This study intended to explore the development of self-regulation in a flipped classroom setting. Problem based learning activities were carried out in flipped classrooms to promote self-regulation. A total of 30 undergraduate students from Mechatronic department participated in the study. Self-regulation skills were discussed through students' and the instructor's experiences including their opinions and behaviours. Qualitative data was collected with an observation form, discussion messages and interviews with selected participants. As a result, in terms of self-regulated learning, the goal setting and planning, task strategies and help seeking skills of the students were high in the face to face learning designed with problem based activities through flipped classroom model, their goal setting and planning, task strategies and help seeking skills were appeared moderately. In the home sessions, environment structuring, goal setting and planning skills were developed in high level while task strategies, help seeking, time management, monitoring, self-efficacy and self-evaluation skills were moderate and monitoring skills was lower. Consequently, it is hoped that the study may provide some suggestions for using problem based activities in flipped learning.
In the flipped classroom model, what is normally done in class and what is normally done as homework is switched or "flipped." Instead of students listening to a lecture in class and then going home to work on a set of assigned problems, they read material and view videos on, say, genetics before coming to class and then engage in class in active learning using case studies, labs, games, simulations, or experiments.
Genetics has been identified as one of the difficult topics in biology for high school students in Zambia. This paper reports a study conducted to determine the nature and causes of learning difficulties students encounter in genetics at high school level in Zambia. A survey design was used and data were obtained from students and teachers using interview schedules and self-completion questionnaires. Quota sampling procedure was used to select the sample from the target population. Data collected were analysed using content analysis approach. The study found that students had difficulties understanding among others genetic crosses, genetic terms, mitosis and meiosis as well as mutation. Factors identified to have caused learning difficulties included: inability by teachers to explain clearly to students; none teaching of the topic; topic taught near examination time, fast presentation of lessons by some teachers; belief by some students that genetics was difficult to learn; lack of appropriate learning aids and inadequate time allocated to teaching of the topic. Some of the recommendations made were that: teacher training institutions must prepare biology teachers adequately to teach this topic well; adequate time should be allocated to teaching of genetics; teachers need in-service training to enable them use appropriate teaching methods for teaching genetics.
Since the work of Watson and Crick in the mid-1950s, the science of genetics has become increasingly molecular. The development of recombinant DNA technologies by the agricultural and pharmaceutical industries led to the introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). By the end of the twentieth century, reports of animal cloning and recent completion of the Human Genome Project (HGP), as well techniques developed for DNA fingerprinting, gene therapy and others, raised important ethical and social issues about the applications of such technologies. For citizens to understand these issues, appropriate genetics education is needed in schools. A good foundation in genetics also requires knowledge and understanding of topics such as structure and function of cells, cell division, and reproduction. Studies at the international level report poor understanding by students of genetics and genetic technologies, with widespread misconceptions at various levels. Similar studies were nearly absent in India. In this study, I examine Indian higher secondary students' understanding of genetic information related to cells and transmission of genetic information during reproduction. Although preliminary in nature, the results provide cause for concern over the status of genetics education in India. The nature of students' conceptual understandings and possible reasons for the observed lack of understanding are discussed.
This chapter shows how a suite of learning objects were developed by the Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning for Reusable Learning Objects (www.RLO-CETL.ac.uk), one of 74 CETLs being funded by the UK's Higher Education Funding Council for England. The learning objects were used to support students within a blended learning context. It shows student personalised learning: learning that can be any time (in the 24 hour digital world), any place (the university experienced in the home or workplace), any where (limited only by the students choice and internet access - trains, boats, planes, global learning). It focuses on two case studies at UK Higher Education institutions that demonstrate any time, any place learning. London Metropolitan University (London Met) and Thames Valley University (TVU), have both used and reused learning objects in different contexts. In each case study the background and the resulting blended learning design is outlined, followed by evaluation data illustrating the student experience and how the learning design and the learning objects have encouraged personalised learning. The chapter concludes with the start of the third iteration of use - to facilitate informal learning 'any where', through the incorporation of learning objects that can be used on mobile phones.
Genetics is a unifying theme of biology that poses a major challenge for students across a wide range of post-secondary institutions, because it entails complex problem solving. This article reports a new intelligent learning environment called the Genetics Cognitive Tutor, which supports genetics problem solving. The tutor presents complex, multi-step problems and is constructed around a cognitive model of the knowledge needed to solve the problems. This embedded cognitive model enables the tutor to provide step-by-step assistance, and to maintain a model of the student's problem-solving knowledge. The tutor consists of 16 modules with about 125 total problems, spanning five general topics: Mendelian inheritance, pedigree analysis, genetic mapping, gene regulation, and population genetics. This article reports two evaluations of the tutor. A pretest/posttest evaluation of student learning gains for individual tutor modules across multiple colleges and universities yielded average gains equivalent to almost two letter grades, and the accuracy of student modeling in predicting students' test performance was empirically validated.
Genetics is the cornerstone of modern biology and understanding genetics is a critical aspect of scientific literacy. Research
has shown, however, that many high school graduates lack fundamental understandings in genetics necessary to make informed
decisions or to participate in public debates over emerging technologies in molecular genetics. Currently, much of genetics
instruction occurs at the high school level. However, recent policy reports suggest that we may need to begin introducing
aspects of core concepts in earlier grades and to successively develop students’ understandings of these concepts in subsequent
grades. Given the paucity of research about genetics learning at the middle school level, we know very little about what students
in earlier grades are capable of reasoning about in this domain. In this paper, we discuss a research study aimed at fostering
deeper understandings of molecular genetics at the middle school level. As part of the research we designed a two-week model-based
inquiry unit implemented in two 7th grade classrooms (N = 135). We describe our instructional design and report results based on analysis of pre/post assessments and written artifacts
of the unit. Our findings suggest that middle school students can develop: (a) a view of genes as productive instructions
for proteins, (b) an understanding of the role of proteins in mediating genetic effects, and (c) can use this knowledge to
reason about a novel genetic phenomena. However, there were significant differences in the learning gains in both classrooms
and we provide speculative explanations of what may have caused these differences.
KeywordsBiology–Curriculum development–Genetics–Implementation–Middle school–Qualitative research
This study seeks to explore the problems of genetics learning and to identify possible ways forward. The work was carried out at junior high school level in Taiwan. Genetics is often thought of as a subject or a topic in biology that is difficult to learn and understand, especially for novices. A review of literature on learning difficulties in genetics is provided to explore the nature of the difficulties, with likely explanations for the difficulties observed. Undoubtedly, many would acknowledge that genetics is an important subject to learn in these days and age where its applications are ubiquitous and even the cause of many debates. However, due to the nature of the subject matter and the way learning processes occur and, possibly, the way it is being taught, the understanding of genetics ideas of the majority of students is thought to be very poor and full of confusions and alternative views. Thus, the overall aim of this study is to explore learning difficulties and problems in genetics and then to develop and test ways by which the situation might be improved. The research for this thesis was carried out in three stages. In the first stage, the adolescent learners’ preconceptions about genetics were explored before they move to the formal course. The result indicated that the essential foundational concepts, such as structure and function of cells and its organelles, cell divisions (mitosis and meiosis), reproduction, and basic mathematical requirements and the concept of probability, are generally vague and misconceptions are widespread. In the second stage, factors that might affect the learning of genetics for adolescent learners were investigated. The factors were prior knowledge related to genetics and the effects of the limitation of learners’ psychological characteristics (namely, perceptual fields or the degree of field dependence and the working memory space). Results showed that students’ performance in genetics examination revealed a significant correlation with their prior knowledge, the working memory capacity and the degree of field dependence. Based on the findings from the first and second stage of the research, a set of teaching material of genetics course for the first year of junior high school students was developed in the third stage. The teaching material was deliberately constructed not only to minimise demands on the working memory, but also to encourage attitude development. The performance of students was found to be significantly better than for those who had been taught by the traditional approaches. Numerous comparisons of attitudes between the two groups revealed that attitudes of social awareness as well as attitudes towards aspects of the learning processes involved were more positive for those who had used the new materials It should be pointed out that all conclusions derived from this study must be treated tentatively. Inevitably, any new approach will have a novelty factor which may enhance performance. Nonetheless, the evidence taken together does support the hypothesis that learning arranged in line with information processing insights is more effective. In addition, the strategies used were designed in line with understandings of the ways attitudes develop and the effectiveness of these approaches has been demonstrated. Overall, the study has highlighted several problems and, on the basis of the evidence obtained, suggests possible ways forward for a better approach to genetics learning.
Working paper presented at, NSF-sponsored Biology Education Research Group -Conceptual Assessment Group I meeting
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