Morality—Ideology—Objectivity: The Pre- and Post-juridical Dimension of Human Rights in the Era of Digitisation and Artificial Intelligence

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It is an endless debate, and it is one that will surely not come to an end with the following. The fact of being a never-ending-story is in fact part and parcel of the subject matter: openness, contestability, and historicity—all this is not least a matter of an ongoing power struggle between different kind of subjects. This suggests an approach that is different from making reference to the characterisation of Human Rights as universal, inalienable, indivisible, interdependent and interrelated. Nevertheless, it is worthwhile to discuss another time the relationship between morality and Human Rights, or one could also say: the relationship between moralisation and strict legal provisions. The contribution argues in favour of an open ‘hermeneutic’ approach, not denying the need of legal instruments in strictu sensu but also not reducing legal questions on legality by pushing substantial questions around justice onto the backstage. Digitisation and a new stage of globalisation provide the background for this debate.

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Swarms, crowds, networks, e-movements, e-communities—the Web offers a new sphere of action for an ample variety of collective formations. However, a sociological substantiation of these different types of collective behavior or action is still missing. In order to bridge this gap, we discuss the questions, how online-based social formations can be classified in the context of actor-based social theory and to what extent their development is shaped by the technological infrastructures they are embedded in. First of all, we introduce two basic variants of social formations situated between individuals and organizations: non-organized collectives and collective behavior on the one hand and collective actors with a comparatively high strategic capability on the other. Subsequently, we explore the distinct features of online-based collective formations, which are characterized by a formerly unknown level of interdependence of influential technological infrastructures and still indispensable social dynamics of coordination and institutionalization. Conventional patterns of social dynamics in the development and stabilization of collective behavior and collective actors are now systematically intertwined with technology-induced processes of structuration.
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We test the hypothesis that increasing individuals’ perceived control over the release and access of private information—even information that allows them to be personally identified––will increase their willingness to disclose sensitive information. If their willingness to divulge increases sufficiently, such an increase in control can, paradoxically, end up leaving them more vulnerable. Our findings highlight how, if people respond in a sufficiently offsetting fashion, technologies designed to protect them can end up exacerbating the risks they face.
In examining the intellectual history in contemporary South Africa, Eze engages with the emergence of ubuntu as one discourse that has become a mirror and aftermath of South Africa s overall historical narrative. This book interrogates a triple socio-political representation of ubuntu as a displacement narrative for South Africa s colonial consciousness; as offering a new national imaginary through its inclusive consciousness, in which different, competing, and often antagonistic memories and histories are accommodated; and as offering a historicity in which the past is transformed as a symbol of hope for the present and the future. This book offers a model for African intellectual history indignant to polemics but constitutive of creative historicism and healthy humanism.
Zusammenfassung Recht als herkömmliches Steuerungsinstrument ist auf den Operationsmodus hierarchisch strukturierter Gesellschaften eingestellt, in denen Staat und Politik Spitze und Steuerungszentrum der Gesellschaft darstellen. Hochkomplexe, funktional differenzierte Gesellschaften aber sind in prinzipiell gleichgeordnete, selbstreferentielle und eigendynamische Teilsysteme gegliedert, die eine zentrale politische Steuerung immer weniger zulassen. Gesellschaftssteuerung ist auf die Fähigkeit dieser Teilsysteme zur Selbstorganisation und Selbststeuerung angewiesen. (I) Diese Ausgangslage wird zunächst knapp aus den Besonderheiten der Dynamik komplexer Systeme entwickelt. Versteht man Politik als gesellschaftsbezogene Intervention in komplexe Systeme, dann ist Recht als Interventionsinstrument nur dann geeignet, wenn es – gemessen an den zu regelnden Problemlagen – adäquat komplex gebaut ist und einen Steuerungsmodus zuläßt, der die horizontale Koordination selbstreferentiell geschlossener Teilsysteme leistet (II). Im Hauptteil des Aufsatzes wird deshalb versucht, im Spannungsfeld von Kontextsteuerung und Teilbereichsautonomie Reflexion als adäquates Steuerungsprinzip zu entwickeln (III) und dieses Steuerungsprinzip dann als Rechtsform – reflexives Recht – zu entwickeln (IV). Äußerst verkürzt formuliert, zielt reflexives Recht auf regulierte Autonomie. Reflexives Recht hat die Aufgabe, integrative Mechanismen für Verfahren und Organisation innerhalb der Teilsysteme selbst bereitzustellen, ihnen einen Modus der Selbststeuerung zu ermöglichen, der ihre Eigendynamik respektiert, ihnen aber jene gesellschaftlichen Restriktionen auferlegt, die aus den Bedingungen des Zusammenspiels aller Teile als Kontextregeln für jedes einzelne Teil folgen.
Impelled by the development of technologies that facilitate collection, distribution, storage, and manipulation of personal consumer information, privacy has become a “hot” topic for policy makers. Commercial interests seek to maximize and then leverage the value of consumer information, while, at the same time, consumers voice concerns that their rights and ability to control their personal information in the marketplace are being violated. However, despite the complaints, it appears that consumers freely provide personal data. This research explores what we call the “privacy paradox” or the relationship between individuals’ intentions to disclose personal information and their actual personal information disclosure behaviors.
Teenagers will freely give up personal information to join social networks on the Internet. Afterwards, they are surprised when their parents read their journals. Communities are outraged by the personal information posted by young people online and colleges keep track of student activities on and off campus. The posting of personal information by teens and students has consequences. This article will discuss the uproar over privacy issues in social networks by describing a privacy paradox; private versus public space; and, social networking privacy issues. It will finally discuss proposed privacy solutions and steps that can be taken to help resolve the privacy paradox.
Elinor Ostrom delivered her Prize Lecture on 8 December 2009 at Aula Magna, Stockholm University. She was introduced by Professor Bertil Holmlund, Chairman of the Economic Sciences Prize Committee.
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