Tryptophan (Tryp) is an essential amino acid and the precursor of several neuroactive compounds within the central nervous system (CNS). Tryp metabolism, the common denominator linking serotonin (5-HT) dysfunctions and neuroinflammation, is involved in several neuropsychiatric conditions, including neurological, neurodevelopmental, neurodegenerative, and psychiatric diseases. Interestingly, most ... [Show full abstract] of those conditions occur and progress in a sex-specific manner. Here, we explore the most relevant observations about the influence of biological sex on Tryp metabolism and its possible relation to neuropsychiatric diseases. Consistent evidence suggests that women have a higher susceptibility than men to suffer serotoninergic alterations due to changes in the levels of its precursor Tryp. Indeed, female sex bias in neuropsychiatric diseases is involved in a reduced availability of this amino acid pool and 5-HT synthesis. These changes in Tryp metabolism could lead to sexual dimorphism on the prevalence and severity of some neuropsychiatric disorders. This review identifies gaps in the current state of the art, thus suggesting future research directions. Specifically, there is a need for further research on the impact of diet and sex steroids, both involved in this molecular mechanism as they have been poorly addressed for this topic.