Sugarcane is an economically important crop, and the impact of climate change can be manifested much more in all stages like germination, tillering, grand growth, and maturity phases. Cane yield and sucrose content are the two principal traits determining commercial cane yield of sugarcane genotypes. Sucrose accumulation in sugarcane stalks is known as ripening, which is influenced by ambient air temperature and sheath moisture index of sugarcane genotypes. Early ripening genotypes are photosynthetically efficient and complete the vegetative developmental phase much faster than the mid-late cultivars by their synchronized tillering phase and low ratio of acid and neutral invertases. Prolonged lower air temperature during the maturity phase before harvest favors sucrose synthesis in sugarcane genotypes due to decreased concentration of acid invertase enzymes in stalks. The average daily temperature of 12–14 °C would be more desirable for proper ripening. However, a drastic decline in temperature below 8 °C during ripening alters the activities of sucrose synthesizing and hydrolyzing enzymes resulting in a sharp decline in sugar recovery. The impact of changing temperature regimes on sucrose accumulation emphasizes future research initiatives to develop improved models that can record the crop physiological processes that will simulate crop response to predicted changes in climate. Modeling approaches predicted that increased sucrose yield could be achieved when the decrease in stalk dry mass is not more than 10%. Impact assessment using CANEGRO model to study the effect of various combinations of temperature and CO2 projected an enhance in fresh stalk biomass and a decrease in sucrose mass by nearly 10–70% (rainfed) and 6–37% (irrigated) in 2040–2060 compared to 1971–2000 across the agro-climatic areas in India. Therefore, detailed studies are required in the future to demonstrate the causes of changes in the behavior of commercial varieties and the effect of climatic variables on the enzyme balance that regulates vegetative growth and ripening.