A Digital Twin-Based Drone-Assisted Secure Data Aggregation Scheme with Federated Learning in Artificial Intelligence of Things

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Artificial intelligence of things (AIoT) has brought new promises of efficiency in our daily lives by integrating AI with the IoT. However, owing to limited resources (e.g., computational power), it is difficult to implement modern technology (e.g., AI) and improve its performance (i.e., the IoT). Moreover, cyberthreats and privacy challenges can hinder the success of the IoT. This situation is aggravated by network scarcity (i.e., limited network connectivity). This paper presents a digital twin-based data aggregation scheme in which data are collected using federated learning by operating a drone and stored securely in the blockchain. Before data sharing, differential privacy is realized to enhance privacy. A multirole training scheme is proposed, along with a duplex model verification architecture using a Hampel filter and performance check. To validate the specifications, an authentication scheme was implemented by combining a cuckoo filter and timeframe check. A case study to construct an experimental environment using real hardware is discussed. Different experiments were conducted in this environment and the feasibility of the proposed scheme was validated from the outcomes.

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Multi-access edge computing (MEC) is capable of meeting the challenging requirements of next-generation networks, e.g., 6G, as a benefit of providing computing and caching capabilities in the close proximity of the users. However, the traditional MEC architecture relies on specialized hardware and its bespoke software functions are closely integrated with the hardware, hence it is too rigid for supporting the rapidly evolving scenarios in the face of the demanding requirements of 6G. As a remedy, we conceive the compelling concept of open-source cellular networking and intrinsically amalgamate it with MEC, which is defined by open-source software running on general-purpose hardware platforms. Specifically, an open-source MEC (OS-MEC) scheme is presented relying on a pair of core principles: the decoupling of the MEC functions and resources from each other with the aid of network function virtualization (NFV); as well as the reconfiguration of the disaggregated MEC functions and resources into customized edge instances. This philosophy allows operators to adaptively customize their users' networks. Then, we develop improved networking functions for OS-MEC decoupling and discuss both its key components as well as the process of OS-MEC reconfiguration. The typical use cases of the proposed OS-MEC scheme are characterized with the aid of a small-scale test network. Finally, we discuss some of the potential open-source-related technical challenges when facing 6G.
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Internet of Everything (IoE) applications such as haptics, human-computer interaction, and extended reality, using the sixth-generation (6G) of wireless systems have diverse requirements in terms of latency, reliability, data rate, and user-defined performance metrics. Therefore, enabling IoE applications over 6G requires a new framework that can be used to manage, operate, and optimize the 6G wireless system and its underlying IoE services. Such a new framework for 6G can be based on digital twins. Digital twins use a virtual representation of the 6G physical system along with the associated algorithms (e.g., machine learning, optimization), communication technologies (e.g., millimeter-wave and terahertz communication), computing systems (e.g., edge computing and cloud computing), as well as privacy and security-related technologists (e.g., blockchain). First, we present the key design requirements for enabling 6G through the use of a digital twin. Next, the architectural components and trends such as edge-based twins, cloud-based-twins, and edge-cloud-based twins are presented. Furthermore, we provide a comparative description of various twins. Finally, we outline and recommend guidelines for several future research directions.
Unstable internet connectivity in aerial interconnection is challenging for the Internet of drone Things. Introducing the low power edge device and caching methodology opens a new challenge to developing an independent computing and communication application for smart cities, the rural sector, industry, and society 4.0. This author proposes a dew-cloud computing framework amalgamated with the UAV networks known as "DewDrone". We engineered an opportunistic communication framework for unreliable and intermittent network connectivity. We analyzed the dew message transfer response, and caching performance has been measured in a resource constrain hardware testbed. The results show the 91.4% message delivery ratio within a dew buffer size of 150 MB with a minimum latency of 20.04 ms.
The novel coronavirus, COVID-19, has caused a crisis that affects all segments of the population. As the knowledge and understanding of COVID-19 evolve, an appropriate response plan for this pandemic is considered one of the most effective methods for controlling the spread of the virus. Recent studies indicate that a city Digital Twin (DT) is beneficial for tackling this health crisis, because it can construct a virtual replica to simulate factors, such as climate conditions, response policies, and people's trajectories, to help plan efficient and inclusive decisions. However, a city DTsystem relies on long-term and high-quality data collection to make appropriate decisions, limiting its advantages when facing urgent crises, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Federated Learning (FL), in which all clients can learn a shared model while retaining all training data locally, emerges as a promising solution for accumulating the insights from multiple data sources efficiently Furthermore, the enhanced privacy protection settings removing the privacy barriers lie in this collaboration. In this work, we propose a framework that fused city DT with FL to achieve a novel collaborative paradigm that allows multiple city DTs to share the local strategy and status quickly. In particular, an FL central server manages the local updates of multiple collaborators (city DTs), providing a global model that is trained in multiple iterations at different city DT systems until the model gains the correlations between various response plans and infection trends. This approach means a collaborative city DT paradigm fused with FL techniques can obtain knowledge and patterns from multiple DTs and eventually establish a "global view" of city crisis management. Meanwhile, it also helps improve each city's DT by consolidating other DT's data without violating privacy rules. In this paper, we use the COVID-19 pandemic as the use case of the proposed framework. The experimental results on a real dataset with various response plans validate our proposed solution and demonstrate its superior performance.
Federated learning (FL) is a distributed machine learning strategy that generates a global model by learning from multiple decentralized edge clients. FL enables on-device training, keeping the client’s local data private, and further, updating the global model based on the local model updates. While FL methods offer several advantages, including scalability and data privacy, they assume there are available computational resources at each edge-device/client. However, the Internet-of-Things (IoTs) enabled devices, e.g., robots, drone swarms, and low-cost computing devices (e.g., Raspberry Pi), may have limited processing ability, low bandwidth and power, or limited storage capacity. In this survey paper, we propose to answer this question: how to train distributed machine learning models for resource-constrained IoT devices? To this end, we first explore the existing studies on FL, relative assumptions for distributed implementation using IoT devices, and explore their drawbacks. We then discuss the implementation challenges and issues when applying FL to an IoT environment. We highlight an overview of FL and provide a comprehensive survey of the problem statements and emerging challenges, particularly during applying FL within heterogeneous IoT environments. Finally, we point out the future research directions for scientists and researchers who are interested in working at the intersection of FL and resource-constrained IoT environments.
The air-ground network provides users with seamless connections and real-time services, while its resource constraint triggers a paradigm shift from machine learning to federated learning. Federated learning enables clients to collaboratively train models without sharing data. Meanwhile, digital twins provide environmental awareness and autonomous management, which in combination with federated learning reconciles the conflict between privacy protection and data training in air-ground network. In this paper, we consider dynamic digital twin and federated learning for air-ground networks where drone works as the aggregator and the ground clients collaboratively train the model based on the network dynamics captured by digital twins. We design incentives for federated learning based on Stackelberg game, in which the digital twin of the drone acts as the leader to set preferences for clients, and clients as followers choose the global training rounds after weighing benefits and costs. Furthermore, considering the varying digital twin deviations and network dynamics during the federated learning process, we design a dynamic incentive scheme to adaptively adjust the selection of the optimal clients and their participation level. Numerical results show that the proposed schemes can significantly improve accuracy and energy efficiency.
In the Internet of Things (IoT) era, billions of sensors and devices collect and process data from the environment, transmit them to cloud centers, and receive feedback via the internet for connectivity and perception. However, transmitting massive amounts of heterogeneous data, perceiving complex environments from these data, and then making smart decisions in a timely manner are difficult. Artificial intelligence (AI), especially deep learning, is now a proven success in various areas including computer vision, speech recognition, and natural language processing. AI introduced into the IoT heralds the era of artificial intelligence of things (AIoT). This paper presents a comprehensive survey on AIoT to show how AI can empower the IoT to make it faster, smarter, greener, and safer. Specifically, we briefly present the AIoT architecture in the context of cloud computing, fog computing, and edge computing. Then, we present progress in AI research for IoT from four perspectives: perceiving, learning, reasoning, and behaving. Next, we summarize some promising applications of AIoT that are likely to profoundly reshape our world. Finally, we highlight the challenges facing AIoT and some potential research opportunities.
The rapid development of artificial intelligence and 5G paradigm, opens up new possibilities for emerging applications in industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). However, the large amount of data, the limited resources of Internet of Things devices, and the increasing concerns of data privacy, are major obstacles to improve the quality of services in IIoT. In this article, we propose the digital twin edge networks (DITENs) by incorporating digital twin into edge networks to fill the gap between physical systems and digital spaces. We further leverage the federated learning to construct digital twin models of IoT devices based on their running data. Moreover, to mitigate the communication overhead, we propose an asynchronous model update scheme and formulate the federated learning scheme as an optimization problem. We further decompose the problem and solve the subproblems based on the deep neural network model. Numerical results show that our proposed federated learning scheme for DITEN improves the communication efficiency and reduces the transmission energy cost.
Conference Paper
Machine learning techniques based on neural networks are achieving remarkable results in a wide variety of domains. Often, the training of models requires large, representative datasets, which may be crowdsourced and contain sensitive information. The models should not expose private information in these datasets. Addressing this goal, we develop new algorithmic techniques for learning and a refined analysis of privacy costs within the framework of differential privacy. Our implementation and experiments demonstrate that we can train deep neural networks with non-convex objectives, under a modest privacy budget, and at a manageable cost in software complexity, training efficiency, and model quality.
Communication-efficient federated learning and permissioned blockchain for digital twin edge networks
--, "Communication-efficient federated learning and permissioned blockchain for digital twin edge networks," IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 2276-2288, 2021.
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