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Televised sporting events: applications of second screens



The second screen has become a new resource for accessing information in addition to what you can see on television. This allows for an enhanced viewing experience through the generation of new services, apps, and changes in the production of content. Sporting events, especially large ones that are broadcast live, have especially developed this innovation. This chapter examines the distinctive features that the second screen contributes to televised sporting events, considering the type of production as well as the effects that are generated in the reception of the content and the alteration to the way the treatment the audiovisual content may receive. To achieve this, real cases from the Spanish context are studied, such as two major cycling events: La Vuelta 2017 ( and the Tour de France 2019 ( and Eurosport Player App).
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Chapter 2
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-3119-8.ch002
The second screen has become a new resource for accessing information in addition to what you can see
on television. This allows for an enhanced viewing experience through the generation of new services,
apps, and changes in the production of content. Sporting events, especially large ones that are broadcast
live, have especially developed this innovation. This chapter examines the distinctive features that the
second screen contributes to televised sporting events, considering the type of production as well as
the effects that are generated in the reception of the content and the alteration to the way the treatment
the audiovisual content may receive. To achieve this, real cases from the Spanish context are studied,
such as two major cycling events: La Vuelta 2017 ( and the Tour de France 2019 ( and
Eurosport Player App).
With their digitization, the media have incorporated new technologies that have modified the habits of
traditional TV audiences. The use of laptop computers, tablets and smartphones, among other devices,
has allowed for broadening the dissemination of TV content and for making the role of viewers more
participatory and interactive (Blake, 2017). The resulting media convergence represents a decisive cultural
change, insofar as it enables consumers to search for new information and to establish links between the
content of different media (Jenkins, 2006). New resources have emerged from this convergence between
the traditional and digital media, including the second screen that permits users to access additional
components and content not offered on television. This involves a second electronic device that the audi-
ence uses while simultaneously watching a TV program (Cunningham & Eastin, 2017), an innovation
that has led to the launching of new apps for producing content, which in recent years TV operators have
gradually incorporated into their range of services. This should come as no surprise inasmuch as it is a
Televised Sporting Events:
Applications of Second Screens
Joaquín Marín-Montín
University of Seville, Spain
Televised Sporting Events
resource that offers creators new opportunities for establishing a more significant connection between
audiences and content.
In this context, if there is a TV genre that has been especially innovative in the second screen en-
vironment, then that would be sports programs, above all the live broadcasts of major events like the
Olympic Games and the FIFA World Cup. These major events, which are largely designed on the basis
of their TV coverage, are ideal showcases for the innovative use of digital technologies (Miah, 2017).
Given the growing mediatization of sports, the live broadcasting of many disciplines generates such a
huge amount of information that this cannot be adequately transmitted via the traditional TV format. In
this sense, second screens supplement events broadcast on television by offering greater doses of spec-
tacle and interactive content. In some cases, viewers emulate the role of directors by selecting camera
angles, modifying the frame speed or selecting the audio track. In other cases, the experience of viewers
transcends the first screen when they use the official social media profiles of TV operators to express
their opinions in real time during the broadcasting of an event (Owens, 2016).
The foregoing considerations beg the following question: as to sports content, does the second screen
offer more relevant information than that which can be obtained via traditional TV media outlets or chan-
nels? The aim of this chapter is to analyze how the second screen has contributed to TV sports broadcasts.
To this end, the focus is placed here on both the type of audiovisual production and the narrative effects
that such content generates, employing an applied methodology that combines two procedures: a case
study and a qualitative content analysis. The purpose of the former is to employ specific cases of second
screen use as points of reference in the Spanish context: the 2017 Vuelta a España ( and the 2019
Tour de France ( and Eurosport player), both major cycling events. As to the latter, data process-
ing was performed on the basis of the different ways in which second screens are used (Owens, 2016).
At present, the abundance of information generated by the new forms of digital communication has
modified the behavior of users who are now encouraged to select their own sources (Vivar & García,
2009) from among a broader range of services. Similarly, with the advent of different screens – smart-
phones, laptops, tablets, video game consoles and smart televisions – the consumption of audiovisual
content has become increasingly more varied. This new communication environment is characterized
preferentially by individual use (Fernández Peña, 2016). For Castells (2009), “mass self-communication”
is the result of the interactive capacity of the new system, which multiplies and diversifies the commu-
nication process. On the other hand, following Dimmick (2003), the so-called “niche theory” suggests
that a new medium competes with its older counterparts to satisfy the needs of users by offering them
the opportunity to access content other than that which is available at a given moment. So, according
to niche theory, the introduction of a new medium may or may not lead to competition with its older
counterparts. In this chapter, the new medium is the second screen device and the older one, television.
Rather than a competition between both media, second screen media consumption has emerged as a way
of reinforcing the attention of users (Cunningham & Eastin, 2017).
The term “second screen” derives from the media convergence between television and mobile de-
vices. It refers “to some type of computer device (computer, tablet, or smartphone) being used to access
additional information about what is being seen on television. It is sometimes referred to as enhancing
the viewing experience” (Owens, 2016, p. 31). This relationship has been marked by an unprecedented
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technological revolution in the recent digital landscape. However, beyond the technical complexity, the
key to media convergence lies in the minds of individual users, who through their interactions construct
new discourses (Jenkins, 2006), with the expansion of the Internet and wireless communication favoring
new user practices (Castells, 2009). Moreover, these new forms of communication have given rise to
more autonomous, restless and participatory audiences (Delima-Ruiz & Gutierrez-Coba, 2018).
The “second screen” notion predates the appearance of smartphones and other devices. Over a de-
cade ago, in a study performed on a representative group of users in the United Kingdom Cruickshank,
Tsekleves, Whitham, Hill and Kondo (2007) observed that the development of a mobile second screen
could improve TV interaction and browsing mechanisms. According to Aguado (2013), on the other
hand, the simultaneous use of two screens implies two types of uses: superimposed and coordinated. In
the first case, superimposed use involves intertwined, non-complementary actions – such as answering
emails while watching television – while coordinated use involves complementary actions that reinforce
each other – like viewing a program from a camera angle differing from the one available on traditional
television. Whereby the “second screen” should not only be understood as a simple multimedia device,
but rather as the experience of a viewer who simultaneously interacts with content in two different envi-
ronments (Blake, 2017). Just as the number of mobile device users has grown, so too has simultaneous
second screen media consumption. In this connection, Izquierdo (2017) focuses on the consolidation
of simultaneous TV consumption on second screens, noting how it is primarily the social media effect
produced by audiences that promotes, in turn, linear consumption. In this respect, a study published by
IAB Spain (2019), in relation to the uses of mobile devices as second screens, indicated that 92.3 per
cent of Spaniards watch television while using their smartphones.
Furthermore, the media conceives the use of second screens as a strategic component for strengthening
the commitment of their audiences. It is what has become to be known as engagement, a concept applied
in various contexts, including advertising, narrative and the media (Cunningham & Eastin, 2017). In the
field of advertising, engagement is a way of building consumer loyalty. In this sense, the Advertising
Research Foundation (ARF) considers that “media engagement is turning on a prospect to a brand idea
enhanced by the surrounding context” (Calder, Malthouse & Schaedel, 2009). For their part, Busselle
and Bilandzic (2009) contend that engagement has to do with the way in which we become involved or
immersed in a narrative or how we transmit it:
Audience members construct mental models of meaning to represent a story. These models, represent
settings, characters, and situations, and are created by combining information from the text with knowl-
edge the reader or viewer already possesses about life in general as well as about the specific topic and
genre of the narrative (p. 322).
As to the media, the need to involve audiences and to develop attractive technologies has become a
strategic objective when developing interactive systems such as second screens. The concept of “direct
engagement” underscores the interaction between humans and machines, for which reason the cognitive
intentions of users could, in theory, be realized by manipulating the interface. Lalmas, O’Brien, and
Yom-Tov (2015) define it using three dimensions: “user engagement is the emotional, cognitive, and
behavioral experience of a user with a technological resource that exists, at any point in time and over
time” (p. 3). This factor has a bearing when a member of the audience becomes involved, connected and
identified with a program, searching for a sense of participation. Behaviors of this type are especially
evident in sports programs, in which fans become more emotionally involved, frequently shifting from
Televised Sporting Events
the first to the second screen. By and large, during TV programs presenters and commentators request
the audience to participate on social media with their opinions or reactions, some of which are then
read out during the live broadcast. This circumstance encourages viewers to use a second screen device,
thus increasing their engagement (Cunningham & Eastin, 2017). And if they also derive some sort of
satisfaction from participating, they will see the second screen in a positive light.
The advent of digital television not only substantially improved image and sound quality, but also opened
up a range of new services including, among others, interactive content and data transmission (Cruickshank
et al., 2007). This technological breakthrough has resulted in a deeper level of audience engagement.
In the specific case of the sports genre, it happens that fans tend to become more emotionally involved
with live TV programs in which their favorite teams or sports personalities participate. The broadcasting
of sports events is an ideal framework for integrating interactivity into TV consumption, fundamentally
in the North American and European markets, in which live sports events are one of the key strategic
components of their programming (Vivar & García, 2009). At the end of the twentieth century, the
sports broadcasts of some TV companies came with digital services that offered viewers the possibility
of mixing the stream of live footage with other shots and selecting replays (Marín-Montín, 2006). The
advent of interactivity in live sports programs has led to the differentiation between two audience types:
those who let themselves be carried away by elaborate content; and those who want something more
and prefer to have a certain amount of control over their TV reception of sports events (Benitez, 2013).
The constant evolution of technology has enabled TV operators to make the experience of viewers
more interactive by offering them additional services that give them greater control over the selection of
visual and audio elements. On television, these elements, such as the electronic program guide (EPG),
occupy the same screen space as the main image. In the case of live sports programs, digitization has
served to increase the number of alternatives in the reception of broadcasts, the most significant of which
are discussed below.
At a visual level, the selection of camera angles is one of the most common tools. Thanks to multi-
camera options, using the live program’s signal as a basis, viewers can combine it with additional foot-
age of the same event, playing, in a sense, the role of directors. This tool has generally been employed
by subscription channels as an extra component in the live broadcasting of different sports events,
including soccer, ice hockey and motorsports (Prado, Franquet, Soto, Ribes & Fernández, 2008). On
television, another prevalent tool allows viewers to interrupt programs. In live sports broadcasts, this
usually takes the shape of replays. And, lastly, another of the interactive elements that many TV chan-
nels have included in their live sports programs from the start is a multiscreen tool that allows viewers
to mix more than one signal in different combinations: like watching two soccer matches at the same
time, selecting different video streams from a mosaic menu or obtaining supplementary statistical data.
In 2001, the BBC included interactive elements of this type in a sports broadcast for the first time when
covering Wimbledon:
Televised Sporting Events
Digital TV users could press their red buttons to watch a choice of up to five live matches via an ‘interac-
tive multiscreen’ application. They could select a specific match to watch or view all five by remaining
in multiscreen. Each screen had its own ‘dynamic scoreboard’ which automatically updated during the
game (Blake, 2017, p. 17).
In the case of motorsports, like MotoGP, thanks to this multiscreen system, audiences can receive up
to six live signals at the same time. In this case, it is an additional subscription TV service for Movistar
TV subscribers, which was launched in Spain in 2014. However, this component has not subsequently
evolved towards the diversification of exclusive second screen content.
Together with the image-related services, digital television has permitted the development of an
exclusive tool that provides further soundtrack options. Thus, many TV operators have begun to offer,
as an additional service, the possibility of choosing between different audio tracks, in addition to that
of the program in question. In the case of soccer TV subscriptions in Spain, the different audio tracks
correspond to that of the broadcast signal of the TV channel itself and to other locutions broadcast by dif-
ferent radio stations. In other cases, if an event is broadcast under a license in several countries, operators
allow viewers to select another language to watch the program, which is normally in English. Lastly, to
these supplementary audio services should be added the possibility of silencing the audio commentary
of a program and watching it just with ambient sound.
It is no coincidence that the aforementioned elements introduced by TV operators to enhance the
participatory experience of viewers are associated with the videoludic universe, particularly sports video
games (Marín-Montín, 2014). On the other hand, the remediation of television in sports video games
is a phenomenon that highlights the media convergence and, in turn, has spurred the development of
integrated sports experiences (Stein, 2013). To illustrate these synergies, a number of elements will now
be described in further detail below.
First and foremost, the multi-camera tool that digital television offers in some sports broadcasts is
related to the experience of gamers accustomed to modifying their perspective with the game controls
depending on the narrative moment. In motorsports video games, the choice of subjective camera angles
enhances the immersive experience. This element would subsequently be employed in TV broadcasts of
motorsports, like Formula 1 and MotoGP, including on-board technology making it possible to view the
action from the vehicles of the drivers. Secondly, the replay tool of many video games is related to one
of the most important TV resources in the narrative of live sports broadcasts. For instance, games like
the popular FIFA (Electronic Arts Sports), in its different versions, allow players to activate replays from
different angles and to modify the frame speed during play. For the first time ever, FIFA 18 offered 360º
replays, thus emulating the spectacular nature of TV soccer broadcasts. Thirdly, mention should go to
the split-screen tool of video games, which first appeared on television. In sports video games, this tool
is commonly used to display their different aspects in a fragmented manner, from simultaneous camera
angles to graphic data relating to the action. The race simulation section of the video game Pro Cycling
Manager (Cyanide) – developed under a license by the Tour de France – has multiscreen settings that
offer comparisons during the game, ranging from the choice of perspective to viewing the multiplayer
option. Lastly, as regards sound it is important to note the influence of major sports broadcasts on the
development of sports video games.
All these synergies are a result of business partnerships between major sports events and video game
developers. Accordingly, these video games usually feature popular sports commentators with an eye to
enhancing the interactive experience of players. All of these examples underscore the evident dialogic
Televised Sporting Events
relationship between sports video games and TV sports broadcasts. By the same token, the links between
sports fans and gaming should also be highlighted, one of which is the experience offered by televised
sports, which is at the point of convergence with sports video games (Stein, 2013).
In recent years, the cost of producing sports events and that of their broadcasting rights has risen due
to increased competition between TV operators and platforms. This is why those costs are applied more
and more to users by putting up subscription and access fees. Be that as it may, the economic, cultural
and technological relationship of TV sports broadcasts is one of the greatest assets of the media in the
twenty-first century (Schultz & Wei, 2013). The owners of the broadcasting rights of major sports events
are resorting to digital platforms and developing complementary apps to obtain the highest return on
investment (Blake, 2017). The consolidation of the Internet and the growth of digital platforms, mobile
devices and social media have offered sports fans a wider range of opportunities for “live” interaction
with content. Hence, “Broadcast television is now supplemented by an array of other platforms, including
Internet-enabled television sets, mobile (also known as cell) phones, tablets, game consoles, desktop,
laptop and notebook computers” (Rowe & Hutchins, 2014, p. 9). Notwithstanding the digital and social
media era, television continues to be a key component of this “new media” ecology. But it should also
be noted that television is no longer conceived in isolation from these new media. Thus, the sports pro-
grams of the major channels – which include a large variety of live events – are offered simultaneously
employing multimedia via different platforms that enable viewers to watch television on computers or
mobile devices (Haynes & Boyle, 2017).
A priori, the second screen provides an interactive environment in which sports fans can control, en-
rich, share and transfer content (Benigni, Porter & Wood, 2014). With another screen, this new form
of interaction goes beyond the services that can activated with a digital TV remote control unit. The
growing use of second screens to consume standard TV content has given rise to other technologies
for involving viewers in new forms of participation. For those audiovisual operators that own the live
broadcasting rights of sports events, incorporating the second screen in their live broadcasts is a highly
valuable resource. It is yet another way of engaging larger audiences and offering them new experiences
(Miah, 2014). This begs the following three questions: What contribution does the second screen make?
How do sports fans use second screen devices when watching television? And what type of content do
they consume? Depending on the event and the audiovisual operator, the second screen is put to many
uses in televised sports. All of these practices fulfil a number of functions, the most representative of
which will be considered below.
Modes of Use
Traditionally, sports fans have attempted to enhance their experiences of live events – both in the grand-
stand and on television – resorting to resources that increase their enjoyment. For example, for many
years it was common to see many sports fans listening to (transistor) radios, despite the fact that they were
watching the event in situ or on television. Nowadays, sports fans use second screens as complementary
devices to broaden their knowledge or to interact with other fans while watching television. For Owens
Televised Sporting Events
(2016), there are a number of requirements that are key to determining the effectiveness of the second
screen, which can be summarized as follows:
1. Having a user-friendly browser with an intuitive interface.
2. Offering much more information than can be obtained from watching television.
3. Supplementing the event.
4. Offering live and on-demand content.
5. Having a social media chat app is essential.
6. Encouraging gaming and rewarding viewers for their loyalty.
7. Conducting polls to discover viewers’ opinions on a variety of topics that allow them to feel that
they are contributing to the TV narrative.
8. Providing viewers with the wherewithal to customize the second screen with the elements of their
9. Including text alerts.
10. Incorporating tools that improve the experience of the event: camera angles and replays.
All these requirements are supplementary and can be integrated so to make the second screen more
The use of social networking sites is one of the defining elements of the second screen that have be-
come most widespread in TV consumption. At present, if an organization does not have a social media
presence, it will engage audiences for less time, since the Internet is where the online experience takes
place (Miah, 2017). In this connection, TV sports broadcasts tend to be programs that have an important
impact on social media and, consequently, encourage viewers to use second screens (Delima-Ruiz &
Gutierrez-Coba, 2018). The fact that viewers are familiar with this communication tool – Facebook,
Twitter and Instagram, among others means that it is the most leveraged resource for coproducing
content parallel to the live TV broadcasting of a sports program. This is owing to the fact that, with the
advent of social media, the concept of audience has diversified. What makes this new medium stand out
is that neither is there a generic way of using these platforms, nor a sole channel viewed by all. Social
media not only allow companies to fine tune their marketing strategies for engaging users, but also of-
fer them a channel through which they can voice their social concerns more effectively (Miah, 2017).
On the other hand, the aim of this type of business partnership is to generate synergies between
television and social media in the current multitask culture in order to encourage the public to
participate (Fernández, Ramajo, & Arauz, 2014). This leads to collaboration between TV channels
and social networking sites. For some time now, the company NBC has had agreements in place with
social networking sites to distribute sports content up until 2032. For instance, during the 2020 Tokyo
Olympic Games NBC Universal will broadcast for the first time a special live program exclusively via
Twitter (Draper, 2019).
In point of fact, Twitter is currently one of the most frequently used social networking sites in TV
sports programs, which use hashtags to foster second screen participation. Many live TV sports programs
display a specific hashtag in the upper left-hand corner of the screen to engage viewers. In some cases,
when programs invite viewers to participate on social media, there can even be feedback with them if the
comments that they have posted are mentioned. In other cases, the chat thread proposed by the program
opens up another channel parallel to the televised event, through which users ask questions, express their
views or provide information and curiosities. Since it has a relevant impact on the audience, however, a
Televised Sporting Events
chat is a tool that needs to be integrated. Hence, in sports programs it is essential that commentators or
expert guests be able to answer the questions posed by social media users in real time (Owens, 2016).
Another of the contributions of second screens to sports programs are apps that supplement the recep-
tion options offered by television. Some second screen tools were developed even before the advent of
digital television. The novelty now lies in making them available to viewers at the same time as the TV
program signal. They are apps that TV operators make available to users on different devices (smart-
phones, tablets, desktop and laptop computers, consoles, etc.). One of these tools is related to cameras
and allows users to choose angles different from those provided by the program signal. Depending on
the sports event and the type of TV channel covering it, there are different variants. In the United States,
the TV coverage of the 2012 Super Bowl enabled viewers to select additional camera angles differing
from those provided by NBC’s main signal. Thanks to this extra content, viewers could select different
visualization options and combinations, including second screens, available through NFL Mobile, NBC- and (Brodkin, 2012). In Europe, many public and free-to-air private TV channels
have begun to offer viewers this additional service, allowing them to choose different camera angles in
major sports events. A number of examples will now be discussed below.
In 2013, the operator France Télévisions – responsible for producing the Tour de France – launched
a novel digital device for watching the multiple stage bicycle race on screens other than television. For
the first time, viewers could choose between four cameras located in different parts of the course. Thus,
the camera motorbikes offered viewers the experience of watching the race from different angles of their
choice. Called “le multicam”, this transmedia tool, designed to be used as a second screen and which
also features a split screen showing all of the camera signals simultaneously, is available on the portal (Bette, 2013). Many other TV operators offer a generic option, called “mosaic”, which
allows viewers to do much the same. This is now a matter of course in the interactive TV coverage of
motorsports, like the aforementioned example of Movistar TV. Another example of this practice was the
TV coverage of the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil. Mediaset – the owner of the broadcasting rights of
this major sports event in Spain – provided viewers with a tool that allowed them to choose between six
additional signals during the matches broadcast live on television and the Internet. Additional content
could be watched on the TV channel and with the Mediaset Sport’s app. Together with the
program signal, viewers had the following options: a tactical camera, two cameras covering the benches
and two further cameras following the star players of each team. As to marketing, the TV company
coined the following slogan: “Become your own director and watch each match from the perspective of
your choice” (Telecinco, 2014).
Second Screen Analysis - The 2017 Vuelta a
España and the 2019 Tour de France
With the aim of answering the research questions posed above, the specific case of cycling will now be
analyzed by focusing on the sport’s most outstanding events. Specifically, an analysis is performed here
on the second screen apps launched by the Spanish public broadcasting company RTVE and the pan-
European TV channel Eurosport.1 For decades now, professional road bicycle racing would have been
inconceivable without TV coverage, for its live broadcasting underpins a spectacular sport that depends
on advertising revenues from the brands sponsoring the teams (Marín-Montín, 2012). Furthermore, it is
a multistage sport covering considerable distances, all of which calls for a complex technical task force
to produce and transmit the TV signal (Fandiño, 2002). As in other professional sports, the organizing
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bodies of both events – Unipublic and Amaury Sport Organization, respectively – are responsible for
regulating and marketing La Vuelta and the Tour de France, with exclusive TV broadcasting rights.
In 1983, La Vuelta began to be broadcast live by TVE, the public broadcaster in Spain. Since then,
the coverage of the event has evolved constantly, an evolution characterized chiefly by the technological
advances that have influenced its narrative development. Since starting to develop online communica-
tion, the Spanish operator has introduced new services and apps that reinforce its TV content. During
the 2012 edition of La Vuelta, viewers could watch each stage live or on a deferred basis by accessing
archives hosted on the portal On the other hand, to encourage viewers to use second screens
during the live broadcasts, TVE offered them the possibility of posting their queries on Teledeportes’
blog (En Ruta) and on social media (Facebook and Twitter). Specifically, viewers sent their questions
to Carlos de Andrés (presenter) and Pedro Delgado (commentator), who then answered them during the
program. But due to the deluge of questions, they had to be filtered. In addition, to reinforce audience
engagement, the program would reward some of the viewers for their questions with cycling equipment
(Marín-Montín, 2012).
In the 2017 edition of La Vuelta, the use of second screens was bolstered by a novel multi-camera tool
designed for other devices. Based on France Télévisions’ “le multicam” service for the Tour de France,
viewers accessed “La Vuelta, live” with’ app. This enabled them to watch the race, while choosing
between different program signals from three camera motorbikes and the helicopter camera. As to sound,
when viewers selected any one of these four cameras, they heard ambient sound coming from both the
vehicles and the race. The viewer has additional content differing from those provided by TVE’s main
signal incorporating tools that improve the experience of the event (Owens, 2016). One of the’
app options provided viewers customize the content for full screen mode. On the other hand, when the
user chose one of the camera options, the second screen introduced additional graphic information (e.g.
“Follow La Vuelta on Motorbike 3”). Furthermore, this specific use of second screen allowed viewers
to share additional content on social networks (Facebook, Twitter and google +). In the 2018 edition of
La Vuelta, viewers could yet again avail themselves of the multi-camera option, something that is now
well-established in the broadcasting of other major sports events, such as the Sanfermines bull runs, and
the Goya awards ceremony for Spanish cinema.
The Tour de France is the most important international road cycling race in the world. In its 2019
edition, the international signal transmitted by France Télévisions was distributed in 190 countries,
with 100 channels broadcasting the event live (Ciclismo a fondo, 2019). In Spain, RTVE and Eurosport
were the operators responsible for broadcasting the race, with a special program available on their TV
channels and specific online portals. In the case of the public broadcasting company RTVE, the race
could be watched live on the channels Teledeporte and La 1, which alternated depending on the stage
to engage larger audiences. Moreover, the same program was distributed via the portal, with
additional components. To favor interactivity with viewers on social media, a hashtag (for instance,
#TourRTVE21J) was displayed each day in the top left-hand corner of the screen. And it was during
the live broadcasting of the race that the audience participated most. The presenter Carlos de Andrés,
the commentator Pedro Delgado and the special guest invited to the program each day would respond
directly to the questions asked by followers on Twitter. In this sense, the duration of the stages – which
normally last over three hours – made it possible to read out the answers or comments of viewers, thus
providing additional program content particularly when nothing interesting was happening in the race.
A good example of this is the comment made by Pedro Delgado during the last stage: “Here’s another
question from Magnus Pym: while INEOS is still about, you, the organizers, can design the best stages
Televised Sporting Events
that you’re capable of coming up with, since they’ll take it upon themselves to say how the stage should
be raced.” Besides the use of social media, the portal offered viewers an additional service with
the multi-camera broadcasting of up to eight signals: two program signals (La 1 and Teledeporte),
five from the camera motorbikes and one from the finish line. Depending on the device, viewers were
provided with a lateral menu on screen with the different signals, plus a box with the selected option
featuring prominently on the other side.
As regards Eurosport’s coverage of the 2019 edition of the Tour de France, this differed from RTVE’s.
Eurosport is a private media outlet that is available on pay-to-view platforms. The special program
designed for broadcasting the Tour de France was distributed via the channel Eurosport 1 and on its
online portal with the pay-to-view app Eurosport Player. Despite the fact that Eurosport was one of the
first channels to include audience forums and social networking sites in its broadcasts of road cycling
races, unlike RTVE it did not use this tool for its coverage of the 2019 edition of the Tour de France.
Instead, a strategy for engaging the audience was implemented on Eurosport Player. Specifically, it is an
on-demand tool that allows viewers, among other options, to access the live broadcasts of major sports
events, like the Tour de France. The app offers subscribers a multi-camera menu with extra content, which
is not broadcast on Eurosport 1, which in combination with television becomes a second screen. Unlike
RTVE, the Eurosport Player app did not offer options for sharing the extra content on social networks.
As on RTVE, viewers can choose between five camera motorbike signals and that of the camera covering
the finish line. However, Eurosport Player allowed higher levels of customization than RTVE app, as it
also offers the option of watching the program with ambient sound and the possibility of rewinding 30
seconds at any point. Lastly, as to its functioning, Eurosport’s app has a larger interface and it is more
intuitive and fluid than RTVE’s, above all when interacting to select the multi-camera tool.
In the light of the foregoing, the current use of the second screen in live TV sports broadcasts is con-
ditioned by the following factors:
1. The broadcasting of each sport creates a type of individual discourse, for which reason it is neces-
sary to adapt its TV narrative to the second screen.
2. The use of social media in programs of this type should be adequately managed by TV operators
during broadcasts. Channels sometimes leverage social media without discretion, using them as
content fillers that have nothing to do with the event in question.
3. The technical time delay currently characterizing digital television, due to the compression and
decompression of the signal, is compounded in the case of online broadcasting. This gives rise to
synchronization issues when simultaneously watching a live sports event on two screens.
4. The additional content provided by second screens enables viewers to customize the reception of
sports events with new tools. Nevertheless, these elements should logically enhance the experience
of viewers without saturating them with information.
5. In order to reinforce emotional trust in and engagement with sports programs, there is a need for
updated resources that cater to specific audience segments consuming this type of content. TV
operators should perform market research adapted to the new media in order to improve the quality
of their services.
Televised Sporting Events
The progressive evolution of consumer habits, which are shifting from traditional TV content to that
available on mobile devices, is transforming the viewing experience offered by sports programs. On the
one hand, the digital TV model is incorporating new tools that offer the viewers of live sports programs
the possibility of customizing their viewing experience. During the next few years, it will be primarily
the pay-for-view digital platforms that will continue to incorporate the largest number of developments in
these new uses. On the other, those TV channels that own the broadcasting rights for sports events have
opted for developing specific apps for their exclusive webcasting. Since August 2019, Mediaset – one of
the main Spanish TV operators – has been the first to offer the main soccer competitions via a paid app.
In parallel, specific streaming services for sports webcasts are beginning to appear. The international
pay-for-view platform DAZN2 offers subscribers in different countries the main soccer and motorsports
competitions. In Spain, the free-to-air streaming platform LaLigaSportsTV3 is dedicated to sports with
less media coverage and includes live broadcasts of different competitions in its programing. This di-
versification in the distribution of sports content will allow for exploring new research opportunities
so as to determine whether the second screen phenomenon is transitory or will continue to coexist with
the first screen. Likewise, the study of the reception of sports content during broadcasts will make it
possible to identify user behavior more precisely.
The advent of second screens for consuming sports content has modified the role of audiences. TV
operators seek to reinforce the interactive experience of viewers with different resources that foster
engagement. In addition to being the most used channel to encourage audiences to participate, social
media also achieve the greatest relevance during live sports broadcasts. The development of apps has
adapted the interactive options for second screens so that they can be visualized on different devices.
In many cases, they are elements already existing on digital television and in video games, such as the
multi-camera tool. Nevertheless, due to the rising cost of broadcasting rights for major sports events, only
large audience numbers or the subscription to pay-for-view channels will make it possible to capitalize
on this type of additional content. Barring competitions like La Vuelta and the Tour de France broadcast
by public TV corporations, the development of new apps that enhance the experience of sports fans will
require further spending on their part.
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Ambient Sound: Real background sound elements. During a sports broadcast, it is supplemented
by the narration and comments in the foreground.
Broadcasting Rights: Business contracts between media outlets – especially TV channels – for the
live broadcasting of major events.
Interactive Television: The evolution of the TV medium towards a more participatory environment
for viewers. Driven by digitization, it has different levels and services.
Live Broadcasting: The transmission of an event without a significant delay.
Multi-camera: A tool that allows viewers to select different cameras during the live broadcasting
of a program.
Multiscreen: A viewing mode that simultaneously offers several live content signals.
Program Signal: The final transmission of images and sound by the producer for its TV broadcasting.
Televised Sporting Events
Replays: Recourse to audiovisual language that serves to clarify actions that have gone unnoticed
during a live broadcast.
1 A private European TV network offering sports content. Created in 1989, with headquarters in
France, it is operated by the Discovery Group Inc. and the channel TF1.
2 Streaming platform offering live and on-demand sports content, established in 2015 with head-
quarters in the United Kingdom. It belongs to the Perform Group.
3 Over-the-top (OTT) service belonging to LaLiga, which since 2019 has been offering live, free-
to-air broadcasts of Spanish sports competitions via multiple devices.
Table of Contents
Preface .................................................................................................................................................xix
Acknowledgment ............................................................................................................................xxviii
Section 1
Digital Narratives
Chapter 1
The Aesthetic of New Media and Communication Devices in Film and Television Language ............. 1
Alberto Hermida, University of Seville, Spain
Chapter 2
Televised Sporting Events: Applications of Second Screens ............................................................... 15
Joaquín Marín-Montín, University of Seville, Spain
Chapter 3
The Mirror Effect and the Transparent City in Audio-Visual Non-Dramatic Fiction: Comedic
Autofiction on Television ...................................................................................................................... 30
Inmaculada Gordillo, University of Seville, Spain
Chapter 4
The Handmaid’s Tale (2017) or Hulu’s Major Investment in Great Storytelling ................................. 43
Ángeles Martínez-García, University of Seville, Spain
Chapter 5
Audience Engagement and Transmedia Adaptation: The Case of The Lizzie Bennet Diaries ............ 56
María Heredia-Torres, University of Granada, Spain
Chapter 6
Apichatpong Weerasethakul’s Primitive as a Model of an Expanded Narrative .................................. 76
Milagros Expósito Barea, University of Seville, Spain
Chapter 7
Augmented Reality and Franchising: The Evolution of Media Mix Through Invizimals .................... 90
Miguel Ángel Pérez-Gómez, University of Seville, Spain
Chapter 8
The Poetics of Videogames: The Logic of Sense and Meaning in the Videoludic Discourse ............ 103
Luis Navarrete-Cardero, University of Seville, Spain
Chapter 9
An Epistemology of the Event for the Digital Media: From Lewis Carroll to Elsagate ..................... 115
Juan J. Vargas-Iglesias, University of Seville, Spain
Section 2
Social Media, Marketing Online, and Digital Promotion Strategies
Chapter 10
Symbolic Consumption in the Online World: The Construction of Social Identity and Fashion
Influencers ........................................................................................................................................... 130
Maria-Teresa Gordillo-Rodriguez, University of Seville, Spain
Paloma Sanz-Marcos, University of Seville, Spain
Chapter 11
The Book Trailer as a Publishing House Promotional Tool: Current Situation of Publishers in
Spain ................................................................................................................................................... 147
Gloria Jiménez-Marín, University of Seville, Spain
Rodrigo Elías Zambrano, University of Seville, Spain
Chapter 12
The Role of Prosumers in the Interactive and Digital Processes of Public Relations: The
Organisation of Events and Influencers as the New Emerging Stakeholder ....................................... 161
Marta Pulido Polo, University of Seville, Spain
Chapter 13
Lux Radio Theatre: Radio, Film, and Advertising – A Fortunate Encounter ..................................... 175
Juan Carlos Rodríguez-Centeno, University of Seville, Spain
Chapter 14
360° Video as an Opportunity for the Inclusion of Product Placement ..............................................188
Jani Pavlič, University of Maribor, Slovenia
Tina Tomažič, University of Maribor, Slovenia
Chapter 15
Branded Content: Analysis of Case Studies and Measurement of Its Effectiveness Using
Neuromarketing Techniques ...............................................................................................................215
Patricia Núñez Gómez, Complutense University of Madrid, Spain
Luis Mañas-Viniegra, Complutense University of Madrid, Spain
Blanca Miguélez Juan, University of the Basque Country, Spain
Chapter 16
An Approach to Motivation Research From Advertising Strategy: From Freud to the Iconic
Brand ................................................................................................................................................... 239
Jorge David Fernández Gómez, University of Seville, Spain
Section 3
Political Communication
Chapter 17
A Narrative of Impending Tyranny”: Ideological Extremism and Internet Use in the Tea Party
Movement ........................................................................................................................................... 255
Antonio Pineda, University of Seville, Spain
Bianca Sánchez-Gutiérrez, University of Seville, Spain
Chapter 18
The Social Media Politicians: Personalisation, Authenticity, and Memes ......................................... 272
Víctor Hernández-Santaolalla, University of Seville, Spain
Chapter 19
Electoral Propaganda Through Televised Fiction: The Online Communication During 2019
Spanish General Elections ..................................................................................................................287
Elena Bellido-Pérez, University of Seville, Spain
Mayte Donstrup, University of Seville, Spain
Chapter 20
Post-Truths and Fake News in Disinformation Contexts: The Case of Venezuela ............................. 306
Maria del Mar Ramirez-Alvarado, University of Seville, Spain
Chapter 21
The Use and Management of Public Information in Social Media: A Case Study of Town and
City Councils Throughout Andalusia on Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube ....................................... 321
Inmaculada Sánchez-Labella Martín, University of Seville, Spain
Section 4
Business Models: Netflix as Paradigm
Chapter 22
Content Bubbles: How Platforms Filter What We See ....................................................................... 338
Antonio Gómez-Aguilar, University of Seville, Spain
Chapter 23
Netflix in Spain, Spain in Netflix ........................................................................................................ 351
Mónica Barrientos-Bueno, University of Seville, Spain
Chapter 24
An Analysis of Netflix España Campaigns: Paquita Salas Case Study .............................................. 367
Irene Raya Bravo, University of Seville, Spain
María del Mar Rubio-Hernández, University of Seville, Spain
Chapter 25
The Expanded Story From Transmedia as a Business Model: The Case of Stranger Things ............ 382
Virginia Guarinos, University of Seville, Spain
Sergio Cobo Durán, University of Seville, Spain
Compilation of References ............................................................................................................... 396
About the Contributors .................................................................................................................... 446
Index ................................................................................................................................................... 454
The World Cup is among the most popular televised sport events. This case study examined how enjoyment from and transportation into World Cup broadcasts affected WhatsApp use on a second screen. The authors hypothesized a negative correlation between World Cup enjoyment and WhatsApp use (both match related and unrelated), mediated by transportation into the match. Based on an online survey of 454 participants, they found that the more enjoyment the viewers experienced, the less they used WhatsApp for non-match-related purposes and (contrary to their hypothesis) the more they used it for match-related purposes. It was also found that the more enjoyment viewers experienced, the more transported they were into the match, leading to higher match-related and lower non-match-related WhatsApp use.
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The emergence of the COVID-19 has affected Live TV content production. Televised sporting events have changed competitions calendars and the return has been conditioned by the evolution of the pandemic. In most cases, the presence of the public is not allowed on sports grounds. Major sporting events have been modified in their television coverage subject to the provisions of health authorities. The purpose of this article is to examine the adjustments made in the television production from a representative group of sporting events during the development of the health crisis. It also aims to identify how the innovations brought influence the audiovisual process of contents. An applied methodology was based on the case study. The purpose of this is to take as a reference two specific cases of television adaptations: European football and NBA competitions. Regarding the analysis of the selected data, they were examined from the elements that make up the grammar of television production applied to sports. The results obtained indicate how the integration of innovations during TV broadcasting of major sports events allowed to enhance the audience experience, especially due to the increase in virtual resources
Full-text available
La televisión actual busca un espacio de reubicación dentro del panorama mediático convergente. En los últimos años, la multiplicación de canales, la consolidación de plataformas online, los cambios de hábitos del público, el envejecimiento de la audiencia y la débil conexión con el público joven han provocado transformaciones que han afectado a los contenidos televi­ sivos. Este trabajo estudia la evolución de la televisión generalista durante el perio­ do comprendido entre 2007 y 2016, en que confluyen factores contextua­ les y estructurales que han determina­ do su desarrollo actual, formando un oligopolio en torno a los grupos Atres­ media y Mediaset. Juntos, acumulan el 86,4% de la inversión publicitaria y el 57,2% del total de la audiencia en 2016 (Barlovento, 2017). Los resultados sugieren que la televi­ sión generalista ha experimentado un proceso de adaptación a un entorno altamente competitivo y adverso, que Television seeks a space for relocation within the convergent media lands­ cape. In recent years, the multiplication of channels, the consolidation of online platforms, changes in audience habits, the aging of the classical audience and the weak connection with young au­ dience have provoked transformations that have affected television content. This paper studies the evolution of ge­ neralist television during the period from 2007 to 2016, when contex­ tual and structural factors converged. These factors have determined the cu­ rrent development of television, forming an oligopoly around the Atresmedia and Mediaset groups. Together, they account for 86.4% of the advertising investment and 57.2% of the total au­ dience in 2016. The results suggest that generalist te­ levision has undergone a process of adaptation to a highly competitive and adverse environment, which has forced it to reinforce its brand positioning and differentiation.
Full-text available
This article presents a case study of a series of Swedish football commentary webcasts where both producers and users engage in communication with each other during the FIFA World Cup in 2014. The main aim is to identify what the participants do to construct sociable bonds with each other using the technological affordances available, specifically those connected to second screens. Second screening is approached as a thoroughly sociable activity rather than a practice you engage in for primarily instrumental reasons like finding facts or statistics. The analysis shows how users and producers adopt strategies of inclusion oriented to creating a joint sense of “being here together” in the community that is formed around the official hashtag expressenvm. The results indicate that second screen setups of this kind have the potential of displacing the big TV screen and its live sports event, at least for a specific user crowd.
Full-text available
Digital technology is changing everything about modern sports. Athletes and coaches rely on digital data to monitor and enhance performance. Officials use tracking systems to augment their judgment in what is an increasingly superhuman field of play. Spectators tune in to live sports through social media, or even through virtual reality. Audiences now act as citizen journalists whose collective shared data expands the places in which we consume sports news. In Sport 2.0, Andy Miah examines the convergence of sports and digital cultures, examining not only how it affects our participation in sport but also how it changes our experience of life online. This convegence redefines how we think of about our bodies, the social function of sports, and the kinds of people who are playing. Miah describes a world in which the rise of competitive computer game playing—e-sports—challenges and invigorates the social mandate. Miah also looks at the Olympic Games as an exemplar of digital innovation in sports, and offers a detailed look at the social media footprint of the 2012 London Games, discussing how organizers, sponsors, media, and activists responded to the world’s largest media event. In the end, Miah does not argue that physical activity will cease to be central to sports, or that digital corporeality will replace the nondigital version. Rather, he provides a road map for how sports will become mixed-reality experiences and abandon the duality of physical and digital.
Henry Jenkins, former professor of humanities, MIT, is one of the leading science authorities in the analysis of New Media. Today, he is Professor of Communication, Journalism, and Cinematic Arts at USC. In this dialogue, Jenkins explains how technology is transforming the traditional view of humanities. He outlines his vision of convergence culture in his book, Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide . He explains why he thinks the idea of copyright is an aberration. He goes on to relate the causes for conglomerates losing control of media flows and how to deal with this situation. He describes the new logic framework under which our current participatory culture is run. He defines himself in this dialogue as a critical utopian trying to demonstrate how to harness the great power that changes taking place in new media have on people. Emphasizing the ‘new social skills’, which bring about new forms of ethics, interactions, politics, types of economic activities and legal culture, in the clash between the new digital media and the old mass media.
Media sport researchers are frequently neglecting to analyse the rise, effects, and meanings of mobile media and communications. This situation is partly explained by the fact mobile media encompass practices, technologies, and markets that are grounded historically in the telecommunications and information technology industries, which sit apart from the broadcast (radio and television) and print (newspapers and magazines) media that dominated the transmission, circulation, and representation of professional sport for over a century. It is now time to build a research agenda dedicated to the study of mobile media and communications, especially given the proliferation of mobile digital computing and mobile Internet. Three reasons are presented in support of this argument. First, mobile media and telecommunications introduce stories into the history of media sport that need to be recognised if its contemporary features are to be properly contextualised and understood. Second, these stories are linked to an expanded range of meanings, technologies, and infrastructures captured by the term media that must now be accounted for. Third, mobile media reveal accelerating forms of hyper-commodification that are locking media sport into privately controlled market frameworks. A mobile research agenda also offers the potential for media sport scholarship to make a sustained contribution to the study of mediatisation processes, as well as mobile media and communications studies.
The Olympic Games are a global sports mega-event where the aggregation of mass audiences is still observable at a time when multiplying forms of personalized connective media – digital, mobile and social – are making inroads into media consumption habits. Using the 2016 summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, as a case study, this article examines the intersections between (1) broadcast television coverage of the Games, (2) digital live streaming of Olympic events via desktop computing and mobile apps, and (3) the social networking services, Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and Snapchat. It is argued that broadcast television anchors the flow of content across screens, with social networking services both extending the televisual logics of media sports coverage and emphasizing their own commercial influence and command of massive user numbers. This arrangement ultimately bolsters the power of television as the primary means through which sports mega-events are experienced.