mathematics during the middle years. Mathematics Education Research Journal,25(4),

569–587. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13394-013-0081-8

Averill, R. (2012). Reecting heritage cultures in mathematics learning: The views of teachers

and students. Journal of Urban Mathematics Education,5(2), 157–181. https://doi.org/10.21423/

jume-v5i2a166

Averill, R., & Clark, M. (2012). Respect in teaching and learning mathematics: Professionals who

know, listen to, and work with students. Set, 50–57.

Barkatsas,T.,Law,H.Y.,Seah,W.T.,&Wong,N.Y.(2019). The valuing of mathematics learning in

schools:Agenderedperspective.International Journal on Emerging Mathematics Education,3(1),

41–56. https://doi.org/10.12928/ijeme.v3i1.11648

Berryman, M., & Eley, E. (2017). Succeeding as M¯aori: M¯aori students’ views on our stepping

up to the Ka Hikitia challenge. New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies,52(1), 93–107.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s40841-017-0076-1

Bishop,A.J.(1996). How should mathematics teaching in modern societies relate to cultural values:

Some preliminary questions. Seventh Southeast Asian Conference on Mathematics Education (Vol.

32, June 3–7).

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL EDUCATION IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 17

Bishop,A.J.,Seah,W.T.,&Chin,C.C.(2003). Values in mathematics teaching – the hidden per-

suaders?InA.J.Bishop,M.A.Clements,C.Keitel,J.Kilpatrick,&F.K.S.Leung(Eds.),Second

international handbook of mathematics education (pp. 717–765). Springer.

Bonne, L. (2016). New Zealand students’ mathematics-related beliefs and attitudes: Recent evidence.

New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies,51(1), 69–82. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40841-016-

0035-2

Butler, J., & Kern, M. L. (2016). The PERMA-Proler: A brief multidimensional measure of

ourishing. International Journal of Wellbeing,6(3), 1–48. https://doi.org/10.5502/ijw.v6i3.526

Clarkson, P., Bishop, A. J., FitzSimons, G., & Seah, W. T. (2000). Challenges and constraints in

researching values. In M. Goos, R. Brown, & K. Makar (Eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual

Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia (pp. 188–195). MERGA.

Clarkson, P., Bishop, A. J., & Seah, W. T. (2010). Mathematics education and student values: The

cultivationofmathematicalwellbeing.InT.Lovat,R.Toomey,&N.Clement(Eds.),International

research handbook on values education and student wellbeing (pp. 111–135). Springer.

Clarkson,P.,Seah,W.T.,&Pang,J.(2019). Scanning and scoping of values and valuing in mathe-

maticseducation.InP.Clarkson,W.T.Seah,&J.Pang(Eds.),Values and valuing in mathematics

education. ICME-13 monographs (pp. 1–10). Springer.

D’Ambrosio, U. (1985).Ethnomathematicsanditsplaceinthehistoryandpedagogyofmathematics.

For the Learning of Mathematics,5(1), 44–48.

Davis, E. K., Carr, M. E., & Ampadu, E. (2019). Valuing in mathematics learning amongst Ghanaian

students:Whatdoesitlooklikeacrossgradelevels?InP.Clarkson,W.T.Seah,&J.Pang(Eds.),

Values and valuing in mathematics education (pp. 89–102). Springer.

Dawes, J. (2008). Do data characteristics change according to the number of scale points used? An

experiment using 5-point, 7-point and 10-point scales. International Journal of Market Research,

50(1), 61–104.

Debellis,V.A.,&Goldin,G.A.(2006). Aect and meta-aect in mathematical problem

solving: A representational perspective. Educational Studies in Mathematics,63(2), 131–147.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10649-006-9026-4

Dede, Y. (2019). Why mathematics is valuable for Turkish, Turkish immigrant and German stu-

dents: A cross-cultural study. In P. Clarkson, W. T. Seah, & J. Pang (Eds.), Values and valuing in

mathematics education: Scanning and scoping the territory (pp. 143–156). Springer.

Dickie,J.,&McDonald,G.(2011). Literacy in church and family sites through the eyes of Samoan

children in New Zealand. Literacy,45(1), 25–31. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-4369.2011.

00574.x

Emmons,R.(1986). Personal strivings: An approach to personality and subjective wellbeing. Journal

of Personality and Social Psychology,51(5), 1058–1068. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.51.5.

1058

Fan, L. (2021). Exploring issues about values in mathematics education. ECNU Review of Education,

4(2), 388–395. https://doi.org/10.1177/20965311211016002

Gaspard,H.,Dicke,A.-L.,Flunger,B.,Brisson,B.M.,Häfner,I.,Nagengast,B.,&Trautwein,U.

(2015). Fostering adolescents’ value beliefs for mathematics with a relevance intervention in the

classroom. Developmental Psychology,51(9), 1226–1240. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000028

Gittelman,S.,Lange,V.,Cook,W.A.,Frede,S.M.,Lavrakas,P.J.,Pierce,C.,&Thomas,R.K.(2015).

Accounting for social-desirability bias in survey sampling. Journal of Advertising Research,55(3),

242–254. https://doi.org/10.2501/JAR-2015-006

Grootenboer, P., & Marshman, M. (2015). Mathematics, aect and learning: Middle school students’

beliefs and attitudes about mathematics education.Springer.

Guo,J.,Marsh,H.W.,Parker,P.D.,Morin,A.J.S.,&Yeung,A.S.(2015). Expectancy-

value in mathematics, gender and socioeconomic background as predictors of achievement

and aspirations: A multi-cohort study. Learning and Individual Dierences,37, 161–168.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2015.01.008

Halstead,J.M.(1996). Values and values education in schools. In J. Halstead & M. Taylor (Eds.),

Values in education and education in values (pp. 3–14). The Falmer Press.

18 J. L. HILL AND J. HUNTER

Hill,J.L.(2017). What do culturally diverse middle school students value for their mathematics

learning? [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Massey University. http://hdl.handle.net/10179/13356.

Hill,J.L.(2018). What do culturally diverse students in New Zealand value for their mathematics

learning? In G. Anthony, J. Dindyal, & V. Geiger (Eds.), Proceedings of the 41st Annual Conference

of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia (pp. 384–391). MERGA.

Hill,J.L.,Kern,M.L.,Seah,W.T.,&vanDriel,J.(2021). Feeling good and functioning well in

mathematics education: Exploring students’ conceptions of mathematical wellbeing and values.

ECNU Review of Education,4(2), 349–375. https://doi.org/10.1177/2096531120928084

Hill,J.L.,Kern,M.L.,vanDriel,J.,&Seah,W.T.(2021). The importance of positive classroom rela-

tionships for diverse students’ well-being in mathematics education. In D. Burghs & J. Hunter

(Eds.), Mathematics education for sustainable economic growth and Job creation (pp. 76–89).

Routledge.

Hunter, J. (2021). An intersection of mathematics educational values and cultural values: P¯asika

students’ understanding and explanation of their mathematics educational values. ECNU Review

of Education,4(2), 307–326. https://doi.org/10.1177/2096531120931106

Hyde,J.S.,Fennema,E.,Ryan,M.,Frost,L.A.,&Hopp,C.(1990). Gender comparisons of math-

ematics attitudes and aect: A meta-analysis. Psychology of Women Quarterly,14(3), 299–324.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1990.tb00022.x

Jacobs,J.E.,Lanza,S.,Osgood,D.W.,Eccles,J.S.,&Wigeld,A.(2002). Changes in children’s self-

competence and values: Gender and domain dierences across grades one through twelve. Child

Development,73(2), 509–527. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00421

Johansson Fua, S. (2014). Kakala research framework: A garland in celebration of a decade of

rethinking education. In M. Otunuku, U. Nabobo- Baba, & S. Johansoon Fua (Eds.), Of waves,

winds and wonderful things: A decade of rethinking Pacic education (pp. 50–60). University of

South Pacic Press.

Kalogeropoulos, P., & Bishop, A. J. (2019). The role of value alignment in levels of engagement

of mathematics learning. In P. C. Clarkson, W. T. Seah, & J. Pang (Eds.), Values and valuing in

mathematics education: Scanning and scoping the territory (pp. 115–127). Springer.

Kern, M. L. (2021). PERMAH: A useful model for focusing on wellbeing in schools. In K. A. Allen,

M. Furlong, S. Suldo, & D. Vella-Brodrick (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology in schools (3rd

ed.). (pp. 12 – 24) Taylor & Francis.

La w, H. Y. , Wo ng, N . Y. , & Le e , N. Y. L . ( 2011). The Third Wave studies of values in eective

mathematics education: Developing students’ mathematical autonomy in classroom learning. The

Mathematics Educator,13(1), 72–86.

La w, H. Y. , Wo ng, N . Y. , & Le e , N . Y. L. ( 2012). A study of espoused values in Hong Kong’s mathemat-

ics classrooms. ZDM Mathematics Education,44(1), 45–57. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11858-012-

0389-y

Lim, C. S. (2012). Riding the Third Wave: Negotiating teacher and students’ value preferences

relating to eective mathematics lessons. In S. J. So (Ed.), The 12th International Congress on

Mathematical Education (pp. 471–485). ICME.

McConatha, J. T., & Schnell, F. (1995). The conuence of values: Implications for educational

research and policy. Educational Practice and Theory,17(2), 79–83. https://doi.org/10.7459/ept/

17.2.09

Ministry of Education. (2013). P¯

asik¯

a education plan 2013–2017.

Ministry of Education. (2018). Ta pa s ¯

a: Cultural competencies framework for teachers of Pacic

learners.

Murray, S. (2011). Secondary students’ descriptions of “good” mathematics teachers. The Australian

Mathematics Teacher,67, 14–21. https://doi.org/10.2307/2690863

OECD. (2018). Equity in education: Breaking down barriers to social mobility.OECDPublishing.

Österling, L., & Andersson, A. (2013). Measuring immeasurable values. In A. M. Lindmeier & A.

Heinze (Eds.), Proceedings of the 37th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of

Mathematics Education (Vol. 2, pp. 17–24). PME.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL EDUCATION IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 19

Österling, L., Grundén, H., & Andersson, A. (2015). Balancing students’ valuing and mathematical

values. In S. Mukhopadhyay & B. Greer (Eds.), Eighth International Mathematics Education and

Society Conference (Vol. 3, pp. 860–872). MES.

Pang, J., & Seah, W. T. (2021). Excellent mathematical performance despite “negative” aect

of students in Korea: The values perspective. ECNU Review of Education,4(2), 285–306.

https://doi.org/10.1177/2096531120930726

Podsiadlowski, A., & Fox, S. (2011). Collectivist value orientations among four ethnic groups:

Collectivism in the New Zealand context. New Zealand Journal of Psychology,40(1), 5–18.

Riconscente, M. M. (2014). Eects of perceived teacher practices on Latino high school students’

interest, self-ecacy, and achievement in mathematics. The Journal of Experimental Education,

82(1), 51–73. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220973.2013.813358

Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., Baroody, A. E., Larsen, R. A. A., Curby, T. W., & Abry, T. (2015). To what

extent do teacher-student interaction quality and student gender contribute to fth graders’

engagement in mathematics learning? Journal of Educational Psychology,107 (1), 170–185.

https://doi.org/10.1037/a0037252

Roccas, S., Sagiv, L., & Navon, M. (2017). Methodological issues in studying personal values. In S.

Roccas & L. Sagiv (Eds.), Values and behavior (pp. 15–50). Springer.

Rokeach, M. (1973). The nature of human values.Jossey-Bass.

Sakiz, G., Pape, S. J., & Hoy, A. W. (2012). Does perceived teacher aective support matter for mid-

dle school students in mathematics classrooms? JournalofSchoolPsychology,50(2), 235–255.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2011.10.005

Samuelsson, M., & Samuelsson, J. (2016). Gender dierences in boys’ and girls’ perception

of teaching and learning mathematics. Open Review of Educational Research,3(1), 18–34.

https://doi.org/10.1080/23265507.2015.1127770

Schwartz,S.H.(2012). An overview of the Schwartz theory of basic values. Online Readings in

Psychology and Culture,2(1), 1 – 20. https://doi.org/10.9707/2307-0919.1116

Seah,W.T.(2019). Values in mathematics education: Its conative nature, and how it can

be developed. JournaloftheKoreanSocietyofMathematicsEducation,22(2), 99–121.

https://doi.org/10.7468/jksmed.2019.22.2.99

Seah,W.T.,Baba,T.,&Zhang,Q.(2017). The WIFI study: Students’ valuing of mathematics learning

inHongKongandJapan.InJ.W.Son,T.Watanabe,&J.J.Lo(Eds.),What matters? Research trends

in international comparative studies in mathematics education. Research in mathematics education

(pp. 333–354). Springer.

Seah,W.T.,&Barkatsas,T.(2014). What Australian primary school students value in mathematics

learning: A WIFI preliminary study. In J. Anderson, M. Cavanagh, & A. Prescott (Eds.), Proceed-

ings of the 37th Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia

(pp. 565–572). MERGA.

Seah, W. T., & Peng, A. (2012). What students outside Asia value in eective mathematics lessons:

A scoping study. ZDM: The International Journal on Mathematics Education,44(1), 71–82.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s11858-012-0398-x

Seah, W. T., & Wong, N. Y. (2012). What students value in eective mathematics learning: A ‘Third

Wave Pro j ect’ res e a r c h s t u dy. ZDM: The International Journal on Mathematics Education,44(1),

33–43. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11858-012-0391-4

Seligman,M.E.P.(2011). Flourish. William Heinemann.

Sirgy, M. J. (2021). Eects of beliefs and values on wellbeing. In The psychology of quality of life.(pp.

245 – 258) Springer.

Stats New Zealand. (2018). 2018 Census.www.stats.govt.nz/tools/2018-census-place-summaries/

new-zealand%ethnicity-culture-and-identity

Sullivan,P.,Aulert,A.,Lehmann,A.,Hislop,B.,Shepherd,O.,&Stubbs,A.(2013). Classroom cul-

ture, challenging mathematical tasks and student persistence. In V. Steinle, L. Ball, & C. Bardini

(Eds.), Mathematics education research group of Australasia (pp. 618–625). MERGA.

Tang, H., Seah, W. T., Zhang, Q., & Zhang, W. (2021). The mathematics learning attributes valued by

students in Eastern China. ECNU Review of Education,4(2), 261–284. https://doi.org/10.1177/209

6531120930240

20 J. L. HILL AND J. HUNTER

Tiberius, V. (2018). Wellbeing as value fulllment: How we can help each other to live well.Oxford

University Press.

Uehara, D. L., Chugen, J., & Staley Raatior, V. (2018).PerceptionsofPacicIslanderstu-

dentsinhighereducation.Journal of Diversity in Higher Education,11(2), 182–191.

https://doi.org/10.1037/dhe0000057

Wigeld, A., Eccles, J. S., Yoon, K. S., Harold, R. D., Arbreton, A. J., Freedman-Doan, C., & Blu-

menfeld, P. C. (1997). Change in children’s competence beliefs and subjective task values across

the elementary school years: A 3-year study. Journal of Educational Psychology,89(3), 451–469.

https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.89.3.451

Winberg,T.M.,Hellgren,J.M.,&Palm,T.(2014). Stimulating positive emotional experiences

in mathematics learning: Inuence of situational and personal factors. European Journal of

Psychology of Education,29(4), 673–691. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10212-014-0220-y

Wong,N.Y.(1995). The relationship between Hong Kong students’ perception of their mathematics

classroom environment and their approaches to learning: A longitudinal study [Unpublished Ph.D.

thesis]. The University of Hong Kong.

World Health Organization. (n.d.). Gender and health.www.who.int/health-topics/gender#tab =

tab_1.

Zhang, Q. (2019). Values in mathematics learning: Perspectives of Chinese Mainland primary and

secondarystudents.InP.Clarkson,W.T.Seah,&J.Pang(Eds.),Values and valuing in mathematics

education: Scanning and scoping the territory (pp. 185–196). Springer.

Zhang,Q.,Barkatsas,T.,Law,H.Y.,Leu,Y.C.,Seah,W.T.,&Wong,N.Y.(2016). What primary

students in the Chinese Mainland, Hong Kong and Taiwan value in mathematics learning: A

comparative analysis. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education,14(5), 907–924.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10763-014-9615-0

Zhang,Q.,&Seah,W.T.(2021). Thematic issue on values and valuing in mathematics education:

Revisiting mathematics education from cultural perspectives. ECNU Review of Education,4(2),

225–229. https://doi.org/10.1177/20965311211011628