Memory, Resilience, and Voice among Finnmark Sámi Women: A Spatiotemporal Critical Review

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This article presents the results of a spatiotemporal critical review of the scholarship surrounding Sámi women and the memories of the generational trauma and injustices, dispossession, and resilience of these women. Sámi women's feminism and activism are often left out of the scholarly discussions surrounding fairness and equity for this indigenous population, and little research has focused on the voice or vocality of this target population outside of arts-based research. The article presents the historical context that may be used for contemporary interpretations of transdisciplinary research findings for this target population. The systematic critical review involved recursivity for a systematically selected sample of current peer-reviewed articles filtered for the constructs of memory, resilience, and voice for Sámi women in Finnmark, Norway.

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This article explores how Sami Blood (2016), as an Indigenous film, addresses colonialism and its consequences. Sami Blood documents historical injustice, shame and how colonialism is internalized by the colonized, and mechanisms of systemic and individual racism. Based on analyses of the film, reviews and perspectives on colonialism and cinema, it is argued that Sami Blood contributes to reconciliation processes in contemporary society because it addresses past events and colonial practices from a Sámi perspective. Sami Blood is the first feature film to use the Indigenous South Sámi language, and the first with a female director,
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Aims This study aims to estimate the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and its association with psychological distress and symptoms of post-traumatic stress (PTS) among Sami and non-Sami and to explore whether the association between IPV and mental health is modified by exposure to childhood violence (CV). These issues are scarcely studied among the Sami. Methods This study was based on the cross-sectional SAMINOR 2 Questionnaire Survey, a part of the Population-based Study on Health and Living Conditions in Regions with Sami and Norwegian Populations (SAMINOR). Chi-square tests and two-sample t-tests were used to test differences between groups. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to explore the association between IPV/CV and continuous scores of psychological distress and symptoms of post-traumatic stress. Results Experiences of IPV (emotional, physical, and/or sexual) were reported by 12.8% of women and 2.0% of men. A significantly higher proportion of Sami women reported exposure to emotional (12.4 v. 9.5%, p = 0.003), physical (11.6 v. 6.9%, p < 0.001), and any IPV (17.2 v. 11.8%, p < 0.001) compared to non-Sami women. There were no ethnic differences in sexual IPV among women (2%). Exposure to IPV was associated with a higher score of psychological distress and PTS and was highest among those exposed to both IPV and CV. Conclusions Sami women reported the highest prevalence of IPV. The association between IPV/CV and mental health problems did not differ by ethnicity or gender. The most severe mental health problems were observed for those who were exposed to both IPV and CV.
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Aims Over the last two decades, the existence of an open access citation advantage (OACA)—increased citation of articles made available open access (OA)—has been the topic of much discussion. While there has been substantial research to address this question, findings have been contradictory and inconclusive. We conducted a systematic review to compare studies of citations to OA and non-OA articles. Methods A systematic search of 17 databases attempted to capture all relevant studies authored since 2001. The protocol was registered in Open Science Framework. We included studies with a direct comparison between OA and non-OA items and reported article-level citation as an outcome. Both randomized and non-randomized studies were included. No limitations were placed on study design, language, or publication type. Results A total of 5,744 items were retrieved. Ultimately, 134 items were identified for inclusion. 64 studies (47.8%) confirmed the existence of OACA, while 37 (27.6%) found that it did not exist, 32 (23.9%) found OACA only in subsets of their sample, and 1 study (0.8%) was inconclusive. Studies with a focus on multiple disciplines were significantly positively associated with finding that OACA exists in subsets, and are less associated with finding that OACA did not exist. In the critical appraisal of the included studies, 3 were found to have an overall low risk of bias. Of these, one found that an OACA existed, one found that it did not, and one found that an OACA occurred in subsets. Conclusions As seen through the large number of studies identified for this review, OACA is a topic of continuing interest. Quality and heterogeneity of the component studies pose challenges for generalization. The results suggest the need for reporting guidelines for bibliometrics studies.
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From a Sami perspective, this article discusses how Scandinavian creation theology can support a stronger resilience against that which threatens the creation in all its variations. Sápmi is the land of the Indigenous Sami people in the northern part of Scandinavia and Kola penisiluania in Russia. During the 19th and 20th century the Norwegian part of Sápmi was colonized in the so-called Norwegianization project. Today we see an increasing battle around natural resources. The article briefly depicts Sami indigenous theology, which emphasizes the circle of life, creation, and humanity's relationship within the creation and its Creator. It then presents several basic features of Scandinavian creation theology that highlight the egalitarianism surrounding the creation and how all people stand in relation to this with an ethical obligation to defend life where it is threatened.
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Indigenous Sámi and Kven minority children in Norway were during the 20th century placed at boarding schools to hasten their adoption of the Norwegian majority language and culture. This is the first population-based study examining health, well-being and disability pension rates among these children. Data stem from two epidemiological studies conducted in 2003/04 (SAMINOR 1) and 2012 (SAMINOR 2) by the Centre for Sami Health Research. The SAMINOR 1 study included N = 13,974 residents (50.1% women, M age = 52.9 years) and n = 2,125 boarding participants (49.6% women, M age = 56.2 years). The SAMINOR 2 part included N = 10,512 residents (55.5% women, M age = 47.6 years) and n = 1246 boarding participants (48.7% women, M age = 54.1 years). Main outcome measures are mental and general health, well-being and disability pension linearly regressed upon the predictors. We observed minor differences between boarding and non-boarding participants that generally disfavored the former, of which many disappeared after covariate adjustment. Boarding school participants reported more discrimination, violence, unhealthier lifestyle behavior (smoking), less education and household income compared to non-boarding participants. The exceptionally long timeframe between boarding school and the current outcome measures (40–50 years) is a likely reason for the weak associations. The study supports the international literature on health inequalities and highlights the risk of ill health following boarding school placement of indigenous or minority children. On a positive note, participants reporting stronger ethnic belonging (strong Sámi identity) were well protected, and even functioned better in terms of lower disability rates than majority Norwegians.
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This article explores the metaphors and images used by different generations of women to describe women's leadership in higher education (HE) and the impact these perceptions have on their careers and career ambitions. It also explores how such metaphors and images can position them as “other,” silence their voices in the dominant masculinist discourse, and marginalize them. The emphasis in the gender and higher education literature has been on identifying the barriers that impede women's progress in academic organizations, including images of continuing hegemonic masculine leadership, and their promotion to leadership positions. These models position women leaders who are assertive as troublemakers, and women as “the problem” either because of their attitudes or perceived domestic and family responsibilities. And while women leaders are often not gender conscious, they are frequently doing gender in their senior roles. The metaphors and images that portray women's leadership are often of hidden work, supporting more senior males, or “ivory basement” leadership. Combined, they suggest a deficit model that positions women as lacking for top jobs, and institutions therefore needing to “fix the women” generally through leadership development programmes, sponsorship and mentoring. The article examines the metaphors and images used to describe women's leadership across two generations. Older women often saw their leadership as conforming to male leadership models, as fitting in, and not challenging or unsettling their male colleagues. However, a younger generation of leaders or prospective leaders had a very different set of metaphors for their leadership. They saw themselves as unsupported by what they described as the current mediocre, institutional leaders, weighed down by inexorable organizational restructure, and merely in survival mode. Hence, they refused to accept the masculinist leadership model which they perceived as ineffectual, outdated and not meeting their needs. The article suggests that the prevailing culture in higher education leadership and the metaphors and images used to describe successful leadership narrows the options for women leaders. While older women were prepared to accept current masculinist leadership, younger women had contempt for the way it marginalized them while at the same time encouraging them to lift their game and had a different set of metaphors and images to portray what successful leadership should look like.
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In international studies, higher prevalence of persistent pain has been reported in indigenous populations compared to majority populations. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of persistent pain within a Sami and a non-Sami population in northern Norway, with adjustment for the confounding factors of age, sex, marital status, education, income, mental health, smoking status and ethnic background. Using SAMINOR 2 survey data including Sami and non-Sami populations, we analysed 5,546 responses, from individuals aged 40–79 years, to questions concerning persistent pain (≥ 3 months). In total, 2,426 (43.7%) participants reported persistent pain with differences between Sami women and non-Sami women (44.1% versus 51.1%, respectively), but none between Sami men and non-Sami men (38.7% versus 38.2%, respectively). Elderly Sami women were less likely to report persistent pain than were elderly non-Sami women. In men, no ethnic differences in pain were observed according to age-group. Marital status, education levels, household income, psychological distress, and smoking status did not influence the association between ethnicity and pain. Pain severity and location did not differ between Sami and non-Sami participants. In this study, we found only minor ethnic differences in persistent pain. Similar living conditions and cultural features may explain these findings.
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The aim of this article is to map the Swedish context regarding men’s intimate partner violence against Sami women and (1) discuss what knowledge and perspectives that dominates that context, and (2) reflect upon possible starting points for meeting the need for knowledge. The outline shows that men’s intimate partner violence against Sami women is a blind spot in Sweden. Important aspects, such as human rights and colonialism, are neglected in the policy discourse. At the most, the policy discourse includes abused Sami women in the problematic category “particular vulnerable groups”. The author argues for a need to problematize if and how responsibility is taken for addressing and responding to the violence and suggests a postcolonial and intersectional approach that centers around how the imbalance of power and control runs through abused women’s experiences. Finally, the author highlights how such an approach also is a matter of indigenous research ethics.
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This feminist narrative research explored the fidelity of researcher positionality and Leavy's coherence to consider an archival personal letter from the Sauk warrior Black Hawk's great great daughter, Mary Kakaque, written to John Henry Hauberg, an Illinois philanthropist. Future research is needed to characterize Mary's educational experiences amid an era of cultural annihilation and assimilation within the collective narrative of Hauberg's interpretations, paraphrases, and summaries of Mary's existence, and a phenomenological study to explore Mary's lived experience within the full archival Hauberg collection to consider the constructs of voice or resilience as the lived experiences of Black Hawk's female descendants remain limited. In addition, a critical ethnography may be warranted for ancestral effects of relocation and assimilation from the perspectives of living Black Hawk and Mary's female descendants to contribute a contemporary perspective on voice, culture, and the legacy of land dispossession.
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The main objectives of this study were to investigate the association between childhood violence and psychological distress and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTS) among Sami and non-Sami adults, and to explore a possible mediating effect of childhood violence on any ethnic differences in mental health. This study is part of a larger questionnaire survey on health and living conditions in Mid- and Northern Norway (SAMINOR 2) which included 2116 Sami and 8674 non-Sami participants. A positive association between childhood violence and psychological distress and PTS in adulthood was found regardless of ethnicity. For women, childhood violence may have mediated some of the ethnic differences in psychological distress (53.2%) and PTS (31.4%). A similar pattern was found for men as to psychological distress (45.5%) and PTS (55.5%). The prevalence of psychological distress was significantly higher in the Sami than in the non-Sami group: 15.8% vs. 13.0% for women, and 11.4% vs. 8.0% for men. Likewise, PTS showed a higher prevalence in the Sami group, both for women (16.2% vs. 12.4%) and for men (12.2% vs. 9.1). Conclusion: A positive association between childhood violence and adult mental distress was found for both Sami and Norwegian adults. More mental problems were found among the Sami. Childhood violence may have mediated some of the ethnic differences.
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Objective The present study aimed to investigate disordered eating (DE) among Sami compared with non-Sami residing in northern Norway. Design In a cross-sectional design, stratified by sex and ethnicity, associations were tested between DE (Eating Disturbance Scale; EDS-5) and age, education level, BMI category, anxiety and depression, physical activity and consumption of snacks. Setting The SAMINOR 2 Clinical Survey (2012–2014) based on the population of ten municipalities in northern Norway. Subjects Adults aged 40–69 years; 1811 Sami (844 male, 967 female) compared with 2578 non-Sami (1180 male, 1398 female) individuals. Results No overall significant ethnic difference in DE was identified, although comfort eating was reported more often by Sami individuals ( P =0·01). Regardless of ethnicity and sex, symptoms of anxiety and depression were associated with DE ( P <0·001). Furthermore, DE was more common at lower age and higher BMI values. Education levels were protectively associated with DE among Sami men ( P =0·01). DE was associated (OR, 95% CI) with low physical activity in men in general and in non-Sami women (Sami men: 2·4, 1·4, 4·0; non-Sami men: 2·2, 1·4, 3·6; non-Sami women: 1·8, 1·2, 2·9) and so was the consumption of snacks (Sami men: 2·6, 1·3, 5·0; non-Sami men: 1·9, 1·1, 3·1; non-Sami women: 2·1, 1·3, 3·4). Conclusions There were no significant differences regarding overall DE comparing Sami with non-Sami, although Sami more often reported comfort eating. There were significant sex and ethnic differences related to DE and physical activity, snacking and education level.
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This article is about older Sami women living in the Arctic region in Norway. The Sami are indigenous people of northern Scandinavia and northern Russia; Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia. The Sami people have a background that breaks with western traditions. In order to understand their cultural values, beliefs and worldviews anchored in “the living body”, elder care should consider their cultural, ethnic and linguistic distinctiveness. The three older Sami women presented in this text, Maret, Beret and Betty, have lived in close contact with of lige of older Sami women nature throughout their lives. They are particularly sensitive to restrictions that have reduced their freedom and quality of life.
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Drawing on current changes in nature practices in the County of Finnmark in Northern Norway we reflect upon the ways in which indigenous and non-indigenous locals, in a period of transition, engage with and relate to their environment in a place which is often described by outsiders as remote. Here, nature and nature activities remain central to peoples' identity, their belonging and heritage. Nature is regularly cited as the reason for staying when so many people move away. Nature practices both unite and separate indigenous and non-indigenous locals. Locals are united in emphasis on hunting and gathering as a significant part of life. Their approach to nature products is also similar. The products procured are kept, displayed, and circulated, as part of performances of identity and community.
Based on extensive ethnographic fieldwork, this article focuses on the present-day belonging of Finnish Roma to Pentecostalism. On the one hand, in what appears to be a ladder of social mobility, Pentecostalism provides Roma with the opportunity for enhanced participation in the nation-state, thus enhancing their relationship with the majority Finns. On the other hand, Lutheranism continues to be a symbol of Finnish belonging and a symbol of unity across the Nordic countries. Therefore, in the case of a historically marginalized group adopting a minority religious denomination, this article explores the complex relationship between community belonging, religious identity, and national engagement, and the ways in which these become entangled with one another. The aim is thus to introduce a contemporary perspective on how minorities themselves are actively engaged and reflect upon their role within their society, while also developing grassroots “strategies” of connecting with others (majority “Finns”), and with one another.
The emergence of new trends such as openness in digitalising information has led to sharing, collaborating, and selection of texts and images both visual and illustrative. These trends will provide rich, unique visual images in blogs, websites, and social media, which will contribute to research knowledge in specific and intradisciplinary mode. However, research in digital ethnography has to be collaborative and participatory and realistic without losing the unique rich history and their place-based knowledge and time-bound contexts. The number of studies have to be collated to look at the trends and patterns and the significant findings so that there are valid and realistic contribution to the different fields. The competencies of researchers to develop digital ethnography are explored in detail. They are exploring through cross cultural communication skills, skills in participatory processes within the social context, and science-technology-society approach within diverse indigenous groups both locally and globally.
This chapter presents the results of a systematic review to analyze the current research since 2019 for voice dispossession as attributional accommodation among women in higher education leadership. The authors sought to quantify and categorize these attributes to better identify the verbal and nonverbal ac-commodations made by women in higher education leadership to extend prior critical review of gender parity and equity for these leaders. Study findings may inform higher educational leadership to better understand voice dispossession among female leaders and the resulting attributional accommodations made to improve gender equity and parity for leadership roles in higher education.
This chapter presents findings from a critical arts-based autoethnographic study of Iowa digital maps and historical archival data of the Iowa territory (1838-1846) for Indigenous Nations with previous land tenure. Researchers have noted land and voice dispossession for these Indigenous Nations resulting from forced removal followed by decades of intentional cultural erosion, forced assimilation, loss of language, and religious discrimination and persecution into the latter 20th century. Current research highlights the resultant damage of these historical losses on living descendants of Indigenous land-based cultures. Agency of self was explored from a socialized perspective of a descendant of Scandinavian immigrants who acquired dispossessed land within the Iowa territory. This was contrasted with a cultural perspective of land as capital wealth vs. the principles and tenets of land-based culture whereby agency may be strengthened via Indigenous knowledge rooted in land-based connections and environmental sensitivities. Data representation involved poetic excerpts of land as agency.
This paper accounts for broad definitions of memory, which extend to paradigmatic memory phenomena, like episodic memory in humans, and phenomena in worms and sea snails. These definitions may seem too broad, suggesting that they extend to phenomena that don’t count as memory or illustrate that memory is not a natural kind. However, these responses fail to consider a definition as a hypothesis. As opposed to construing definitions as expressing memory’s properties, a definition as a hypothesis is the basis to test inferences about phenomena. A definition as a hypothesis is valuable when the “kinding” of phenomena is on-going.
There is lack of research on old indigenous women's experiences. The aim of this study was to explore how old women narrate their experiences of wellbeing and lack of wellbeing using the salutogenetic concept of resilience. Interviews from nine old Sami women were analysed according to grounded theory with the following themes identified: contributing to resilience and wellbeing built up from the categories feeling connected, feeling independent and creating meaning; and contributing to lack of lack of resilience and wellbeing built up from the category experiencing lack of connectedness. The old Sami women's narratives showed that they were to a high extent resilient and experienced wellbeing. They felt both connected and independent and they were able to create meaning of being an old Sami woman. Having access to economic and cultural capital were for the old Sami women valuable for experiencing resilience. Lack of resilience was expressed as experiences of discrimination, lack of connectedness and living on the border of the dominant society. Analysis of the Sami women's narratives can give wider perspectives on women's health and deepen the perspectives on human resilience and increase the understanding of minority groups in a multicultural world.
This critical review explored the current scholarship of the experiences and challenges faced by Gullah Geechee midlife women heirs’ property owners along the Gullah Geechee Cultural Heritage Corridor. Past researchers have noted these women often experience invisibility due to the concurrent burdens of management of jointly-owned property along the Corridor in addition to legacy experiences of cultural isolation, land dispossession, voice dispossession, and ancestry enslavement. Past researchers have called for ongoing collaborative research by both non-indigenous and indigenous researchers as a gap continues for gendered perspectives for current Corridor heirs’ property challenges and land dispossession with respect to power, trauma, economic impact, Gullah Geechee ways of knowing, land-based cultural values, heritage tourism, governmental dispossession, and the legacy of enslavement for critical inquiry from the transformative paradigm.
This chapter presents researcher positionality within the specific context of practitioner doctoral research or practice-based research. The explication of researcher positionality is an essential precursor to practitioner doctoral inquiry for scholar-practitioners and can serve as a key anchor and measure for the scholar-practitioner’s journey as new investigator and entrance to the scholarly academic community. The chapter also describes how the use of reflexivity may enhance fidelity of researcher positionality within practice-based doctoral research that informs professional practice. In addition, considerations and illustrations are offered for the evaluation and articulation of researcher positionality within the practitioner doctoral research journey that draws on the insider-outsider role of the scholar-practitioner as new researcher and seasoned practitioner.
We have examined the proposed Finnmark Act in relation to Norway's obligations under international law with the emphasis on conventions dealing with indigenous people's rights and human rights. The central convention is the ILO Convention No. 169 concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries which contains explicit provisions on land rights. Article 14 requires the State to recognise the Sami people's right of ownership and possession over the lands which they traditionally occupy and to take measures to safeguard their right to use lands not exclusively occupied by them. Article 15 requires that the Sami people's rights to natural resources pertaining to the lands traditionally occupied by them shall correspond to the rights to natural resources that a landowner generally enjoys under Norwegian Law, and that they shall be assured influence on and participation in decisions reached by the authorities in regard to use of such resources.
Resilience is a well researched phenomenon in the literature. The notion of ‘bouncing back’ has been the predominant feature of definitions of resilience. This paper examines four research studies within four different contexts to understand the concept of resilience within a broader systems view inclusive of the development of individuals and the contexts in which resilience is supported. Based upon four separate qualitative and quantitative research studies (i.e.,adolescents in school, women and domestic violence, children in separated families and students adjusting to university), this paper endeavours to propose a broader understanding of resilience. In acknowledging the context and the developing nature of resilience over the lifespan the authors offer a new definition of resilience as ‘the potential to exhibit resourcefulness by using available internal and external recourses in response to different contextual and developmental challenges’.
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Memory is not about the past
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