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SAGES video acquisition framework—analysis ofavailable
ORrecording technologies bytheSAGES AI task force
FilippoFilicori1,2· DanielP.Bitner1,2· HansF.Fuchs3· MehranAnvari4· GaneshSankaranaraynan5·
MatthewB.Bloom6· DanielA.Hashimoto7· AminMadani8· PietroMascagni9,10· ChristopherM.Schlachta11·
Received: 7 September 2022 / Accepted: 6 December 2022
© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2023
Background Surgical video recording provides the opportunity to acquire intraoperative data that can subsequently be used
for a variety of quality improvement, research, and educational applications. Various recording devices are available for
standard operating room camera systems. Some allow for collateral data acquisition including activities of the OR staﬀ, kin-
ematic measurements (motion of surgical instruments), and recording of the endoscopic video streams. Additional analysis
through computer vision (CV), which allows software to understand and perform predictive tasks on images, can allow for
automatic phase segmentation, instrument tracking, and derivative performance-geared metrics. With this survey, we sum-
marize available surgical video acquisition technologies and associated performance analysis platforms.
Methods In an eﬀort promoted by the SAGES Artiﬁcial Intelligence Task Force, we surveyed the available video recording
technology companies. Of thirteen companies approached, nine were interviewed, each over an hour-long video conference.
A standard set of 17 questions was administered. Questions spanned from data acquisition capacity, quality, and synchroniza-
tion of video with other data, availability of analytic tools, privacy, and access.
Results Most platforms (89%) store video in full-HD (1080p) resolution at a frame rate of 30 fps. Most (67%) of available
platforms store data in a Cloud-based databank as opposed to institutional hard drives. CV powered analysis is featured in
some platforms: phase segmentation in 44% platforms, out of body blurring or tool tracking in 33%, and suture time in 11%.
Kinematic data are provided by 22% and perfusion imaging in one device.
Conclusion Video acquisition platforms on the market allow for in depth performance analysis through manual and automated
review. Most of these devices will be integrated in upcoming robotic surgical platforms. Platform analytic supplementation,
including CV, may allow for more reﬁned performance analysis to surgeons and trainees. Most current AI features are related
to phase segmentation, instrument tracking, and video blurring.
Keywords Minimally invasive surgery· Surgical video· Operative recordings
The advent of minimally invasive surgery brought a large
increase in the availability of operative videos to a larger
extent than would have been anticipated when these
approaches were developed in 1980s and 1990s [1–3].
Increasing Audio–Video recording hardware translates to
more opportunities to record operative performance, and
logs of such video can serve for purposes of performance
review, quality analysis, research, and education. [Fig-
ure1] Prior work has outlined the medicolegal constraints
associated with intraoperative video, including data owner-
ship and storage, compliance with food and drug adminis-
tration (FDA) regulations, and privacy . Generally, the
interests of several major parties (stakeholders) toward video
recordings can be outlined (Table1).
Aside from access to and security of the video, the con-
tent of the video and the tools that come with the associated
storage platform are important to both the surgeon and the
storage platform companies. Of interest, there are numerous
methods of editing and annotating the video, both manually
and automatically. Most manual performance assessment
tools come in the form of either lay (crowdsourced) or expert
surgeon annotations. Computer vision (CV), a ﬁeld within
and Other Interventional Te
* Ozanan R. Meireles
Extended author information available on the last page of the article