ArticlePDF Available

Covid-19 and the Construction Industry

Covid-19 and the Construction Industry
Dr. Hermann Gruenwald
What started in Wuhan China in a market or in a lab in December 2019 soon
became known as the Covid-19 virus, which changed all our lives forever. The U.S.A.
construction industry since the declaration of the national emergency on 13 March 2020.
Social distancing was the first answer and became the standard solution worldwide. While
social distancing is easier in some industries and has led to total shutdowns in other
industries. For the construction industry which is very much a hands-on business social
distancing was difficult to implement when working outdoors in close proximity to each
other. Working from home (WFH) was not an option in the construction industry unless
you are in project management. In some countries like Thailand, construction sites were
shut down for months. The construction industry often relies on transient guest workers
from neighboring countries like Cambodia, Laos, and Myanmar who were locked up at
the construction camps. In other countries manual labor got replaced by machines even
more and workers remained in the cabs of their construction machinery. Travel
restrictions in Germany for instance also made it impossible for guest workers from
Eastern European countries to return to Germany to work on construction projects which
were already underway. On the other side, the covid crisis also limited the flow of funds.
The delays jeopardized and even killed entire projects which became too difficult to
complete under the new government regulations and too expensive to finance with the
increasing delays. Global Supply chain interruptions also caused large projects to be
postponed or killed altogether. Even single-family housing projects faced shortages of
materials and staff. Not to mention hygiene requirements while wearing safety equipment
were difficult to implement and reduced work efficiency adding to extra expenses. Job
sites were inspected more often than ever before. Home improvement stores such as
Home Depot and Lowes were among the first ones allowed to reopen during the covid-
19 crisis. In Germany, building material stores (Baumarkt) were treated as essential
retailers the same as supermarkets. Health risks and project risks were competing against
each other and the health risks won, in the new politically correct world the world went
crazy about Covid-19 looking for a vaccine as the silver bullet against the vaccine while
we still don’t have medicine to stop the common cold. Also, site visits and observations
by project managers became more difficult. Jobsite cameras became more and more
popular. Some international companies applied methods previously only used in
restricted job sites such as penitentiaries, warzones, and religious sites like Mecca. New
AI solutions allowed construction managers to observe the job site virtually. Virtual
working environments are applied to the physically built environment. The digital divide
made a big difference for construction companies and construction managers and
developers, those who embraced digital technology early were among the winners and
prepared well even for the New Normal past Covid-19, in the new normal we have those
developers and construction companies which can deal with the new requirements and
those who simply shut the project down or went out of business altogether.
Architecture, construction management, construction industry, Covid-19
Al Amri, T., & Marey-PÃ, M. (2020). Impact of Covid-19 on Oman's Construction
Industry. Technium Social Sciences Journal, 9(1): 661-670
Alsharef A, Banerjee S, Uddin SMJ, Albert A, Jaselskis E. Early Impacts of the COVID-
19 Pandemic on the United States Construction Industry. International Journal of
Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(4):1559.
Biswas, Ankan (2021). The impact of COVID-19 in the construction sector and its
remedial measures. Journal of Physics: Conf. Ser. 1797 012054.
Gruenwald, Hermann (2022). Covid-19 Airlines in the New Normal - Back to the Future
November 2022. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.29397.29924 Project: Corona & Collateral
Gruenwald, Hermann (2022). Ukraine Conflict and Business Sanctions
October 2022. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.24514.04808
Gruenwald, Hermann (2022). Yield Management in the Hotel Industry
September 2022. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.34157.26080
Project: Management Information Systems (MIS) in Asia
Gruenwald, Hermann (2022). Military Logistics Geographic Factors and Climate.
May 2022. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.15122.73924
Gruenwald, Hermann (2022). Bangkok Street Food Vendors (SME) Business Continuity
during COVID-19 Pandemic. South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics,
SAJSSE Page 16-36. DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2022/v13i430363. Published: 26 April 2022
Gruenwald, Hermann (2022).Ukraine Military Logistics Early Days. March 2022
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.28646.70724 Project: Corona & Collateral Damage
Gruenwald, Hermann (2022). Covid-19 and Omicron Economy
February 2022. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.11622.09285
Gruenwald, Hermann (2022). Omicron the End of Covid-19? January 2022.
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.16717.36320. Project: Corona & Collateral Damage
Gruenwald, Hermann (2021). Covid-19 and Trucking Industry. December 2021.
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.23542.93765. Project: Corona & Collateral Damage
Gruenwald, Hermann (2021). Covid-19 and Warehouses. November 2021.
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.23241.47201. Project: Corona & Collateral Damage
Gruenwald, Hermann (2021). Covid-19 and K-12 Education. October 2021.
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.21401.54883. Project: Corona & Collateral Damage
Gruenwald, Hermann (2021). Covid-19 and 200 Homeschooling On-Line Learning
Excuses. September 2021, DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.17498.06083 Project: Corona &
Collateral Damage
Gruenwald, Hermann (2021). Covid-19 and Lockdown Economy. August 2021
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.18415.97443. Project: Corona & Collateral Damage
Gruenwald, Hermann (2021). Entrepreneurial Coworking Spaces in Thailand
Responding to Covid-19 for Homeschooling and Homeoffice. 5th International
Multiconference of Management Science (IMMS) 2021 “International Conference on
Business Sustainability and Digital Transformation” Faculty of Management Science,
Bansomdejchaopraya Rajabhat University, Bangkok, July 29, 2021
Gruenwald, Hermann (2021). Covid-19 and Education Innovation & Technology.
July 2021. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.18647.80804 Project: Corona & Collateral Damage
Gruenwald, Hermann (2021). Covid-19 and The New Normal in Global Supply Chain
Management. July 2021. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.16897.99683 Project: Corona &
Collateral Damage
Gruenwald, Hermann (2021). Covid-19 and Timeshare Vacation Rentals. June 2021.
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.13007.82087 Project: Corona & Collateral Damage
Gruenwald, Hermann (2021). Covid-19 Testing before Vaccination. June 2021. DOI:
10.13140/RG.2.2.28056.52486. Project: Corona & Collateral
Gruenwald, Hermann (2021). Covid-19 and Microsoft Teams. May 2021.
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.32677.63200. Project: Corona & Collateral Damage
Gruenwald, Hermann (2021). Covid-19 and Information Technology. April 2021.
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.31476.68489. Project: Corona & Collateral Damage
Gruenwald, Hermann (2021). Covid-19 and PVC. March 2021.
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.14236.21124. Project: Corona & Collateral Damage
Gruenwald, Hermann (2021). Covid-19 and Leisure Real-Estate. February 2021.
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.27126.32328. Project: Corona & Collateral Damage
Gruenwald, Hermann (2021). Covid-19 Immunization. January 2021.
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.27060.48009. Project: Corona & Collateral Damage
Gruenwald, Hermann (2021).Covid-19 and Outdoor Advertisement. January 2021. DOI:
10.13140/RG.2.2.23238.40004 Project: Corona & Collateral Damage
Gruenwald, Hermann (2020). Parcel Delivery Services boom during Covid-19. August
2020. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.35180.18569. Project: Logistics in Asia
Gruenwald, Hermann (2020). Humanitarian Logistics during Corona Times. August
2020. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.32199.11686 Project: Disaster Logistics
Gruenwald, H. (2020). Warehousing after Corona - The New Normal in Warehousing.
July 2020. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.15454.66889/1
Hermann Gruenwald (2014). Global Challenge Disaster Logistics Lessons Learned from
the 2004 Tsunami in Thailand. May 2014.Advanced Materials Research 931-932:1647-
165. DOI: 10.4028/ Project: Disaster Logistics
Gruenwald, Hermann (2016). Logistics graduate certificates: From corporate training to
master degrees. July 2016. Asian International Journal of Social Sciences 16(3):71-90.
DOI: 10.29139/aijss.20160304
Gruenwald, Hermann (2016). Waste management Reverse logistics Thailand
preparing for Asean. May 2016 Jurnal Teknologi 78(5-4) DOI: 10.11113/jt.v78.8557
Gruenwald, Hermann (2016). Logistics Information Systems (LIS) on the Go-Mobile
Apps and Social Media. August 2015Information Management and Business Review
7(4):64-73. DOI: 10.22610/imbr.v7i4.1164 License CC BY 4.0
Gruenwald, Hermann (2015). Logistics from academic discipline to industry best
practices. July 2015. Asian International Journal of Social Sciences 15(3):31-42
DOI: 10.29139/aijss.20150303
Gruenwald, Hermann (2015). Military Logistics Comparison during the Vietnam War.
June 2015. Journal of Social and Development Sciences Vol 6(2):57-66.
DOI: 10.22610/jsds.v6i2.843 License CC BY 4.0
Gruenwald, Hermann (2014). Special Event Logistics Geopolitical Event Bangkok.
June 2014. Information Management and Business Review Vol 6(2).
DOI: 10.22610/imbr.v6i3.1109. License CC BY 4.0
Gruenwald, Hermann (2013). Logistics Software from a Logistics Management and
Management Information Systems (MIS) Perspective. December 2013. Information
Management and Business Review 5(12):591-597.
DOI: 10.22610/imbr.v5i12.1092. License CC BY 4.0
Nguyen. Peter Nguyen, Bao Ngoc (2021).The Impact of the COVID-19 on the
Construction Industry in Vietnam. August 2021International Journal of Built Environment
and Sustainability 8(3):47-61 DOI: 10.11113/ijbes.v8.n3.745. License CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Ogunnusi, M., Omotayo, T., Hamma-Adama, M., Awuzie, B.O. and Egbelakin, T.
(2021), "Lessons learned from the impact of COVID-19 on the global construction
industry", Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, Vol. 20 No. 1, pp. 299-320.
Pamidimukkala, Apurva Sharareh Kermanshachi (2021). Impact of Covid-19 on field
and office workforce in construction industry. Project Leadership and Society,
Volume 2, 2021,100018, ISSN 2666-7215,
Rehman, Muhammad Sami Ur, Muhammad Tariq Shafiq Muneeb Afzal (2021). Impact
of COVID-19 on project performance in the UAE construction industry
June 2021Journal of Engineering Design and Technology
DOI: 10.1108/JEDT-12-2020-0481
Saeed Rokooei, Amin Alvanchi & Mostafa Rahimi (2022) Perception of COVID-19
impacts on the construction industry over time, Cogent Engineering, 9:1, DOI:
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Full-text available
Pricing strategies in the hospitality industry cover a broad spectrum almost as broad as the hotel room prices for the various categories. Yield management is a pricing strategy used in the hotel industry to understand, anticipate and thereby influence consumer behavior with the goal of achieving maximum revenue and profit for a given property. The name of the game is finding the right price for the right time which is different from historical fixed prices. The old principle of supply and demand is often practiced in a just-in-time environment where prices change by the minute based on the hotel's occupancy. It is a fine balance between booking the hotel in advance and yielding the maximum profit for a given day or night. With covid-19 the industry changed a lot and was happy with lower occupancy rates and lower yields. Many played it even more safe by converting nightly rentals into longer-term weekly or monthly rentals at a much lower rate. Branded condominiums were another result of this movement which looked like a good solution during covid but now with more demand for hotel rooms by travelers, the rates can be increased. This often is a balance between the sales department that wants to play it safe and make themselves look good by selling out the property while achieving lower rates. On the other hand, aggressive hotel managers want to make their mark and are aiming for higher room rates which also contributes not only to the bottom line of the hotel and its owner/operator but also to the ranking of the property. Maximizing the revenue per room and night is a complicated game and needs to be played in real-time, this is only possible by working hand in hand between hotel managers and sales and marketing and utilizing software to do the heavy lifting. Dynamic pricing has been used for decades in the airline and rental car business where we look at the type of room, location and time, a software that works similarly to the stock market. Supply and demand, while supply may be limited by the number of rooms already sold at a fixed rate to booking websites and corporations under corporate agreements such as for airline crews and maximizing the profit for the remaining rooms and the circumstance of external factors. Place and time matter, while time may be seasonality such as Christmas, New Year Eve, Chinese New Year or even July 4 th and Labor Day weekend in the USA. While business hotels may experience different seasonality from vacation properties, we need to consider all these factors and build them into the yield management model. Naturally, some rooms may also be out of order or being remodeled, while others are already been upgraded and suffer from the traditional image of the property. Yield management and revenue management may sound the same but are actually quite different. Yield management is focused solely on the sale of fixed, time-limited inventory, such as hotel rooms. A hotel room is a perishable good as this sale for this particular day never comes back and cannot be made up, this is the difference to a tangible product like a car that can be sold at another day and maybe even at a higher price. So to manage the yield of the hotel room we need to know our inventory, demand by our loyal customers and possible demand by walk-in customers. But in the hotel when we look at overall revenue management, we
Full-text available
The world currently focuses on the military conflict in the Ukraine which started on February 24, 2022. While this paper does not deal directly with the war in the Ukraine and its political issues it focuses on the role of terrain and weather in military logistics in general. One may wonder why terrain and weather are not two different issues and are not dealt with in separate papers. Terrain and weather go hand in hand as terrain changes with the weather. Geographic factors are especially important in surface warfare, warfighters can not separate themselves from the land they are fighting in or on, no matter if it is in Vietnam, Afghanistan, or in the Ukraine. The size of the country is also an important factor the Ukraine for instance is almost twice the size of Germany. The Ukraine is a country with sizeable inland waterways in form of lakes and rivers. In general the terrain in the Ukraine favors the defender similar to Afghanistan even so the terrain is totally different with high mountains. In the Ukraine the elevations of the terrain vary less but the rivers often have shorelines with different heights of up to fifty meters difference on the opposite sides of the river. This fact can offer clear views into enemy territory to gather intel and observe the effectiveness of fire. Open water can be good for defense purposes as crossing water is one of the most difficult logistics operations. Bridges often have been damaged or totally destroyed so crossing with heavy equipment is difficult. Dams also served as crossings but may also have been made in operational for commercial traffic. Existing bridges need to be retaken or be totally destroyed according to the military tactics of the attacker or defender. Crossings can only be reestablished with significant pioneer efforts in form of tank mounted bridges or bridge tanks. Floating pontoons roads and ferries for greater distances, and heavier equipment establishing these crossings under fire is not an easy task. Four seasons, spring summer fall and winter with different temperatures ranging from the heat in dessert areas to the bitter cold winters far below freezing. This mixed with dryness or extreme participation like heavy monsoon rains in Vietnam where the rain came from the top and from the side to cold rain which makes fighting uncomfortable for the warfighters and converts the soil into mud. Rasputitsa is the season of the year mostly in the spring and fall when travel on unpaved roads or across country becomes difficult, owing to muddy conditions from heavy rain falls or melting snow and ice. This makes passage off-road difficult for wheel-based vehicles and would require track mounted vehicles. The cold temperatures create icy slippery roads with heavy snow fall roads need to be cleared before supply trucks can deliver ammunition, spare parts and food. But the freezing temperatures also convert the muddy terrain of the fall into permafrost and lakes and rivers are being converted into ice roads which now can easily be maneuver this gives attackers an advantage and is a game changer while the terrain before aided the defense when it was muddy, which meant less forces were needed to defense. I follow roads (IFR) strategy that was used by the Russians at the beginning of the invasion proved highly inefficient as roads as well as railroads can easily be intercepted and interrupted and wheel-based vehicles going off-road will end up stuck in the mud, even tanks with tracks sank into the mud up to the doors which caused a lot of wear and tear on the material. Mud a result of geographic conditions and climate has been historically underestimated by many armies and their leaders including Napoleon and Hitler. Winter warfare is tough even on winter hardened armies of Russia and the Ukraine with the support of the west. A winter break or ceasefire as we have seen in Afghanistan is very unlikely in the Ukraine war and it will require more material and supplies from uniforms to heavy equipment and become a logistics battle, which reaches back to the civilian supply chain.
Full-text available
We are at the end of 2022 more than two years of covid are behind us and still, new variances are popping up. While we survived local and countrywide lockdowns and serious restrictions on life in general, we are still not back to normal when it comes to air travel. The aviation industry has been heavily hit by travel restrictions and social distances. The International Air Transport Association (IATA) estimated that the global aviation industry lost $113 billion in revenue with a broader spreading of COVID-19. In 2020, airline industry revenues totaled $328 billion which is around forty percent of 2019. The industry needs to rebuild passenger confidence to travel by air as many potential passengers are still afraid of being in a closed space with many people. Ensuring the crews' and passengers' safety proves to be a key factor in regaining passenger confidence in airlines in the New Normal. The pandemic's longer-term effects on the aviation industry are still emerging. Hygiene and safety standards will be more stringent, and digitalization will continue to transform the travel experience with apps storing more of travelers' information including vaccine certificates and COVID-19 test results as well as other personal data. Business travel will recover slowly as working remotely and online meetings have become the preferred mode for both employees and employers. It is expected that by 2024 80% of the pre-pandemic business travel levels will be reached. High-yielding first and business-class travelers are lacking especially on long-haul flights. Leisure trips will recover faster to visit friends and family and passengers want to take a break and heal their covid-19 cabin fever. While leisure passengers fill up most of the seats on flights and help cover a portion of fixed costs, their overall financial contributions in net marginal terms are negligible, and often even negative. The large gap between nonstop pricing and connect pricing may need to narrow as leisure travelers don't mind longer flights with stopovers so flight economics have to revisit supply and demand takes on a new formula. Over the past ten years, prior to covid low cargo rates and the unprofitability of the cargo business have led many airlines to relinquish or scale back their dedicated cargo freighter fleets, however cargo has been a lifeline for the aviation industry during COVID-19. Before the pandemic, cargo typically made up around 12 percent of the sector's total revenue; that percentage tripled last year and reached 49% for some airlines during covid-19 cargo is predicted to stay strong as e-commerce even grew faster during covid-19. But converting passenger aircrafts into freighters does not work with all equipment like the doubledecker and needs to be done careful. Tapping into state-provided aid, credit lines, and bond issuances, the airline industry collectively amassed more than $180 billion worth of debt in 2020, a figure equivalent to more than half of total annual revenues that year. And debt levels are still rising as repaying these
Full-text available
Corona virus (COVID-19) outbreaks have severely disrupted the economy, with devastating effects on global trade and it has simultaneously affected households, businesses, financial institution, industrial establishments and infrastructure companies. The economic crisis caused by the virus has hit many more organizations around the world. Similarly, construction and engineering projects around the world have been jeopardize in various way by the COVID-19 pandemic and many projects have closed. As a result, there has been a financial recession in the construction industry in almost all countries and has created unemployment. All in all, this situation has caused great concern, uncertainty and unrest in the construction industry. This paper observes in several countries and describes the global impact of the Corona virus on the construction industry. This paper also explains how it is possible to continue construction work in this situation. If construction work continues, the economic downturn will be reduced and unemployment will be reduced.
Full-text available
Aims: This study aimed at capturing the perceptions of Bangkok street food vendors related to the business continuity of SMEs during the covid-19 pandemic. Study Design: The study design followed the 7 Ps of the service marketing model: product, price, place, promotion, process, physical evidence, and people related to street food. Place and Duration of Study: The study took place in Bangkok, Thailand from Summer 2021 until Fall of 2021. Methodology: We included 200 participants (66 men, 124 women; age range 18-80 years) who were SME street food vendors, 40% of them were under 40 years old with 59% having no university education and 35% with a bachelor degree. Two-thirds of the vendors (86%) earned less than 500 USD a month. Results: In terms of product the vendors stuck to the favorites (mean 4.34 and SD 0.97) trying to maintain quality and quantity while keeping prices constant as much as possible (mean 4.35 and SD 0.89). The most effective promotion was the 50/50 government food substitute co-payment (mean 4.69 and SD 0.99). Place changed from sit-down restaurants to take-away (mean of 4.77 and SD 0.96) and home delivery via food delivery apps (FDA). Process changes due to social distancing included screens and fewer tables (mean of 4.51 and SD 0.65) The number one physical evidence was wearing face masks and sanitization (mean 4.03 and SD 0.82). People changed in terms of customer mix with fewer foreigners and local tourists (mean of 4.77 and SD 0.75) as well as fewer migrant workers and more government agents taking a closer look at street food hawkers. Conclusion: Street food hawkers adjusted all 7Ps of the marketing mix to assure business continuity during the covid-19 pandemic as discussed above. Moving to food delivery along with face masks and social distancing were the biggest changes. These predictors, however, would benefit from further work to validate reliability in Thailand, ASEAN, and worldwide.
Full-text available
This paper deals with the military and humanitarian logistics issues of the early days of the Russo-Ukrainian war which started on February 24, 2022, when Russia launched a comprehensive invasion of Ukraine. The campaign had been preceded by a prolonged Russian military buildup since early 2021, as well as numerous Russian demands for security measures and legal prohibitions against Ukraine joining NATO. One has to understand that it is wartime and that the information comes from various public sources which are more or less reliable and the situation is very fluid, to say the least and in a later historical account, many statements may have to be corrected.
Full-text available
The emergence of COVID-19 has been changing in the world since 2020 and prompted social, cultural, and economic systems to adjust their structures, routines, and processes. The economic aspects of the pandemic appeared soon, and many industries changed their workflow and procedures through a mandatory or recommended quarantine. Knowing the impact of COVID-19 on different areas of construction projects, concerns and considerations, and preparedness levels of corresponding entities helps construction managers to cope with the new situation. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on construction professionals' perceptions over time. For this purpose, a longitudinal study was conducted to explore the perception of construction professionals toward COVID-19 impact and how it is changed over time. In this study, construction professionals from two countries with relatively similar timing for the pandemic outbreak participated in three rounds of surveys conducted six months apart. A total of 567 responses were collected, and statistical tests were conducted to examine the frequency and intensity level of COVID-19 impact as well as similarities and differences between different rounds. The novelty of this study is the exploration of the pandemic impacts over time and the exhibition of perception's evolution. The statistical analyses showed a significant change in the perception of professionals in both regions. The results indicated a high level of COVID-19 impact on various construction aspects. The results also emphasized that the preparedness of related entities should be improved to manage raised concerns at different scales of construction professions.
Full-text available
In summary Omicron has milder symptoms and less hospitalization, but it spreads faster especially in enclosed spaces and affects the respiratory system. High vaccination rates are not sufficient as Denmark shows, booster shots appear to be the most effective which means three shots. Most countries in Europe have 15-30%. A vaccination green pass only good within 6 months of vaccination. PCR tests are not enough and vaccination may still be recommended the same as the common cold. The question remains the long-term effects on the remainder of the body of omicron and covid-19. The lasting effects of Covid-19 is the big question. Herd immunity is another factor many governments finally bet on after two years of Covid-19, and hope the pandemic will find an end by itself as hospitals are full to capacity and government coffers run dry of funds to spend, while the general public gets restless under economic pressure and anti-government protests are increasing worldwide. Let us hope that omicron marks the end of the covid-19 pandemic while the virus will stay with us forever in milder forms as the common cold.
Full-text available
The construction industry represents most of every country’s finances and vital to continued economic growth and activities, especially in developing countries. The impact of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-2 disease (COVID19) on the government’s income resulted in the expectation of many public projects being cancelled or delayed providing little opportunity for the emergence of new public projects. This study collated a global qualitative perspective (survey interviews) on the lessons learned during the COVID-19 pandemic and the positive and negative impacts for future-proofing the construction sector. In total, 76 respondents from five continents excluding South America responded to the online open-ended structured questionnaire. Data collected were analysed through an artificial intelligence analytics tool – Zoho analytics. The themes indicating the positive impact obtained from the interview were overhead cost reduction, remote working environment, focus on health and safety, improved productivity and sustainability goals while the themes signifying the negative impact were low business turnover, delays in construction payment and output, difficulties working from home and job losses. Supply chain management, construction project management improvement, concentration on health and safety and effective virtual working environment were collated as themes on lessons learned. The major findings of this study emphasise the need to improve occupational health and safety and onsite safety measures for future-proofing of the construction industry. The findings from the analyses made clear the imperativeness of the built environment research, with a focus on novel frameworks and strategies for future-proofing the construction industry.
Full-text available
Student excuses during on-line learning.