1. First published in Science Magazine, March 19, 1967, but quoted here from the more accessible D. and E. Spring, Ecology and Religion in History (New York, 1974), pp. 15-31.
2. In ed. I. M. Barbour, Western Man and Environmental Ethics (Reading, Mass., 1973), pp. 55-63.
3. In American Historical Review, 52 (1947), 421-435.
4. See, for example, the responses by E. Doyle, "Ecology and the Canticle of Brother Sun," New Blackfriars 55 (1974), 392-402; and F. Schaeffer, Pollution and the Death of Man (London, 1972).
5. The present author in fact discusses the issues and incidents here more fully in his dissertation, "Tradition and Innovation in St. Francis of Assisi's Interpretation of Nature," Cornell University, 1983; and in the book, St. Francis of Assisi and Nature, currently in publication by Oxford University Press.
6. Celano, Vita Prima 58; Fioretti 16.
7. Celano, Vita Prima 59.
8. Celano, Vita Secunda 166.
9. Opinions selected from White's articles "The Historical Roots...," and "Continuing the Conversation," loc. cit.
10. From "The Historical Roots," loc. cit., p. 29.
11. See J. Moorman, A History of the Franciscan Order from its Origins to the Year 1517 (Oxford, 1968), pp. 246-7; St. Francis of Assisi: Writings and Early Biographies: English Omnibus of the Sources for the Life of St. Francis, ed. M. A. Habig (Chicago, 1973), pp. 209-11.
12. See e.g. Bonaventure, Legenda Major, VIII, 6 ff.
13. As in the postulations of White, "The Historical Roots...," loc. cit.
14. Consider the confusion of M. Bishop, in his St. Francis of Assisi (Boston, 1974), p. 187, where he is unable to understand why Francis was not a vegetarian. He fails to see the link with evangelical prescriptions and the wish to avoid the Cathar heresy here.
15. L. Cunningham, Brother Francis: An Anthology of Writings by and about Saint Francis of Assisi (New York, 1972), pp. x-xi; xvii.
16. For important recent analysis of the Cistercian attitudes here, see T. Glacken, Traces on the Rhodian Shore: Nature and Culture in Western Thought from Ancient Times to the end of the Eighteenth Century (Berkeley, 1967), pp. 308 ff; R. Dubos, "Franciscan Conservation vs. Benedictine Stewardship," in Spring, op. cit., pp. 113-136; for older works, see H. Workman, The Evolution of the Monastic Ideal (London, 1913), pp. 236 ff.; G. Coulton, Five Centuries of Religion (Cambridge, 1927), vol. 2, pp. 16 ff.; and of course, M. de Joubainville, Études sur l'état interieur des abbayes Cisterciennes, et principalement de Clairvaux, au xiie et xiiie siècle (Paris, 1858).
17. For critical discussion see E. Armstrong, Saint Francis: Nature Mystic (Berkeley, 1973), pp. 56-57; M. Bihl, "De praedicatione a S. Francesco avibus facta," AFH 20 (1927), 202-6; L. Cellucci, "Varie redazioni della predica di San Francisco agli uccelli," Archivum Romanicum 24 (1940), 301-08.
18. See the Fioretti, ch. 16, for these details.
19. Pace Armstrong (op. cit., p. 58), who thinks, "The writer, Bible in hand, has extended Celano's account." The reason for the lack of influence may well have been that the decree of 1266 banning all other legenda than Bonaventure's was very effective. See the Omnibus, pp. 209-11.
20. M. Bihl, "De praedicatione a S. Francisco avibus facta," AFH 20 (1927), pp. 202-06.
21. On the influence of this concept in the medieval world, see T. Gregory, Anima Mundi: la filosofia di Guglielmo di Conches e la scuola di Chartres (Florence, 1955). Much work remains to be done in this area. Its rarefied philosophical nature and tradition make it highly improbable that any belief in the world soul influenced Francis.
22. L. Cunningham discusses this Victorian view in his Saint Francis of Assisi (Boston, 1976), pp. 54; 109 ff. See H. Adams, Mont-Saint-Michel and Chartres (New York, rep. 1961), pp. 25, 336. With White, the eastern influence on Francis is seen to derive from Catharism (see "Historical Roots," loc. cit., p. 29). This opinion is supported by Sir Steven Runciman, The Medieval Manichee: A Study of Christian Dualist Heresy (Cambridge, 1960), pp. 174, 179, 186. But one may very successfully defend Francis here. See K...