APS Proceedings Volume 2 - Work & Educational Innovation
Abstract and Figures
This book is a compilation of articles (Volume 2) produced by the participants who joined the Virtual Innovation Competition 2022 3rd Edition (VIC22).
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Drawing on the nonlinearity and dynamicity of second language (L2) motivation and individual differences, the present study introduced and examined the computer-assisted interactive reading model (CAIRM) incorporating computer-assisted language learning (CALL) tools and affordances to assist reading comprehension in blended and distance learning contexts. The CAIRM aims at incorporating CALL tools and affordances to move L2 readers from strategic (conscious, deliberate, intentional) to automatized (reading without employing conscious strategies) processing to develop L2 reading proficiency. The model arranges emerging digital reading features to facilitate restructuring and checking content comprehension as a way to alter between bottom-up and top-down processing. To investigate CAIRM effectiveness at three levels of implementation, a between-subject design was used in a sample of 278 Iranian learners. Results indicated significant improvement on the measure of reading performance, favoring all three experimental groups (d = 2.34, d = 2.49, and d = 3.82 for bottom-up, top-down, and both processing approaches conditions, respectively). The combination of bottom-up and top-down processing strategies emerged as the most effective level of CAIRM implementation. Results also documented positive perceptions of the proposed model efficacy among participants. This suggests that offering a variety of strategies under the CAIRM—or similar models—teachers can move away from static traditional approaches based on just one particular data processing mode towards more flexible uses of the CALL tools and strategies that fit their unique teaching and their students’ unique learning styles best while supporting positive attitudes towards learning among L2 students in blended and distance learning contexts.
The young generation, born into digital technologies and called Millennials or the Y-Generation, are raised in a world where everybody has a computer in their pockets (Hamari et al., 2014), and they are constantly engaged in digital activities. However, research on the impact of digital devices on learners’ educational performance and motivation is still an emerging field. This article aims to examine perceptions of the sixth-grade students in Turkey of their e-reading experiences on the basis of their personalized/gamified/PDF electronic reading practices in school and the influences of their perceptions on their reading comprehension and levels of motivation in English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom. The study follows a quasi-experimental approach with four treatment groups and a control group, involving 96 sixth-grade state school students in Turkey. The three treatment groups read in order from the personalized/gamified/PDF electronic reading for 5 weeks whereas the control group used printed guided reading program. The results indicate that EFL learners’ use of screen reading has the potential to increase reading motivation of the students. However, no significant difference was observed in their reading comprehension levels despite the use of different reading medium in control and experimental groups.
This study was conducted to examine the roles of reading amount and reading strategy as mediators of the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic reading motivation on reading achievement. A sample of 522 7th–9th graders from two public schools in Eastern China participated in the study and completed the questionnaires. The confirmatory factor analyses showed that Curiosity, Involvement, and Challenge as dimensions of intrinsic reading motivation and Recognition, Grades, and Competition as dimensions of extrinsic reading motivation represented reading motivation well in this Chinese sample population. Structural equation modeling analyses showed that intrinsic reading motivation had a positive direct effect on reading achievement, whereas extrinsic reading motivation exerted a negative direct effect on reading achievement. Both intrinsic and extrinsic reading motivation positively predicted reading strategy; however, only intrinsic reading motivation was positively correlated with reading amount. Neither reading amount nor reading strategy mediated the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic reading motivation on reading achievement. The implications of these findings for literacy research and instruction are discussed.
The purpose of this meta-analytic review was to investigate the relation between motivation and reading achievement among students in kindergarten through 12th grade. A comprehensive search of peer-reviewed published research resulted in 132 articles with 185 independent samples and 1,154 reported effect sizes (Pearson’s r). Results of our random-effects meta-regression model indicate a significant, moderate relation between motivation and reading, r = .22, p < .001. Moderation analyses revealed that the motivation construct being measured influenced the relation between motivation and reading. There were no other significant moderating or interaction effects related to reading domain, sample type, or grade-level. Evidence to support the bidirectional nature of the relation between motivation and reading was provided through longitudinal analyses, with findings suggesting that earlier reading is a stronger predictor of later motivation than motivation is of reading. Taken together, the findings from this meta-analysis provide a better understanding of how motivational processes relate to reading performance, which has important implications for developing effective instructional practices and fostering students’ active engagement in reading. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings for reading development are discussed.
Tenses are one of the vital essentials of grammar. Command over the English language demands a thorough understanding of tenses. Although much research has been conducted on the teaching of the English language in the context of Pakistan, little has been dug out about the problems faced by students regarding the applications of tenses. This paper investigates the perceptions of both students and teachers of the difficulties in the applications of tenses facing ESL learners. Data were collected from 150 students and 30 teachers of government high schools through a structured questionnaire. The results of the study showed that the students are confronted with many difficulties in the application of tenses consisting of using future indefinite tense instead of the simple present tense regarding its use for scheduled future activities, using present continuous tense instead of a simple present for the permanent situation in the present, using future indefinite tense for planned future activities and so on. The results also indicated that the difficulties were caused by inappropriate teaching methodology, lack of speaking environment inside the classroom, translations from the mother tongue into English and vice versa, much focus on rules and teaching sentences and expressions as isolated units rather than an integral part of the discourse. In the light of the results, it is recommended that while teaching tenses, teachers should focus both on rules and applications of tenses. English should be taught more as a language than as a mere body of rules. Moreover, teachers should be properly trained in teaching tenses.
The introduction of digital technologies and the emergence of electronic reading devices have expanded the concept of literacy and shaped how readers consume information from texts, as well as how they perceive and interact with digital materials vs. print materials in academic settings. Several years ago, reading was merely a characteristic of print. However, with today's advances in technology, the vast majority of people are reading blogs, journals, newspapers, and other materials on digital screens. This study reports the findings of a survey on the effects of digital technologies on learning behavior and reading motivation among Moroccan EFL university students. Results showed that the majority of students reported using digital materials for studying, research, and recreational purposes. The majority of students also reported using desktop/laptop computers or smartphones to access digital materials and claimed that they frequently consult PDF documents and Google books for coursework materials. Additional findings suggest that print reading is favored when the reading task includes lengthy texts and demands more learning engagement activities such as highlighting and notetaking; and that digital reading is preferred when the reading task demands less effortful engagement activities, and includes short texts and accessible materials via the Internet at a preferential cost. Students reported that their motivation to read online is driven by the need to keep up with recent information as well as the need to use usability features embedded with e-texts such as the ‘Find' function and built-in annotation tools. A great number of students rated their overall online reading experience as satisfactory or enjoyable. In contrast, students reported that eyestrain, discomfort with online reading, as well as the credibility and quality of texts encountered online are major challenges and barriers to digital reading. Results revealed that students' satisfaction with online reading is positively correlated with the frequency of using digital texts. Additional implications and directions for future research are considered.
It is difficult to overstate the importance of literacy for adequate functioning in society, from educational attainment and employment opportunities to health outcomes. We created a reading app with the goal of helping readers improve their reading skill while reading for meaning and pleasure, and used it to collect unique data on children's extended reading. Analysis of the data reveals the importance of a behavioral factor in understanding observed reading performance.