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Smart Fraction Theory: A Comprehensive Re-evaluation

Authors:
  • Ulster Institute for Social Research

Abstract and Figures

Previous studies have found that the ability of a country’s cognitive elite is generally more predictive than the average ability. However, these studies have relied on sub-optimal methods. Here, the authors tested smart fraction theory, as it is known, using a pre-residualization approach, which obviates the problem of collinearity. For outcome variables, they utilised the 51 indicators of the Social Progress Index, as well as 6 economic variables. Like in previous research, the authors operationalized the ability of the intellectual class as the 95th percentile score. Consistent with smart fraction theory, they found evidence that the ability of the intellectual class does influence outcomes over and above that of the average ability. For the 93 countries with available data, average ability explained 57% of the variation in country performance. Adding the 95th percentile score increased this to 66%. The authors discuss their findings in light of the existing literature.
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󰅺󰎛󰂶󰂶󰆽󰆻󰆽󰆽󰎛󰃊󰎛󰂹󰆼󰆻󰂺󰆼󰆼󰇁󰆾󰃈󰆼󰇀󰇁󰇄󰆼󰆾󰆾󰆻󰄀󰆼󰆻󰆻󰇁󰆾
󰆽󰆼󰃍󰆽󰆻󰆽󰆽󰃎󰇁󰇂󰇂󰄍󰇁󰇄󰇄
COMPARATIVE
SOCIOLOGY
󰂺󰃈
Smart Fraction Theory
A Comprehensive Re-evaluation
Emil O. W. Kirkegaard󰃊󰂹󰆻󰆻󰆻󰆻󰄀󰆻󰆻󰆻󰆼󰄀󰇀󰇁󰆻󰇂󰄀󰆻󰆾󰆽󰆼
󰂶󰂶
emil@emilkirkegaard.dk
Noah Carl󰃊󰂹󰆻󰆻󰆻󰆻󰄀󰆻󰆻󰆻󰆽󰄀󰆿󰆿󰆿󰆽󰄀󰇄󰇄󰆾󰇄
󰂶󰂶
noah_carl3742@hotmail.com
Abstract
󰄘
󰂺󰂶󰄀
󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂶
󰄀󰂶  󰂺󰄀
󰂶5󰆔󰂶󰆙
󰂺󰂶
  󰆜󰆘󰂺  
󰂶         
󰂺󰆜󰆖
󰂶󰆘󰆚󰈱󰂺
󰆜󰆘󰆙󰆙󰈱󰂺
󰂺
Keywords
󰄍󰄍   󰄍󰄍
󰄍
󰇁󰇂󰇃 
󰆽󰆼󰃍󰆽󰆻󰆽󰆽󰃎󰇁󰇂󰇂󰄍󰇁󰇄󰇄
Supplementary Materials
󰂶󰂹󰂺󰂺󰃈󰆜󰆘
1 Introduction
      󰂶     
󰂶 󰂶󰂶󰂺
      󰂶  
󰄘󰃍󰂶󰆔󰆜󰆕󰆓󰃎󰄘
󰂺󰂶󰄀
󰂶󰄀
󰂶󰃍󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆗󰃎󰂺󰄀
   󰃍󰂶 󰆔󰆚󰆚󰆙󰃎󰂶    
󰂶  󰃍  󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆕󰂷
󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆘󰂷󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆕󰆓󰂷󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆛󰃎󰂺

󰂶󰂶󰂶
󰂶     󰂺󰇟
          
󰂶󰆔󰆜󰆜󰆓󰂶
   󰄀    
󰃍󰃎󰃍
󰂶󰆔󰆜󰆜󰆘󰂷󰂶󰆔󰆜󰆜󰆘󰃎󰂺󰃍󰆔󰆜󰆛󰆖󰃎
󰂶Test Scores as Measures of
Human Capital and Forecasting Tools:
󰄍
󰄍󰄀
󰂶
   󰂶        
󰂶󰂺

󰆞 󰃍󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆓󰆗󰃎󰂺
󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆗󰃎󰂶󰂶󰄀
   󰄖󰄘󰂶   󰂺
󰂺
󰇁󰇂󰇄
󰆽󰆼󰃍󰆽󰆻󰆽󰆽󰃎󰇁󰇂󰇂󰄍󰇁󰇄󰇄
 
󰂶󰂺
         
󰄀󰂺󰄀
 󰂶 󰆔󰆜󰆜󰆓󰄍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆓󰂶  
󰂶
󰂺
󰄖󰄘󰂺󰄀
󰂶󰂶󰂶󰂶
󰂶
󰃍󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆖󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆕󰆓󰂷󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆘󰂷󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆔󰂷
󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆓󰆙󰂷󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆓󰆕󰃎󰂺
󰄘
󰂺󰂷
󰂶󰂺
󰂶
󰂺
   󰂺󰃍󰆔󰆜󰆛󰆓󰂶󰂺 󰆔󰆔󰆗󰃎 󰄀
󰂹
 
 󰄀
󰂺󰄘

󰂺󰂶󰄀
󰂶
 󰂶  󰂶  󰂶 󰄀
󰂶󰂶
󰄘   󰂶 󰂶   󰂶 
󰂶
󰂶
   󰂶󰂶 󰂶 
󰂺
󰂶󰃍󰆔󰆜󰆔󰆙󰃎󰂹
     
󰄀󰂺
󰂶󰂶     
󰇁󰇃󰆻 
󰆽󰆼󰃍󰆽󰆻󰆽󰆽󰃎󰇁󰇂󰇂󰄍󰇁󰇄󰇄
󰂺       
󰂶󰂶󰂶
󰂶󰂺󰂶󰂶
󰂺
󰃍󰆔󰆜󰆚󰆓󰃎󰂹
󰂶  

󰂺󰄀
󰂶󰂶

󰂺
󰃍󰃎󰄘󰄀

󰂶
󰃍󰂺󰂺󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆓󰆖󰂷󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆓󰆗󰃎󰂺󰂶
󰂶󰂶
󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆓󰆕
The Smart Fraction Theory of  and the Wealth of Nations 󰃍󰂶
󰆕󰆓󰆓󰆕󰃎󰂺󰃍󰃎
󰂶󰂺
󰂶
󰃍󰂶
󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆕󰂷󰂺󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆓󰆜󰃎󰂺
󰂶
󰂺󰄀
󰄀
or󰆜󰆘󰂶󰂺

󰂶󰂺󰆜󰂺
󰂶󰆔󰆕󰆓󰂶
󰂶󰂶󰂺󰆓󰆘
󰂺
󰂶󰂺
󰂶󰂺
󰂶
  󰃍󰂶 󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆚󰂷 󰂶  󰂶 󰂶  󰂺󰂶 󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆚󰂷
󰂶󰂶󰂶󰂺󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆚󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆚󰂷󰂶󰂶󰂶󰂺󰂶
󰇁󰇃󰆼
󰆽󰆼󰃍󰆽󰆻󰆽󰆽󰃎󰇁󰇂󰇂󰄍󰇁󰇄󰇄
󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆛󰂷󰂶󰂶󰂶󰂺󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆛󰂷󰂺󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆙󰂷󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆕󰂶
󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆛󰂷󰂺󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆓󰆜󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆓󰆜󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆔󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆘󰂷󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆛󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆕󰆓󰂷
󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆔󰃎󰂺󰂶󰂶
󰆜󰆘
󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆔󰃎󰂺 󰂹 󰄀
󰄍󰂺󰆖󰆜󰃍󰃎󰂺
󰂶󰄀󰂹󰂶󰄀
󰂷
󰂶       
󰂺
2 Data
Cognitive ability.      󰄘  Cognitive
Capitalism󰂶          
󰂶 󰂶 󰂶 󰂺󰂶  
󰆘󰂶󰆘󰆓󰃈󰂶󰆜󰆘󰂺󰂶
 󰄀
󰂺󰆜󰆜󰂺
󰄘󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆕󰂺
  󰃍  󰂺󰂶 󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆓󰂶󰃎󰂶   
󰃍󰂶
󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆜󰂷󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆜󰃎󰂺󰃍󰃎󰄀
󰂺󰂺󰂺󰂶
󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆕󰂶󰂺
 
󰂶󰄀󰂺󰇠󰂶
  󰆜󰆘      󰂶   
󰂺
󰆜󰆘󰂶
󰂺  󰃍󰃎
󰂶󰂺

󰆟 󰃈󰄀
    󰃍  󰂺󰂶 󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆖󰃎󰂶     
󰂶󰄀
󰂺󰂶󰆕󰂶
󰂶󰆜󰆘󰂺
󰇁󰇃󰆽 
󰆽󰆼󰃍󰆽󰆻󰆽󰆽󰃎󰇁󰇂󰇂󰄍󰇁󰇄󰇄
󰂺󰂶
󰈺󰆘󰆓󰆓󰂶󰆘󰃈󰆜󰆘󰆚󰆓󰈱
󰆘󰆓󰂺󰆔󰄍b
󰂺
󰆼󰄍 󰂺
󰄘Cognitive Capitalism󰂺󰂶
󰆜󰆘󰃍
󰃎󰂺
󰂺
󰇁󰇃󰆾
󰆽󰆼󰃍󰆽󰆻󰆽󰆽󰃎󰇁󰇂󰇂󰄍󰇁󰇄󰇄
     
󰄖󰄘󰂶󰃍
󰆖󰂺󰆙󰆚󰃎󰂺󰄖󰄘󰂶
󰂶
󰃍󰄖󰄘󰃎󰂺󰂶
     󰃍󰂶 󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆙󰃎󰂺  󰂶 

󰃍󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆙󰃎󰂺󰂶
󰂺󰂶󰃍󰆔󰂺󰆖󰆗󰃎󰂶
󰂺
󰂹    󰂶  
󰂺󰄀
󰂶󰄀
󰂶
 󰂺󰆕
󰂺
   󰂶       
     󰆜󰆘    󰂺  
󰆽 󰂶
󰂺
󰇁󰇃󰆿 
󰆽󰆼󰃍󰆽󰆻󰆽󰆽󰃎󰇁󰇂󰇂󰄍󰇁󰇄󰇄
󰂶 󰂶
󰂺󰂶
   󰄀
󰂺󰂶
󰄘󰃍󰄀
󰃎󰂶󰂺

󰂺󰄖󰄘󰂶󰄀
󰆘󰂺󰂶
󰂺
       󰂺 
󰆔󰂶󰆜󰆘󰂶󰆘󰄀
󰂶󰂺󰆔
󰄖󰄘󰂶  󰄀
󰄖󰄘󰂺󰆕󰄀
󰂺
National Performance󰂺        
󰃍󰂶󰂺󰂺󰃎󰂺
󰃍󰃎󰂶󰃍󰂹󰃈󰃈
󰂺󰂺󰃈󰃈󰃈󰄀󰄀󰄀󰃎󰂺    
 󰆖  󰃍   󰂶    󰃈
󰂶󰃍󰃎󰃎󰂺󰂶
󰆘󰆔󰃍󰂺󰂺󰄀
󰂶󰂶󰂶󰂶󰂶󰃎󰂺
󰂶󰂺
󰂺󰄀
󰂶
󰂶      󰃍󰆔󰆜󰆜󰆓󰄍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆜󰃎󰂺
󰃍󰂹󰃈󰃈󰂺󰂺󰃈󰃈
󰂺󰂺󰂺󰂺󰂶󰎛󰂹󰃈󰃈󰂺󰂺󰃈󰃈󰂺󰂺
󰂺󰂺󰃎󰂺         
󰃍󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆖󰃎󰂺
󰃍󰆔󰆓󰃎󰂶󰂺
󰆔󰆓
󰃍󰈺󰆔󰆚󰆖󰃎󰂶 󰂺󰇡
󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆛 󰃍󰂹󰃈󰃈
󰂺󰂺󰃈󰃈󰃈󰃎󰂺
󰆠 󰃍󰂺󰂶
󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆘󰃎󰂺
󰇁󰇃󰇀
󰆽󰆼󰃍󰆽󰆻󰆽󰆽󰃎󰇁󰇂󰇂󰄍󰇁󰇄󰇄
󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆗󰃎󰂶 
󰂺
    󰆗󰆜󰈱   󰂺  󰆖    
󰂺     󰂶  󰄀
󰂺󰄘
       󰂶   󰄀
          󰂺 󰂶 
󰂺󰆜󰆜󰆚󰂶󰂺󰂶
󰂶
󰃍󰃎󰂺
Spatial Data󰂺   
󰂺󰂺󰃈󰃈󰅨󰂺󰂺󰎛󰎛󰄘
󰂶 
          
󰂺󰂶
󰄀󰂶󰃍󰄀
󰃎󰂺
󰂶
󰃍󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆙󰃎󰂺󰂶
󰂺
󰂶󰂺
󰂺
󰆗󰂺󰆕󰂺󰆓󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆕󰆕󰄍󰆓󰆗󰄍󰆓󰆕󰃎󰂺
󰂺󰂺󰃈󰆜󰆘󰂺
󰂺󰂺󰃈󰃈󰅨󰅨󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆜󰂺
󰆾 󰂺
󰇁󰇃󰇁 
󰆽󰆼󰃍󰆽󰆻󰆽󰆽󰃎󰇁󰇂󰇂󰄍󰇁󰇄󰇄
3 Results
3.1 Correlation Distributions
    󰂶       
      
󰂶󰂺󰂶
󰂺󰂶
 󰂺󰂶 
󰃍󰆘󰂶 󰆜󰆘  󰃎  󰆘󰆔
󰂺󰄀
󰂺󰂶
   󰂶     
󰂺󰆔󰂺
󰂶
󰆜󰆘󰂶󰂺󰄀
󰃍󰈽󰂺󰆓󰆓󰆓󰆔󰃎󰂺󰂶
󰂶󰃍󰄀
󰂺󰆓󰆕󰆖󰃎󰂺
󰂶󰂺
3.2 General Factor of the Social Progress Index
󰂶
󰂹 󰂷󰄀
󰆜󰆘󰂷󰄀
󰆘󰂷󰂺
󰂶
󰂺󰆕󰂺
󰆼 󰆘󰆔
󰂶󰂺󰈺
󰂺
Mean Median   Min Max
 󰆝󰂺󰆡󰆥 󰆝󰂺󰆢󰆞 󰆝󰂺󰆟󰆟 󰆝󰂺󰆟󰆠 󰆝󰂺󰆝󰆞 󰆝󰂺󰆥󰆣
󰆦󰆢 󰆝󰂺󰆢󰆞 󰆝󰂺󰆢󰆠 󰆝󰂺󰆟󰆝 󰆝󰂺󰆞󰆦 󰆝󰂺󰆝󰆟 󰆝󰂺󰆥󰆤
󰆦󰆢󰂺 󰆝󰂺󰆞󰆝 󰆝󰂺󰆞󰆞 󰆝󰂺󰆞󰆣 󰆝󰂺󰆞󰆥 󰄍󰆝󰂺󰆠󰆢 󰆝󰂺󰆡󰆝
󰆢 󰆝󰂺󰆡󰆣 󰆝󰂺󰆢󰆝 󰆝󰂺󰆟󰆟 󰆝󰂺󰆟󰆟 󰆝󰂺󰆝󰆝 󰆝󰂺󰆥󰆢
󰆢󰂺 󰄍󰆝󰂺󰆝󰆣 󰄍󰆝󰂺󰆝󰆥 󰆝󰂺󰆞󰆞 󰆝󰂺󰆞󰆟 󰄍󰆝󰂺󰆟󰆢 󰆝󰂺󰆟󰆡
󰇁󰇃󰇂
󰆽󰆼󰃍󰆽󰆻󰆽󰆽󰃎󰇁󰇂󰇂󰄍󰇁󰇄󰇄
 󰂺  󰂶󰆕 
󰂺󰄘
󰂹   󰂶󰇢 
󰆜󰆘󰆙󰆓󰄍󰆚󰆓󰈱󰂷󰆘
󰈽󰂺󰆓󰆔󰂺󰂶󰂶
󰆜󰆘󰂶
󰂺󰂶󰆕
󰂺
󰂶󰂹
󰂶󰄀
 󰂺       
󰂶󰆜󰆘󰃍p󰈽󰆓󰂺󰆓󰆓󰆔󰃎󰂶
󰆡 󰂹󰄖󰄘󰂶󰄖󰄘󰂶󰄖󰄘󰂺
󰆽 󰂺
󰂺󰂶󰂺
󰆞 󰆟 󰆠 󰆡
Regression residualization
 󰆝󰂺󰆤󰆤󰃍󰆝󰂺󰆝󰆣󰆦󰃻󰃻󰃻󰃎 󰆝󰂺󰆥󰆝󰃍󰆝󰂺󰆝󰆣󰆟󰃻󰃻󰃻󰃎 󰆝󰂺󰆤󰆥󰃍󰆝󰂺󰆝󰆣󰆤󰃻󰃻󰃻󰃎 󰆝󰂺󰆥󰆝󰃍󰆝󰂺󰆝󰆣󰆟󰃻󰃻󰃻󰃎
󰆦󰆢
󰂺
󰆝󰂺󰆟󰆦󰃍󰆝󰂺󰆝󰆣󰆝󰃻󰃻󰃻󰃎 󰆝󰂺󰆠󰆢󰃍󰆝󰂺󰆝󰆥󰆡󰃻󰃻󰃻󰃎
󰆢
󰂺
󰄍󰆝󰂺󰆟󰆝󰃍󰆝󰂺󰆝󰆥󰆞󰃎 󰆝󰂺󰆞󰆝󰃍󰆝󰂺󰆞󰆝󰆣󰃎
󰆟󰂺 󰆝󰂺󰆢󰆤󰆞 󰆝󰂺󰆣󰆢󰆣 󰆝󰂺󰆢󰆦󰆢 󰆝󰂺󰆣󰆢󰆣
󰆦󰆠 󰆦󰆠 󰆦󰆠 󰆦󰆠
Direct residualization
 󰆝󰂺󰆤󰆤󰃍󰆝󰂺󰆝󰆣󰆦󰃻󰃻󰃻󰃎 󰆞󰂺󰆝󰆣󰃍󰆝󰂺󰆝󰆥󰆤󰃻󰃻󰃻󰃎 󰆝󰂺󰆤󰆡󰃍󰆝󰂺󰆝󰆣󰆥󰃻󰃻󰃻󰃎 󰆞󰂺󰆞󰆠󰃍󰆝󰂺󰆞󰆞󰆠󰃻󰃻󰃻󰃎
󰆦󰆢
󰂺
󰆝󰂺󰆠󰆦󰃍󰆝󰂺󰆝󰆥󰆝󰃻󰃻󰃻󰃎 󰆝󰂺󰆡󰆣󰃍󰆝󰂺󰆞󰆞󰆠󰃻󰃻󰃻󰃎
󰆢
󰂺
󰄍󰆝󰂺󰆟󰆞󰃍󰆝󰂺󰆝󰆥󰆠󰃎 󰆝󰂺󰆞󰆝󰃍󰆝󰂺󰆞󰆝󰆥󰃎
󰆟󰂺 󰆝󰂺󰆢󰆤󰆞 󰆝󰂺󰆣󰆢󰆣 󰆝󰂺󰆢󰆦󰆢 󰆝󰂺󰆣󰆢󰆣
󰆦󰆠 󰆦󰆠 󰆦󰆠 󰆦󰆠
󰃻󰈺󰈽󰂺󰆓󰆔󰂶󰃻󰃻󰈺󰈽󰂺󰆓󰆓󰆘󰂶󰃻󰃻󰃻󰈺󰈽󰂺󰆓󰆓󰆔
󰇁󰇃󰇃 
󰆽󰆼󰃍󰆽󰆻󰆽󰆽󰃎󰇁󰇂󰇂󰄍󰇁󰇄󰇄
 󰆘    󰃍󰆔 󰂺󰆖  
p󰂺󰆓󰆕󰂶󰆕󰂺󰆗p󰈾󰂺󰆖󰆓󰃎󰂺
󰂶without
󰂺󰆕󰂺
󰆜󰆘
󰂶󰂺󰄀
󰂺
3.3 Indicators of the Social Progress Index
󰂶󰄀󰂺
󰂶 󰂺
󰆕󰂶
󰂺󰂶
󰆕 󰂶   
󰈽󰂺󰆓󰆔󰂺󰆖󰂺
󰆕󰆜󰆘󰄀
  󰆘    󰃍 p󰈽 󰆓󰂺󰆓󰆓󰆔󰃎󰂶
󰆜󰆘󰂺󰄀
󰂺󰂶󰆜󰆘
󰈽󰂺󰆓󰆔󰆖󰆜󰈱󰂶󰆛󰈱
󰆘󰂶󰆙󰈱󰆘
 󰆜󰆘 󰂺󰂶   
󰆜󰆘󰂺
󰃍󰆖
󰃎󰂺
󰆾 󰂺󰂺
󰆔󰈺󰂷󰆕󰈺󰈴󰆜󰆘󰂷󰆖󰈺󰈴
󰆘󰂷󰆗󰈺󰈴󰆘󰈴󰆜󰆘󰂺
󰆞 󰆟 󰆠 󰆡
󰆟 󰆝󰂺󰆟󰆤󰆟 󰆝󰂺󰆠󰆞󰆠 󰆝󰂺󰆟󰆥󰆢 󰆝󰂺󰆠󰆞󰆣
 󰈱󰈽󰂺󰆝󰆞󰂺
󰆞
󰈱󰈽󰂺󰆝󰆞󰂺
󰆞
󰈱󰈽󰂺󰆝󰆞󰂺
󰆟
 󰆠󰆦󰂺󰆟󰈱 󰆤󰂺󰆥󰈱 󰆢󰂺󰆦󰈱
󰇁󰇃󰇄
󰆽󰆼󰃍󰆽󰆻󰆽󰆽󰃎󰇁󰇂󰇂󰄍󰇁󰇄󰇄
3.4 Economic Outcomes
󰆜󰆘󰄘
󰂶󰆙 
󰂺
󰂺󰆗󰂺
 󰂶         
󰂺
3.5 Other Outcomes
󰂺
󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆜󰃎 
󰄀
󰂺  󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆔󰃎  󰄀
       󰃍󰃎󰂺 󰂶
󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆛󰃎     󰂶
󰄀
󰂺󰃍󰄀
󰂶
󰂶󰂶󰂺󰃎
󰂶󰂶
󰆜󰆘󰂺󰆘  󰂺
󰂶󰈽󰆓󰂺󰆓󰆔󰈽󰆓󰂺󰆓󰆘󰂺󰂶󰄘
󰂶
󰂺󰆜󰆘
󰆔󰈱   󰂺
󰂺
󰆿 󰂺󰆔󰈺
󰂷󰆕󰈺󰈴󰆜󰆘󰂷󰆖󰈺󰈴󰆘
󰂷󰆗󰈺󰈴󰆘󰈴󰆜󰆘󰂺
󰆞 󰆟 󰆠 󰆡
󰆟 󰆝󰂺󰆠󰆤󰆝 󰆝󰂺󰆡󰆡󰆝 󰆝󰂺󰆠󰆦󰆡 󰆝󰂺󰆡󰆠󰆡
 󰈱󰈽󰂺󰆝󰆞󰂺
󰆞
󰈱󰈽󰂺󰆝󰆞󰂺
󰆞
󰈱󰈽󰂺󰆝󰆞󰂺
󰆟
 󰆥󰆠󰂺󰆠󰈱 󰆞󰆣󰂺󰆤󰈱 󰆝󰂺󰆝󰈱
󰇁󰇄󰆻 
󰆽󰆼󰃍󰆽󰆻󰆽󰆽󰃎󰇁󰇂󰇂󰄍󰇁󰇄󰇄
3.6 Spatial Analyses
󰄀
󰃍
    󰂷 󰂶 󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆔󰂷 󰂶 󰆕󰆓󰆓󰆗󰂷 󰂶 󰆕󰆓󰆓󰆛󰂷
󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆔󰃎󰂺󰂶
󰂺
   󰄀
󰂹󰂶
 󰂺   󰄘 󰂶 
󰄘󰄀󰂶󰄘󰂺󰂶
󰂺󰄀
󰈺󰂺󰆙󰆔󰂺󰆗
󰂺
󰇀 󰂺
󰂺󰂶󰂺
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 󰆝󰂺󰆥󰆞
󰃍󰆝󰂺󰆝󰆤󰆞󰃻󰃻󰃻󰃎
󰆝󰂺󰆡󰆥
󰃍󰆝󰂺󰆞󰆝󰆣󰃻󰃻󰃻󰃎
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󰆝󰂺󰆣󰆞
󰃍󰆝󰂺󰆝󰆤󰆤󰃻󰃻󰃻󰃎
󰆟 󰆝󰂺󰆢󰆤󰆡 󰆝󰂺󰆞󰆦󰆝 󰆝󰂺󰆟󰆥󰆢 󰆝󰂺󰆟󰆟󰆤 󰆝󰂺󰆠󰆢󰆦 󰆝󰂺󰆠󰆦󰆠
󰅵
 󰆝󰂺󰆥󰆠
󰃍󰆝󰂺󰆝󰆤󰆝󰃻󰃻󰃻󰃎
󰆝󰂺󰆡󰆦
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󰆝󰂺󰆣󰆥
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󰆦󰆢
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󰆝󰂺󰆠󰆦
󰃍󰆝󰂺󰆝󰆣󰆠󰃻󰃻󰃻󰃎
󰆟 󰆝󰂺󰆢󰆦󰆝 󰆝󰂺󰆞󰆦󰆞 󰆝󰂺󰆡󰆟󰆟 󰆝󰂺󰆠󰆝󰆤 󰆝󰂺󰆢󰆟󰆞 󰆝󰂺󰆢󰆣󰆠


󰆝󰂺󰆝󰆟󰆦󰆡 󰆝󰂺󰆟󰆥󰆥 󰆝󰂺󰆝󰆝󰆠󰆡󰆦 󰈽󰆝󰂺󰆝󰆝󰆞 󰈽󰆝󰂺󰆝󰆝󰆞 󰈽󰆝󰂺󰆝󰆝󰆞
󰃻󰈺󰈽󰂺󰆓󰆔󰂶󰃻󰃻󰈺󰈽󰂺󰆓󰆓󰆘󰂶󰃻󰃻󰃻󰈺󰈽󰂺󰆓󰆓󰆔
󰇁󰇄󰆼
󰆽󰆼󰃍󰆽󰆻󰆽󰆽󰃎󰇁󰇂󰇂󰄍󰇁󰇄󰇄
  󰂶󰄀    
     󰂺      
󰂺󰂶
󰆜󰆘󰆘󰆕
󰂺󰄀
󰂺󰆖󰆜󰈱
󰃍󰈽󰂺󰆓󰆔󰃎󰆜󰆘󰄀
󰂶󰆛󰈱󰆘󰂶󰄀󰆕󰈱
󰆘󰆜󰆘󰂺
󰂶󰆙󰂺
  󰆕         
󰃍󰂺󰆕󰃎󰂶󰄘󰆕󰆘󰈱󰂶
   󰄀
󰂺 󰂶       󰆜󰆘  󰄀
     󰂶      
󰃍󰈽󰂺󰆓󰆓󰆔󰃎󰂺
󰆿 󰃍󰃎󰂺
󰆖󰂺
󰇁󰇄󰆽 
󰆽󰆼󰃍󰆽󰆻󰆽󰆽󰃎󰇁󰇂󰇂󰄍󰇁󰇄󰇄
4 Discussion
 󰃍󰃈
󰂶󰄖󰄘󰂶󰄖󰄘󰂶󰃎󰄀
     󰃍 
󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆘󰂷󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆓󰆙󰂷󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆛󰃎󰂶󰄀
󰃍󰂺󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆛󰂷󰂺󰂶
󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆘󰂷󰂺󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆜󰂷󰂺󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆓󰆕󰃎󰂺
 󰄘  
󰂶󰄀󰂺
󰂶󰄀
󰃍󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆓󰆕󰂷󰂺󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆓󰆜󰃎󰂺

󰄀󰂶
󰂶󰂶󰂺
󰂶󰂶
 󰆙󰆓󰂶󰂺
   󰂶   󰄀
󰄀
󰂺
󰂺
󰇁 󰂺󰂺
󰂺󰂶
󰂺
󰆞 󰆟 󰆠 󰆡
 󰆝󰂺󰆠󰆠󰃍󰆝󰂺󰆝󰆤󰆣󰃻󰃻󰃻󰃎 󰆝󰂺󰆠󰆞󰃍󰆝󰂺󰆝󰆣󰆤󰃻󰃻󰃻󰃎 󰆝󰂺󰆠󰆞󰃍󰆝󰂺󰆝󰆤󰆢󰃻󰃻󰃻󰃎 󰆝󰂺󰆠󰆟󰃍󰆝󰂺󰆝󰆣󰆤󰃻󰃻󰃻󰃎
 󰆝󰂺󰆢󰆤󰃍󰆝󰂺󰆝󰆤󰆥󰃻󰃻󰃻󰃎 󰆝󰂺󰆣󰆟󰃍󰆝󰂺󰆝󰆣󰆦󰃻󰃻󰃻󰃎 󰆝󰂺󰆣󰆝󰃍󰆝󰂺󰆝󰆤󰆤󰃻󰃻󰃻󰃎 󰆝󰂺󰆣󰆞󰃍󰆝󰂺󰆝󰆣󰆦󰃻󰃻󰃻󰃎
󰆦󰆢
󰂺
󰆝󰂺󰆟󰆥󰃍󰆝󰂺󰆝󰆢󰆡󰃻󰃻󰃻󰃎 󰆝󰂺󰆠󰆤󰃍󰆝󰂺󰆝󰆤󰆢󰃻󰃻󰃻󰃎
󰆢
󰂺
󰄀󰆝󰂺󰆞󰆤󰃍󰆝󰂺󰆝󰆤󰆣󰃎 󰆝󰂺󰆞󰆣󰃍󰆝󰂺󰆝󰆦󰆣󰃎
󰆟󰂺 󰆝󰂺󰆣󰆡󰆞 󰆝󰂺󰆤󰆞󰆦 󰆝󰂺󰆣󰆢󰆢 󰆝󰂺󰆤󰆟󰆢
󰆦󰆠 󰆦󰆠 󰆦󰆠 󰆦󰆠
󰃻󰈺󰈽󰂺󰆓󰆔󰂶󰃻󰃻󰈺󰈽󰂺󰆓󰆓󰆘󰂶󰃻󰃻󰃻󰈺󰈽󰂺󰆓󰆓󰆔
󰇁󰇄󰆾
󰆽󰆼󰃍󰆽󰆻󰆽󰆽󰃎󰇁󰇂󰇂󰄍󰇁󰇄󰇄
󰂶       󰂺 
󰂺󰆜󰆛
󰂺    
    󰂺
󰂶󰄀
󰂶󰂺󰂺󰂶
󰂺󰄘󰆜󰆘
󰂺
 
󰂺
       
  󰂶  

󰃍󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆓󰆛󰃎󰂺
󰆘󰆜󰆘󰃍
󰆘󰃎󰂺
 󰃍󰂺 󰆕󰃎󰂶     
󰂺󰃍󰄀
󰃎
󰂶󰆖󰆓󰄍󰆗󰆓󰈱
󰂺
         
       elite    
󰂺󰂶
󰂶
 󰃍󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆕󰆕󰃎󰂺󰂶󰂶
󰂶󰂺
  󰂶 
󰂺
Limitations.󰂶
    󰄀
󰂺
󰃍󰂶󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆙󰃎󰂶  󰂺󰂶   
      
󰂶󰂺󰆘
󰆜󰆘    󰃍󰂺󰂺󰂶󰃎
   󰂶    
󰂶
󰂺
󰂺
󰇁󰇄󰆿 
󰆽󰆼󰃍󰆽󰆻󰆽󰆽󰃎󰇁󰇂󰇂󰄍󰇁󰇄󰇄
󰂶  󰄀   󰄘 Cognitive Capitalism
󰆔󰆓󰆓󰂺󰄀
 
󰃍󰂺󰃎󰂺󰄀󰄀
󰂺   󰂶
󰂺
  
󰂺󰂶󰄘󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆕󰂶󰄀
󰆔󰆜󰆘󰄀󰂶󰆜󰆚󰆜󰆜
󰄘󰂺
󰂶
      󰂺    󰆔󰆓󰂺󰆜   󰆛󰂺󰆓󰆘󰂶
󰂶   󰆓󰂺󰆚󰆗󰂺    󰄀
󰃍󰃎󰂶󰆔󰆓󰂺󰆙󰆕󰆘󰂺󰂶
    󰂺 󰂶  
󰄀
   󰂺          󰆕󰂶
           
 󰂺  
󰂶󰆜󰆘
󰂺
󰂶      󰆜󰆘    
     󰂶    
       󰂺 󰂶 󰂹 
󰂺

󰂶󰂺
󰂶󰄀󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆛󰃎
󰂶󰂺󰂶󰄀
󰆔A󰄍other󰄀
󰂶󰂺
󰂺
 󰄀
󰄀
󰂺
󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆓󰆙󰃎󰂶
󰂺
󰂶
󰄀󰄀󰂺
󰇁󰇄󰇀
󰆽󰆼󰃍󰆽󰆻󰆽󰆽󰃎󰇁󰇂󰇂󰄍󰇁󰇄󰇄

󰂶󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰂺󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆕󰃎󰂺Why nations fail: The origins of power, prosperity
and poverty󰃍󰆔󰃎󰂺󰂺
󰂶󰂺󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆚󰃎󰂺 󰄀     
󰂺International Journal of Educational Development󰂶53󰂶󰆔󰆕󰆛󰄍󰆔󰆖󰆙󰂺󰂺󰂺
󰃈󰆔󰆓󰂺󰆔󰆓󰆔󰆙󰃈󰂺󰂺󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆚󰂺󰆓󰆔󰂺󰆓󰆓󰆖󰂺
󰂶󰂺󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰂺󰂶󰂶 󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺 󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰂶
󰂶󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰂶
󰂶󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰂺󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆛󰃎󰂺󰄀󰄀
󰂺Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences󰂶115󰃍󰆖󰆔󰃎󰂶󰆚󰆕󰆚󰆘󰄍
󰆚󰆕󰆛󰆗󰂺󰂺󰂺󰃈󰆔󰆓󰂺󰆔󰆓󰆚󰆖󰃈󰂺󰆔󰆛󰆓󰆔󰆕󰆖󰆛󰆔󰆔󰆘󰂺
󰂶󰂺󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆙󰃎󰂺󰂿 World of Labor󰂺󰂺
󰂺󰃈󰆔󰆓󰂺󰆔󰆘󰆔󰆛󰆘󰃈󰂺󰆕󰆖󰆕󰂺
󰂶󰂺󰂺󰂺󰂶󰂶 󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰂺󰂶  󰂶󰂺󰂺󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆚󰃎󰂺
󰂶󰂹
󰄀󰂿 Paper󰃍󰂺󰆚󰆚󰆗󰆙󰆜󰂷󰃎󰂺
󰂶󰂺󰂹󰃈󰃈󰂺󰂺󰃈󰃈󰃈󰃈󰆚󰆚󰆗󰆙󰆜󰂺󰂺
󰂶󰂺󰂺󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰂺󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆚󰃎󰂺Intelligence
and the Ease of Doing Business: Does Intellectual Class Facilitate Leadership and
Entrepreneurship?󰃕󰃖󰂺󰂶󰂺󰂹󰃈󰃈
󰂺󰂺󰃈󰃈󰃈󰆚󰆚󰆘󰆓󰆖󰂺󰂺
󰂶󰂺󰂺󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰂺󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆚󰃎󰂺
󰄖󰄘󰄀
󰂺Intelligence󰂺󰂺󰂺󰃈󰆔󰆓󰂺󰆔󰆓󰆔󰆙󰃈󰂺󰂺󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆚󰂺󰆓󰆜󰂺󰆓󰆓󰆚󰂺
󰂶󰂺 󰂺󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰂺󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆛󰃎󰂺
󰂶󰂹
   󰂺 Journal of Interdisciplinary Economics󰂶 30󰃍󰆕󰃎󰂶
󰆔󰆗󰆛󰄍󰆔󰆙󰆖󰂺󰂺󰂺󰃈󰆔󰆓󰂺󰆔󰆔󰆚󰆚󰃈󰆓󰆕󰆙󰆓󰆔󰆓󰆚󰆜󰆔󰆛󰆚󰆙󰆔󰆜󰆕󰆖󰂺
󰂶󰂺 󰂺 󰂺󰂶 󰂶 󰂺 󰂺󰂶 󰂶 󰂺 󰂺 󰂺󰂶 󰂶 󰂺 󰂺󰂶 󰂶 󰂺 󰂺 󰂺󰂶 
󰂶󰂺󰂺󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆛󰃎󰂺󰂹
    󰂿 Mankind Quarterly󰂶 59󰃍󰆔󰃎󰂶 󰆘󰆚󰄍󰆛󰆙󰂺 󰂺
󰂺󰃈󰆔󰆓󰂺󰆗󰆙󰆗󰆙󰆜󰃈󰂺󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆛󰂺󰆘󰆜󰂺󰆔󰂺󰆘󰂺
󰂶󰂺󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆔󰃎󰂺 󰄘󰂹
        󰂺
󰂺󰂺󰂺󰃍󰂺󰃎󰂶Geospatial Analysis of Environmental Health
󰃍󰂺󰆖󰆖󰆚󰄍󰆖󰆘󰆙󰃎󰂺󰂺󰂺󰂺󰃈󰆔󰆓󰂺󰆔󰆓󰆓󰆚󰃈󰆜󰆚󰆛󰄀󰆜󰆗󰄀󰆓󰆓󰆚󰄀󰆓󰆖󰆕󰆜󰄀󰆕󰅨󰆔󰆚󰂺
󰂶󰂺󰂺󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆖󰃎󰂺󰂹󰂿
Intelligence󰂶41󰃍󰆘󰃎󰂶󰆙󰆛󰆛󰄍󰆙󰆜󰆛󰂺󰂺󰂺󰃈󰆔󰆓󰂺󰆔󰆓󰆔󰆙󰃈󰂺󰂺󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆖󰂺󰆓󰆚󰂺󰆓󰆕󰆓󰂺
󰇁󰇄󰇁 
󰆽󰆼󰃍󰆽󰆻󰆽󰆽󰃎󰇁󰇂󰇂󰄍󰇁󰇄󰇄
󰂶󰂺󰂺󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆕󰆓󰃎󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂹
󰂺Mankind Quarterly󰂶60󰃍󰆗󰃎󰂺
󰂺󰂺󰃈󰃈󰃈󰆙󰆓󰄀󰆗󰃈󰆕󰂺
󰂶󰂺 󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰂶 󰂶󰂺󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆙󰃎󰂺 󰂹
 
󰂺 Psychological Reports󰂶 119󰃍󰆕󰃎󰂶 󰆗󰆔󰆔󰄍󰆗󰆕󰆚󰂺 󰂺󰂺󰃈󰆔󰆓󰂺󰆔󰆔󰆚󰆚󰃈󰆓󰆓󰆖󰆖󰆕󰆜󰆗󰆔󰆔
󰆙󰆙󰆘󰆜󰆛󰆘󰆗󰂺
󰂶󰂺 󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆙󰃎󰂺     󰂺
Entity󰂺󰂺󰂺󰃈󰄀󰄀󰄀󰄀󰂺
󰂶 󰂺 󰂺󰂶 󰂶 󰂺 󰂺󰂶 󰂶 󰂺󰂶 󰂶 󰂺 󰂺󰂶  󰂶 󰂺 󰂺 󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆘󰃎󰂺
    󰂺  Open󰂶 1󰃍󰆖󰃎󰂶 󰆕󰆖󰆖󰆕󰆛󰆘󰆛󰆗󰆔󰆘󰆘󰆜
󰆜󰆜󰆚󰆕󰂺󰂺󰂺󰃈󰆔󰆓󰂺󰆔󰆔󰆚󰆚󰃈󰆕󰆖󰆖󰆕󰆛󰆘󰆛󰆗󰆔󰆘󰆘󰆜󰆜󰆜󰆚󰆕󰂺
󰂶󰂺󰂺󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆓󰆗󰃎󰂺󰂺󰂿
󰄀 󰂺 World Cultures󰂺 󰂹󰃈󰃈󰂺󰂺󰃈󰃈
󰃈󰆕󰆓󰆓󰆔󰂺󰂺
󰂶󰂺󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆖󰃎󰂺
󰂺Journal of Methods and Measure-
ment in the Social Sciences󰂶4󰃍󰆔󰃎󰂶󰆔󰄍󰆔󰆜󰂺
󰂶 󰂺󰂶  󰂶 󰂺 󰂺 󰂺 󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆙󰃎󰂺    󰂹  
󰂺Mankind Quarterly󰂺
󰂶 󰂺 󰂺 󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆓󰆛󰃎󰂺    󰂺 Intelligence󰂶 36󰃍󰆙󰃎󰂶 󰆗󰆜󰆘󰄍󰆘󰆓󰆔󰂺 󰂺
󰂺󰃈󰆔󰆓󰂺󰆔󰆓󰆔󰆙󰃈󰂺󰂺󰆕󰆓󰆓󰆛󰂺󰆓󰆔󰂺󰆓󰆓󰆗󰂺
󰂶󰂺󰂺󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆓󰆗󰃎󰂺󰂹󰄘󰄙
󰄛      󰂿 Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology󰂶86󰃍󰆔󰃎󰂶󰆔󰆚󰆗󰄍󰆔󰆜󰆜󰂺󰂺󰂺󰃈󰆔󰆓󰂺󰆔󰆓󰆖󰆚󰃈󰆓󰆓󰆕󰆕󰄍󰆖󰆘󰆔󰆗󰂺󰆛󰆙󰂺󰆔󰂺󰆔󰆚󰆗󰂺
󰂶󰂺󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰃍󰆔󰆜󰆜󰆘󰃎󰂺Schooling, labor force quality, and economic growth󰂺
󰂺
󰂶󰂺󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆘󰃎󰂺The knowledge capital of nations: Education
and the economics of growth󰂺󰂺
󰂶󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺 󰂺󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆔󰃎󰂺󰄀
󰂺Intelligence󰂶39󰃍󰆘󰃎󰂶󰆖󰆓󰆖󰄍󰆖󰆔󰆓󰂺󰂺󰂺󰃈󰆔󰆓󰂺󰆔󰆓󰆔󰆙󰃈󰂺󰂺󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆔󰂺󰆓󰆘󰂺󰆓󰆓󰆔󰂺
󰂶󰂺󰂺󰂶󰄀󰂶󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰂺󰂶󰂶
󰂺󰂺󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆜󰃎󰂺      
   󰂹   󰂺 Personality and
󰂶149󰂶󰆔󰆓󰆓󰄍󰆔󰆓󰆚󰂺󰂺󰂺󰃈󰆔󰆓󰂺󰆔󰆓󰆔󰆙󰃈󰂺󰂺󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆜󰂺󰆓󰆘󰂺󰆓󰆗󰆘󰂺
󰂶󰂺󰂺󰃍󰆔󰆜󰆛󰆓󰃎󰂺Bias in mental testing󰂺󰂺
󰂶󰂺󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆔󰃎󰂺     󰂹󰂺
Asian Development Review󰂶28󰃍󰆔󰃎󰂺󰂺󰄀󰂺󰃈󰃈󰆔󰆔󰆘󰆗󰆓󰃈󰆔󰆙󰆙󰆓󰂺
󰇁󰇄󰇂
󰆽󰆼󰃍󰆽󰆻󰆽󰆽󰃎󰇁󰇂󰇂󰄍󰇁󰇄󰇄
󰂶 󰂺󰂶  󰂶 󰂺 󰂺 󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆓󰆙󰃎󰂺 󰂶  󰂶  
󰂹󰃍󰃎󰂺Journal of
Economic Growth󰂶11󰃍󰆔󰃎󰂶󰆚󰆔󰄍󰆜󰆖󰂺󰂺󰂺󰃈󰆔󰆓󰂺󰆔󰆓󰆓󰆚󰃈󰆔󰆓󰆛󰆛󰆚󰄀󰆓󰆓󰆙󰄀󰆚󰆗󰆓󰆚󰄀󰆕󰂺
󰂶󰂺󰂺󰂺󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆗󰃎󰂺󰂹󰄀
 󰂺   󰂺 󰂺󰂺󰃈󰆔󰆓󰂺󰆕󰆙󰆚󰆚󰆘
󰃈󰂺󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆗󰂺󰆓󰆜󰂺󰆓󰆛󰂺
󰂶󰂺󰂺󰂺󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆜󰃎󰂺 󰂿
󰆔󰆕󰂺Mankind Quarterly󰂶59󰃍󰆖󰃎󰂺
󰂺󰂺󰃈󰃈󰃈󰆘󰆜󰄀󰆖󰃈󰆕󰂺
󰂶 󰂺 󰂺 󰂺 󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆜󰃎󰂺  󰂶  󰂹   
  󰂺 Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences󰂺 󰂺󰂺󰃈󰆔󰆓󰂺󰆔󰆓󰆖󰆚󰃈
󰆓󰆓󰆓󰆓󰆔󰆛󰆔󰂺
󰂺󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆓󰆕󰂶󰆔󰃎󰂺
󰂺󰂺󰂺󰂺󰆕󰂺󰃈󰂺󰂺
󰂶󰂺 󰂺󰂶󰂶 󰂺 󰂺󰃍󰆔󰆜󰆜󰆘󰃎󰂺   
󰂺Economics Letters󰂶47󰃍󰆕󰃎󰂶
󰆕󰆔󰆜󰄍󰆕󰆕󰆘󰂺󰂺󰂺󰃈󰆔󰆓󰂺󰆔󰆓󰆔󰆙󰃈󰆓󰆔󰆙󰆘󰄀󰆔󰆚󰆙󰆘󰃍󰆜󰆗󰃎󰆓󰆓󰆘󰆖󰆜󰄀󰂺
󰂶󰂺 󰃍󰆔󰆜󰆛󰆖󰃎󰂺    󰂺
The Journal of Social, Political, and Economic Studies󰂺󰂺󰂺󰃈󰃈
󰄀󰆔󰆜󰆛󰆖󰆕󰄀󰆓󰆓󰆔󰆖󰆔󰂺
󰂶󰂺󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆓󰆛󰃎󰂺The global bell curve: Race, , and inequality worldwide󰂺
󰂺
󰂶 󰂺󰂶  󰂶 󰂺 󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆜󰃎󰂺 The intelligence of nations󰂺    
󰂺
󰂶󰂺󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆕󰆓󰃎󰂺󰂹󰂺Mankind
Quarterly󰂶60󰃍󰆗󰃎󰂺󰂺󰂺󰃈󰆔󰆓󰂺󰆗󰆙󰆗󰆙󰆜󰃈󰂺󰆕󰆓󰆕󰆓󰂺󰆙󰆓󰂺󰆗󰂺󰆔󰂺
󰂶󰂺󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆓󰆕󰃎󰂺󰄀
󰂺American Economic Review󰂶󰆖󰆖󰆜󰄍󰆖󰆗󰆖󰂺
󰂶󰂺󰂺󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆓󰆖󰃎󰂺Human accomplishment: The pursuit of excellence in the arts and
sciences, 800  to 1950󰂺󰂺
󰂶󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆖󰃎󰂺Worldwide, Median Household Income About $10,000󰂺
󰂹󰃈󰃈󰂺󰂺󰃈󰃈󰆔󰆙󰆙󰆕󰆔󰆔󰃈󰄀󰄀󰄀
󰄀󰆓󰆓󰆓󰂺󰂺
󰂶󰂺󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆓󰆗󰃎󰂺 󰂺
ArXiv:Physics/0407137󰂺󰂺󰂺󰃈󰃈󰃈󰆓󰆗󰆓󰆚󰆔󰆖󰆚󰂺
󰂶󰂺󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆗󰃎󰂺󰄀
󰂿󰄀
󰂺Intelligence󰂶44󰂶󰆜󰆖󰄍󰆔󰆓󰆕󰂺󰂺󰂺󰃈󰆔󰆓󰂺󰆔󰆓󰆔󰆙󰃈󰂺󰂺󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆗󰂺󰆓󰆖󰂺󰆓󰆓󰆗󰂺
󰇁󰇄󰇃 
󰆽󰆼󰃍󰆽󰆻󰆽󰆽󰃎󰇁󰇂󰇂󰄍󰇁󰇄󰇄
󰂶 󰂺 󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆕󰃎󰂺  󰂶    
󰂹󰂺󰂶
53󰃍󰆕󰃎󰂶󰆔󰆓󰆛󰄍󰆔󰆔󰆖󰂺󰂺󰂺󰃈󰆔󰆓󰂺󰆔󰆓󰆔󰆙󰃈󰂺󰂺󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆔󰂺󰆓󰆚󰂺󰆓󰆓󰆔󰂺
󰂶 󰂺 󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆛󰃎󰂺 Cognitive capitalism: Human capital and the wellbeing of
nations󰂺󰂺
󰂶󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆛󰃎󰂺󰂹󰂺Comparative
Sociology󰂶17󰃍󰆔󰃎󰂶󰆕󰆜󰄍󰆙󰆜󰂺󰂺󰂺󰃈󰆔󰆓󰂺󰆔󰆔󰆙󰆖󰃈󰆔󰆘󰆙󰆜󰆔󰆖󰆖󰆓󰄍󰆔󰆕󰆖󰆗󰆔󰆗󰆘󰆔󰂺
󰂶󰂺󰂶 󰂶 󰂺 󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆕󰆓󰃎󰂺   󰂶   
󰂺 Comparative Sociology󰂶 19󰃍󰆔󰃎󰂶 󰆖󰆜󰄍󰆙󰆛󰂺 󰂺󰂺󰃈󰆔󰆓󰂺󰆔󰆔󰆙󰆖󰃈󰆔󰆘󰆙󰆜󰆔󰆖󰆖󰆓󰄀󰆔󰆕󰆖
󰆗󰆔󰆘󰆕󰆔󰂺
󰂶󰂺󰂶󰄀󰂶󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆘󰃎󰂺󰂶
󰂶󰂺Intelligence󰂶51󰂶󰆜󰆛󰄍󰆔󰆓󰆛󰂺󰂺󰂺󰃈󰆔󰆓󰂺󰆔󰆓󰆔󰆙
󰃈󰂺󰂺󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆘󰂺󰆓󰆙󰂺󰆓󰆓󰆕󰂺
󰂶 󰂺󰂶 󰂶 󰂺󰂶 󰂶 󰂺 󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆓󰆜󰃎󰂺     󰂶
󰄀
󰂺 Talent Development & Excellence󰂶 1󰃍󰆔󰃎󰂺 󰂺󰂺󰃈󰃈󰆔󰄀󰆕󰆓󰆓󰆜󰃈
󰅨󰅨󰆔󰄀󰆕󰆓󰆓󰆜󰅨󰆓󰆖󰅨󰅨󰅨󰂺󰂺
󰂶󰂺󰂶 󰂶󰂺󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆔󰃎󰂺󰂹
󰂶󰄀
󰂺Psychological Science󰂶22󰃍󰆙󰃎󰂶󰆚󰆘󰆗󰄍󰆚󰆙󰆖󰂺󰂺󰂺󰃈󰆔󰆓󰂺󰆔󰆔󰆚󰆚󰃈󰆓󰆜󰆘󰆙󰆚󰆜󰆚󰆙󰆔󰆔󰆗󰆓󰆚󰆕󰆓󰆚󰂺
󰂶󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆔󰃎󰂺     󰄀
󰃍󰃎󰄘󰄀
󰂺Excellence. Essays in Honour of Kurt. A. Heller: Lit, Münster󰂶󰆖󰆓󰆖󰄍󰆖󰆕󰆔󰂺
󰂶󰂺󰃍󰆔󰆚󰆚󰆙󰃎󰂺The Wealth of Nations: An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the
Wealth of Nations󰂺󰂺󰂺󰂶󰂺
󰂶 󰂺󰂶 󰂶 󰂺󰂶 󰂶 󰂺󰂶  󰂶 󰂺 󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆘󰃎󰂺 : Visualization and
Imputation of Missing Values󰂺󰂺󰂹󰃈󰃈󰂺r󰄀󰂺󰃈󰃈󰃈󰃈
󰂺󰂺
󰂶󰂺󰂺󰃍󰆔󰆜󰆔󰆙󰃎󰂺 󰂺The Measurement of Intelligence󰂶
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󰂶󰂺󰂺󰃍󰆔󰆜󰆕󰆓󰃎󰂺󰂺Harper’s Magazine󰂺
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󰂶󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆓󰆕󰃎󰂺󰄀
󰂺Kyklos󰂶55󰃍󰆖󰃎󰂶󰆖󰆙󰆔󰄍󰆖󰆛󰆓󰂺󰂺󰂺󰃈󰆔󰆓󰂺󰆔󰆔󰆔󰆔󰃈󰆔󰆗󰆙󰆚󰄀󰆙󰆗󰆖󰆘
󰂺󰆓󰆓󰆔󰆜󰆔󰂺
󰂶󰂺󰂶󰂶󰂺󰃍󰆕󰆓󰆔󰆙󰃎󰂺
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󰇁󰇄󰇄
󰆽󰆼󰃍󰆽󰆻󰆽󰆽󰃎󰇁󰇂󰇂󰄍󰇁󰇄󰇄
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󰄀󰂺Intelligence󰂶󰆖󰆛󰃍󰆔󰃎󰂶󰆔󰄍󰆕󰆓󰂺󰂺
󰂺󰃈󰆔󰆓󰂺󰆔󰆓󰆔󰆙󰃈󰂺󰂺󰆕󰆓󰆓󰆜󰂺󰆓󰆘󰂺󰆓󰆓󰆕󰂺
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