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Idols, characters, and stereotypes of the male athlete



Spanish fictionalized film lacks a large list of titles directly linked to sport. Sports films are narratives that have sport as their main subject, although they allow exploring cross-cutting themes. Other films present elements in which sport, without being the main theme, occupies an important space for the development of their plots
20. Idols, Characters, and Stereotypes of
the Male Athlete
Joaquín MaRín-Montín1
Spanish fictionalized film lacks a large list of titles directly linked to sport.
Sports films are narratives that have sport as their main subject, although they
allow exploring cross-cutting themes. Other films present elements in which
sport, without being the main theme, occupies an important space for the
development of their plots:
Because of sport’s place in so many lives, its carrying so many meanings, both
utopian and dystopian, many films that cannot be called sports films feature
sequences where a sport is invoked in ways that are more developed than mere
passing allusions1
Sport is one of the most revealing environments where the construc-
tion of masculine identity is commonplace. It is an aspiration of the Western
world, referring above all to power, strength, or wealth.2 Also, cinema has
played an important role in enhancing the prominence of men in sport, where
the physical component becomes a trait relevant to many works. Thus, sports
films provide a useful context for the analysis of dominant ideas about mascu-
linity and its evolution over time.3
The relationship between sports films and masculinity should be under-
stood as a historical and ideological process in which different standpoints
are developed, changed, and combined over time. Accordingly, the figure of
the male athlete has been represented in Spanish cinema differently through
specific characterizations. The boxer, the soccer player, or the coach have
been, among others, a source of inspiration for the creation of different fic-
tion films. His role in history (lead, supporting, or group) and his profile as a
person (sociological, physical and psychological circumstances) are decisive in
1. Joaquín Marín-Montín, PhD in Audiovisual Communication, Assistant Professor,
Faculty of Communication, University of Seville,
228 Joaquín MaRín-Montín
defining his narrative treatment. In this manner, the most outstanding stereo-
types are identified in the films, with a special presence of sports idols. They
are heroic figures that since the twentieth century are the result of a symbiosis
between the world of sports and the media.
First Idols
During the 1940s and 1950s the so-called spectacle sport lives in Spain its
maximum expansion with an absolute dominance of soccer, which then
became the king of sports.4 And football is also the most present in the cine-
matographic fiction of this period. The masculine representation of the soccer
player on the screen is mainly portrayed comically and through light biograph-
ical drama. These are films that connect ideologically with the Franco regime
and also serve as a vehicle for propaganda. They usually combine documen-
tary images of competitions along with filmed scenes.
¡¡Campeones!! (Ramón Torrado, 1943)is the first film specifically about
soccer players linked to national-Catholic and traditionalist Spain. The film
narrates the ups and downs of a team of workers, the Volador CF, who par-
ticipate in a worker’s tournament.5 The movie reveals the ins and outs of
soccer where its main character, Eduardo, after passing a test, enters the team
as reserve goalkeeper. But then he is deceived, and he signs a compromising
document in favor of a rival team that causes his expulsion. The protagonist is
a humble laborer who works in an airfield and lives with his family who runs a
produce store. Physically, he is athletic, with an image associated with the ste-
reotype of the soccer player of the time. He takes care of his personal appear-
ance, and he attracts the attention of admirers. It is precisely his weakness for
women that is used by the followers of the rival team to distract him, causing
him to be betrayed, and creating problems with his girlfriend. However, the
team’s goalkeeper, removed from the team by his problems with an addiction
to alcohol, helps the protagonist to regain his position with the support of
the rest of the team. In this way, one of the film’s messages revolves around
the need to work as a team and the desire to excel under adverse situations.6
There is no lack of ideological allusions referring to the value of the patriotic
stance transmitted by male characters, as another player of the team proclaims
that, “to promote the sport, we want to have a healthy and strong race.” In
the cast of ¡¡Campeones!! three great soccer idols of the time star as support-
ing actors:Ricardo Zamora, Jacinto Quincoces, and Guillermo Gorostiza.
Along with these famous soccer players, the film also highlights the presence
of the most well-known radio announcer of the moment, Bobby Deglané,
Idols, Characters and Stereotypes of the Male Athlete 229
playing himself. In this way, the film seeks to take advantage of the popularity
of celebrities in order to attract a greater public audience.
In the following decade, Spanish cinema tried to exploit the social role
of public spectacles, such as bullfighting and football.7 Once pares de botas
(Francisco Rovira, 1954)continues to portray the atmosphere of soccer under
Franco’s rule. The film is set in Barcelona, and it narrates the rise to the soccer
elite of player Ignacio Ariza, from the second division who, during his prime,
signs for the Hispania. The film’s plot reveals different aspects of soccer, such
as the relations between the players and managers, the players’ dedication,
their training, and the depiction of fanatical fans. All of these groups, which
are mainly male, are represented stereotypically and with the use of parody. In
regard to Ariza’s characterization, it follows that of an elite soccer player, who
is concerned about his personal appearance, inside and outside the sports sta-
diums. His brilliant sports performances and public persona turned him into
a great idol, who was requested especially by his admirers. In order to add
more realism to the story, the film has the presence of players like Samitier,
Ramallets, Quincoces, Di Stéfano, Zarra, and the coach Iribarren. From the
sporting point of view, the film delves into the men’s changing rooms show-
ing the tactical aspects and the roles played by the members of the coaching
staff. The media could not be left out in all of this complex arrangement.
Thus, the press, along with prominent radio announcers such as Miguel
Ángel Valdivieso and Matías Prats, appear. The film delves into a reflection
upon other more dramatic aspects of elite sport such as injuries and serious ill-
nesses in soccer players. Finally, Once pares de botas explores other social issues
such as the purchase of matches mixed with real estate speculation, women,
and loss of control, as a temptation for the lives of soccer players.
Despite the dominance of soccer on film screens, boxing starts to take
up space. In the 1950s, El cerco (Miguel Iglesias, 1955)and Escuela de peri-
odismo (Jesús Pascual, 1956), are released, introducing new plot lines. But
the tendency to use boxing as a dramatic vehicle without exploring its intri-
cacies8 has prevented many filmmakers of our time from taking advantage of
its full potential. El Tigre de Chamberí (K.O. Miguel, Pedro Ruíz, 1958)is
the first significant film. Despite being a movie about boxing, its first part
is linked to soccer. The film reveals, in the form of a comedy, how chance
brings its main character—Miguel Oregano, nicknamed El Tarta—to become
a boxing star. He is a simple man, who survives with his mother and a little
brother in a humble setting. Physically, Miguel has a thin appearance and
does not respond at all to the muscular stereotype of a boxer. His great pas-
sion is soccer, which he goes to see without paying, thanks to the guile of
his closest friend. One day, they go together to the stadium, and during the
230 Joaquín MaRín-Montín
game, Miguel argues without knowing it with Molina, Spain’s boxing cham-
pion, and knocks him out. From that fortuitous fight, his friends push him to
become a boxer. However, Miguel does not show a special interest in boxing
and only pursues it in order to get close to Marisa, the new manager’s daugh-
ter. Despite Miguel’s limitations, his friends seek to take advantage of him to
get the most out of the business, which means getting him to fight Molina. In
the great fight, Marisa declares her love to Miguel, which encourages him to
win in an epic style. In El Tigre de Chamberí, there are relevant male figures of
the time, such as the sports journalist Matías Prats, as well as real boxers who
reinforce the verisimilitude of the story.
From the Big Stars to the Hidden Heroes
During the 1960s and 1970s, the Francoist regime continued to use sport
as a means of propagating national values and ideals.9 However, during this
period, they offered timid changes in the cinematographic representation of
the male athlete. Although the boxer and the soccer player are still the most
represented characters in these films, their directors introduce new nuances.
La batalla del domingo (Di Stefano, Mister Real Madrid, Luis Marquina,
1963)consolidates the list of titles around soccer as a mass phenomenon.
Thus, soccer becomes a kind of patriotic cinematographic genre with films,
in which the popular side of the sport serves to entertain in costumbrista
comedies, indoctrinate the viewer into sports dramas, or promote national
triumphs.10 The ideological component is recognizable in the own title of
the film that uses a war metaphor. La batalla del domingo portrays the life of
Alfredo Di Stefano, one of the great athletes of the moment. The film begins
at the end of his soccer career and serves as a tribute to it. It is not the first
time that the soccer player appears in fictionalized movies. Before arriving
in Spain, Di Stefano takes part in the Argentine film Con los mismos colores
(Carlos Torres, 1949). Already in Madrid, the forward takes part in Once
pares de botas as a background character with other stars of the moment.
His establishment on the big screen arrives with Saeta rubia (Javier Setó,
1956). La batalla del domingo is a semi-biographic film that overlaps fiction
with reality. This film presents Alfredo Di Stefano as an actor and also as a
real character. Everything related to fiction is a crazy comedy against the
documentary part that portrays a hagiography about the figure of the soccer
player. Both sections present the protagonist as a model man with an orderly,
family life, who helps his teammates during difficult times. In the fictional
part of the film, there are other male characters such as his representative, or
Idols, Characters and Stereotypes of the Male Athlete 231
the soccer player who plays Pedrín. Finally, as a sports film, the journalistic
figure of the moment is also represented by Matías Prats.
In this period, films on boxing present fictionalized formulas that are less
pigeonholed than those presented in soccer films. It is the sport that has had
the most presence in cinema internationally. The role of the boxer is related
above all to the metaphor of the struggle for survival. The man is alone with
himself in the quest to get ahead, but, at the same time, may fall down.
His cinematographic representation acquires its greatest symbolic force at
the time of the disintegration of the sculpted body.11 Young Sánchez (Mario
Camus, 1963)based on the eponymous novel by Ignacio Aldecoa, tells the
story of an amateur boxer who wants to become a professional. Despite being
a fictionalized drama, it is a film set in a realistic manner, visible both in the
locations and in the cast of characters that has the presence of boxing per-
sonalities of the time. Paco Sánchez is of humble origin, lives with his family
in a small apartment, and works as a mechanic in a factory in Barcelona. In
his free time, the protagonist practices boxing and dreams of doing it pro-
fessionally in order to earn money and to help his family. Paco is played by
Julián Mateos, whose physical characterization seems that of a trained and
well-muscled boxer, without being a professional athlete. His ambition and
perseverance lead him to win fights until he becomes an amateur national
champion in the welterweight category. In order to achieve his objective, he
relies on the help of his trainer Paulino and his friend Conca, both ex-boxers,
which is key. As a result of his success, the young boxer meets a sports pro-
moter, who proposes to change the environment to apparently improve the
conditions. However, behind the proposal hides shady business like fighting
in a fixed fight. Paulino and Conca reproach Paco for the rigged fight, which
creates a conflict between them. But the young fighter ends up accepting
the shady conditions in exchange for fixed fights and lots of money. In this
way, the protagonist does not want to change but leaves behind the illusion
and sportsmanship of his previous stages. The film features the appearance
of professional boxers such as Jaime Aparici, “Pancho” Martínez, and Felipe
Alayeto, among others. The cast of characters is completed by the figure of
the male sports journalist (represented by the press and radio station EAJ of
Barcelona) who makes his appearance in the film when the protagonist hap-
pens to become a professional boxer.
At the beginning of the following decade, Cuadrilátero (Eloy de la
Iglesia, 1970) returns to represent the world of boxing with its complex
characters, its personal dramas, and ability to connect the insider with the
outsider.12 The film tells the story of a young and promising boxer facing
an unscrupulous manager who uses the boxer for his own benefit. Inspired
232 Joaquín MaRín-Montín
in the American cinema of the time, Óscar, promoter and boxing manager,
controls not only the professional career of two promising candidates but also
monitors their love life. On the one hand, Miguel Valdés is one of the boxers
whom Óscar promotes but wants to abandon boxing for damaging the vision
of a rival. José Laguna is the other boxer he promotes. Both fighters succeed
in the sport, Miguel as European champion, and José as world champion.
However, everything becomes complicated when Miguel starts dating Elena,
a young beautiful model of whom the promoter is in love. To undo that
relationship, Oscar bribes the press and provokes the false headline “Valdés
accuses:was the Sullivan-Laguna fight fixed?” The objective is to create a
conflict to antagonize the two boxers whom he represents. Later, the pro-
moter organizes a bloody fight between the two, with fatal consequences for
Miguel. From a sociological point of view, Cuadrilátero reflects a parallel class
struggle between the elite and the popular, a struggle between the collective
that represents the abusive manager against the marginalized boxers, who are
more supportive of each other to oppose that power. As for the characteriza-
tion of the boxers, both conform to the athletic appearance of the sport. The
presence of José is striking, as he was a real boxer, José Legra, European, and
featherweight world champion, who served as advertising appeal for the film.
Athletes in other Environments
The transition from the Francoist sports model to the democratic sports
model not only implies a structural change in the organization and manage-
ment of sport in Spain, but also becomes part of the constitutional scope that
should promote, protect, finance, and promote the sports phenomenon.13
This change also influences the Spanish cinema that sets its sights on new
types of sports characters, less pigeonholed than in previous stages. During
this period, the films that include sports-related characters grow, without the
sport becoming the central component of their plots. In Volver a empezar
(Begin the Beguine, José Luis Garci, 1982), a movie awarded with an Oscar,
the main character Albajara (Antonio Ferrandis) is an ex-soccer player of the
Sporting de Gijón team, although this detail is not the main topic of the plot.
Adecade later, with more athlete presence, comes Carne trémula (Live Flesh,
Pedro Almodóvar, 1997). It is a crime drama that involves five characters in
a complex obsessive relationship. Among its protagonists is David de Paz
(Javier Bardem), a cop who becomes paraplegic in an act of service. As a
result of that event, David devotes himself to wheelchair basketball, becoming
an elite player. His last name De Paz is associated with Diego de Paz, fig-
ure of this sport in Spain. The protagonist’s dedication to adapted basketball
Idols, Characters and Stereotypes of the Male Athlete 233
allows him to discover a singular characterization. He has muscular athletic
appearance and wears clothes associated with basketball. David is passionate
about other sports, as evidenced by a struggle with Victor. Both characters
burst with joy when they casually see on TV a real match between Atlético
de Madrid and Barcelona, “a televised film goal, with hugs between rivals
in the melodrama.”14 Thanks to the sport, Diego achieves great skill in the
wheelchair, which allows him to fend for himself. His desire to excel leads
him to the Barcelona 1992 Paralympic Games, and the film appears on tele-
vision where he gets a decisive basket. Diego’s dedication to sports can also
be seen on a billboard where his associated image appears in the ad:“With
Champion, You can too.” Diego appears training with his team CD Fundosa
ONCE, as well as individually in an area adapted from his home. In the final
section of the film, there is a scene located in Madrid’s Sports Palace, in which
the protagonist can be seen playing with the aforementioned team. In a game,
David loses his temper and makes a severe foul. That moment is used by
Almodóvar to metaphorically reflect David’s definitive break with his partner.
In the following decade, El prado de las estrellas (Mario Camus,
2007)presents three plots that have the mountain as a common link. One
of the stories revolves around cycling, whose protagonist is Martín, a young
amateur athlete. The film teaches the viewer about the sport in a humanistic
drama, capable of expressing the values of effort and honesty. Martín Sedano
is seventeen years old, lives in a mountain town, and usually rides for four
hours more than 100 kilometers in order to visit his sister Luisa, who works
in a residence for the elderly in front of the sea. Martín is passionate about
cycling as seen in the posters, photographs, and a signed jersey from his idol
Óscar Freire, which decorate the wall of his room. When he returns home,
he likes to watch the world championships videos won by Freire on the com-
puter. Alfonso, a retired country man, sees Martín several times on a moun-
tain bike, looks at his potential, and proposes to train him to compete. To do
this, Alfonso relies on his friend Tasio, a professional ex-cyclist; together, they
give him guidelines to train and compete. In the film, Martín’s characteriza-
tion is clearly associated with that of a cyclist, whose character is played by a
real sportsman (Óscar Abad). This circumstance makes it possible to increase
the likelihood of sports scenes, related to the technical gestures of cycling,
such as climbing the mountain or sprinting on the plain. Likewise, the setting
of the film recreates the world of cycling with real riders and the entire logistic
framework of the competitions. El prado de las estrellas uncovers the heroic
side of cycling, both through the victory of Martín in his first competition
and the dramatic moment when he is run over by a press bike when he was
about to win.
234 Joaquín MaRín-Montín
In recent years, Spanish fictionalized films change the representation of
the figure of the masculine sportsman for good. There is an evolution in
the represented stereotype, and new dimensions in characters are explored.
Agood example is Campeones (Champions, Javier Fesser, 2018), the first full-
length sports film about people with mental disabilities. Marco Montes, the
second basketball coach of the Estudiantes team, is caught in a personal cri-
sis, has problems at work, and is on the outs with his wife and everything
around him. Marco is separated and lives temporarily in his mother’s house.
His father’s departure when Marco was nine years old forges a difficult char-
acter. In his room, there is a photo of a young man as a Real Madrid basket-
ball player. One day during a match, Marco rebels against the head coach,
drives drunk, and ends up being arrested. After a quick trial, they offer to
commute the prison sentence for training for ninety days a basketball team
for people with disabilities (Asociación Los Amigos). From the initial rejection,
the protagonist happens to adapt to a heterogeneous group of young men
with different disabilities and surprising personal stories. Marco manages to
take advantage of his technical knowledge, and the group responds with great
enthusiasm. The team achieves great sports results that lead to the final of the
Championship. The setting of Campeones reflects aspects of current sport in
Spain, from the real images of a basketball game at Madrid’s Sports Palace, to
references to the sports newspaper Marca. Marcos reads the aforementioned
newspaper after his dismissal. Later on, there is an image of the online edition
of Marca that highlights Los Amigos as the revelation team of the champion-
ship. Through the temporary incorporation of Marco to the peculiar basket-
ball team, the film goes from offering a stereotyped representation of an elite
coach who rejects disability to normalizing it and making it inclusive through
After presenting a brief historical overview through Spanish fictionalized films
related to sport, we can see common elements that are evident in relation to
the male character. All of the works under discussion present real images of
the sport: competitions, teams, and celebrities of the moment. The media
of the times, both the well-known entities and the best-known journalists, is
present in all the films. Likewise, the works analyzed reflect the values of sport
as key components of their plots. The films portray both the positive aspects
of sport (effort, the desire to excel, or teamwork) and the negative aspects
(cheating, addictions, or injuries). During the first period analyzed, the most
represented male figure who is most often ideologically associated with the
Idols, Characters and Stereotypes of the Male Athlete 235
Franco regime is the soccer player. ‘Rags to riches’ is the most repeated story,
where the male athlete ascends socially from a very humble origin thanks to
sports. His physical appearance is usually athletic and similar to that of a real
athlete. The following period highlights the cinematographic representation
of the boxer who brings new ingredients to the male character. His stereotype
is situated between hero and victim, a duality that allows the director to add
more drama to the stories. In the democratic period, social evolution renews
the image of the athlete in Spanish cinema. Non-sports films now include in
their plots sports characters with a prominent role. New sports disciplines
appear that give rise to new male stereotypes, such as people with disabilities.
Finally, the representation of the figure of the male athlete in cinema cannot
be understood without mentioning parallel characters such as representatives,
managers, or fanatical fans. All of them contribute to forge sporting idols,
and, together with the media, reinforce their stereotypes.
1. Babington, The Sports, 7.
2. Crosson, Sport and Film, 103.
3. Kusz, “Remasculizing”, 93.
4. Santacana, “Espejo”, 228.
5. Marañón, Fútbol, 58.
6. Cabezuelo, “Una mirada”, 26.
7. Monterde, “Continuismo”, 275.
8. Perales, “El deporte”, 197.
9. Bodin,“Inclusión”, 433.
10. Marañón, ibid., 163.
11. Babington, ibid., 42.
12. Andrade de Melo, Cinema, 104.
13. Bodin, ibid., 465.
14. Marañón, ibid., 252.
Andrade de Melo, Victor. Cinema & Esporte, Rio de Janeiro:Aeroplano, 2006.
Babington, Bruce. The Sports Film:Games People Play. NewYork:Wallflower Press, 2014.
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de construcción ciudadana en la España democrática, 1975–2000”. In Atletas y ciu-
dadanos. Historia social del deporte en España 1870–2010, edited by Xavier Pujadas,
433–466. Madrid:Alianza, 2011.
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Table of Contents
Introduction 1
Men Who Roam the Spanish Screens 3
Juan Rey
IMasculinities in the Francoist era
1.The Man Franco Dreamed of:A Prescriptive and Dictatorial Masculinity 19
adRián Huici Módenes
2.Traitors of the Homeland:The Stigmatization of Reds in Falangist
Discourse 31
Lucia BaLLesteRos-aguayo
3.Masculinities of the Past as a Re-writing of the Present 41
Mónica BaRRientos-Bueno
4.Excessively Comical, Even Grotesque Men 53
LoRena López-Font, cRistina gonzáLez-oñate and
caRLos FanJuL-pey
IIMasculinities in Late Francoism and Transition Periods
5.The Man in Destape Films:Rascals, Braggarts, Sexually Repressed
Men 65
MiLagRos expósito BaRea
6.The Injured Man:Men Who Sell Their Body 75
eLadio Mateos MieRa
vi contents
7.The Latin Lover Who Degenerates into an Iberian Male 85
FRancisco-JavieR góMez-péRez
8.The Fetishist or the Erotic Gaze of the Repressed Man 95
Luis aLFonso guadaRRaMa-Rico and Jannet s. vaLeRo-viLcHis
9.The Quinqui as a Hero:Criminal Adolescence during the Transition 107
MigueL ángeL péRez-góMez
10.Man and God:The Sacred in the Construction of Masculinity 117
aaRón RodRíguez seRRano
11.The Man of the Transition Period:Deadbeats, Losers and Simpletons 127
José patRicio péRez-RuFí
IIIFrom the Transition Period to Present Day
12.Candidates and Corrupt Politicians:Political Men since the Transition 139
víctoR HeRnández-santaoLaLLa
13.The Tragic Man:Cyber-Genealogy of the Impossible Male 151
Juan J. vaRgas-igLesias
14.The Heroes of the Thriller:The Disintegration of the Romantic Canon 163
Josep RoM RodRíguez
15.The Man-Monster:Masculinity and Visual Effects (VFX) 173
Juan ángeL JódaR MaRín
16.The Realistic Man:Rural Masculinities 183
seRgio coBo-duRán
17.On Hunters and Prey:TheMise-en-scèneof a Lurking Masculinity 193
aLBeRto HeRMida
18.In the Center of the Labyrinth:Man against the Minotaur 203
ángeLes MaRtínez-gaRcía
IVNew Masculinities? Continuities and Breaks
19.The Bullfighter as an Archetype and Icon of Spanish Masculinity 215
MaRía deL MaR RaMíRez aLvaRado
20.Idols, Characters, and Stereotypes of the Male Athlete 227
Joaquín MaRín-Montín
21.Older People, Grandparents … How Men Age in the Cinema 237
saLoMé soLa-MoRaLes
Contents vii
22.Violently Sexist Men:Aggression as a Sign of Masculinity 249
ManueL gaRRido-LoRa
23.Men of Their Word:From Silence to Screaming 261
sHaiLa gaRcía-cataLán
24.The Television Man:Beyond the Cinematographic Horizon 271
JavieR Lozano deLMaR
Filmography 281
Notes on Contributors 291
Index 303
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© 2020 Peter Lang Publishing, Inc., NewYork
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names:Rey, Juan, editor.
Title:Men on the screen:re-visions of masculinity in Spanish cinema
(1939-2019) / edited by Juan Rey.
Description:NewYork:Peter Lang, 2020.
Series:Masculinity studies:literary and cultural representations; vol. 9
ISSN 2161-2692 (print) | 2161-2706 (online)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Identifiers:LCCN 2019033890 | ISBN 978-1-4331-6357-9 (hardback:alk. paper)
ISBN 978-1-4331-6358-6 (ebook pdf) | ISBN 978-1-4331-6359-3 (epub)
ISBN 978-1-4331-6360-9 (mobi)
Subjects:LCSH:Motion pictures—Spain—History—20th century. |
Masculinity in motion pictures.
Classification:LCC PN1993.5.S7 M3938 | DDC 791.43/65211—dc23
LC record available at
DOI 10.3726/b14871
Bibliographic information published by Die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek.
Die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the “Deutsche
Nationalbibliografie”; detailed bibliographic data are available
on the Internet at
New York • Bern • Berlin
Brussels • Vienna • Oxford • Warsaw
Men on the Screen
Re-visions of Masculinity
in Spanish Cinema
Edited by JuanRey
Translated by FranciscoUceda
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Una mirada mediática a la España franquista a través del cine de Sáenz de Heredia
  • Cabezuelo Lorenzo
Cabezuelo Lorenzo, Francisco. "Una mirada mediática a la España franquista a través del cine de Sáenz de Heredia". In La imagen del franquismo a través de la séptima arte;
Fútbol y cine. El balompié en la gran pantalla. Madrid: Ocho y Medio
  • Carlos Marañón
Marañón, Carlos. Fútbol y cine. El balompié en la gran pantalla. Madrid: Ocho y Medio, 2005.
Continuismo y disidencia
  • José Monterde
  • Enrique
Monterde, José Enrique. "Continuismo y disidencia". In Historia del cine español, edited by Román Gubern et al., 239-293. Madrid: Cátedra, 2009.
El deporte en el cine: la casuística española
  • Francisco Perales
Perales, Francisco. "El deporte en el cine: la casuística española". In Deporte, comunicación y cultura, edited by Joaquín Marín Montín, 190-204. Zamora: Comunicación Social, 2012.
Una primera aproximación, un primer inventario. Córdoba: Consejo Superior de Deportes
  • Joaquín Romaguera I Ramió
Romaguera i Ramió, Joaquín. Presencia del deporte en el cine español. Una primera aproximación, un primer inventario. Córdoba: Consejo Superior de Deportes, 2003. Santacana i Torres, Carles. "Espejo de un régimen. Transformación de las estructuras deportivas y su uso político y propagandístico". In Atletas y ciudadanos. Historia social del deporte en España 1870-2010, edited by Xavier Pujadas, 205-232. Madrid: Alianza, 2011.
Reprint or reproduction, even partially, in all forms such as microfilm, xerography, microfiche, microcard, and offset strictly prohibited
  • Broadway
Broadway, 18th floor, New York, NY 10006 All rights reserved. Reprint or reproduction, even partially, in all forms such as microfilm, xerography, microfiche, microcard, and offset strictly prohibited. Printed in the United States of America Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Rey, Juan, editor. Title: Men on the screen: re-visions of masculinity in Spanish cinema (1939-2019) / edited by Juan Rey. Description: New York: Peter Lang, 2020. Series: Masculinity studies: literary and cultural representations; vol. 9 ISSN 2161-2692 (print) | 2161-2706 (online) Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2019033890 | ISBN 978-1-4331-6357-9 (hardback: alk. paper) ISBN 978-1-4331-6358-6 (ebook pdf) | ISBN 978-1-4331-6359-3 (epub) ISBN 978-1-4331-6360-9 (mobi) Subjects: LCSH: Motion pictures-Spain-History-20th century. | Masculinity in motion pictures. Classification: LCC PN1993.5.S7 M3938 | DDC 791.43/65211-dc23 LC record available at DOI 10.3726/b14871