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Until 2019, Tischeriidae, or trumpet moths, were totally unknown in Colombia. Here we review all currently available scanty data on the Colombian Tischeriidae and describe Astrotischeria recta Diškus, Mey & Stonis, sp. nov., a new species of trumpet moths from Valle de Cauca, Colombia. The new species is illustrated with photographs of the male genitalia, adults, and their habitats. In the current paper, we also briefly discuss the number of the Tischeriidae species in other Neotropical countries and provide renewed data.
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BIOLOGIJA. 2022. Vol. 68. No. 4. P. 189–199
© Lietuvos mokslų akademija, 2022
Four Tischeriidae species in Colombia,
including anew Astrotischeria species: is it
not too little for amegadiverse country?
*Corresponding author. Email: stonis.biotaxonomy@gmail.com
Jonas R. Stonis1*,
Arūnas Diškus2,
Wolfram Mey3
1State Research Institute
Nature Research Centre,
Akademijosg.2,
Vilnius 08412, Lithuania
2Vytautas Magnus University,
K.Donelaičiog.58,
Kaunas 44248, Lithuania
3Museum für Naturkunde,
Invalidenstr.43,
10115, Berlin, Germany
Until 2019, Tischeriidae, or trumpet moths, were totally un-
known in Colombia. Here we review all currently available scanty
data on theColombian Tischeriidae and describe Astrotischeria
recta Diškus, Mey & Stonis, sp.nov., a new species of trumpet
moths from Valle de Cauca, Colombia. enew species is illus-
trated with photographs of the male genitalia, adults, and their
habitats. In thecurrent paper, we also briey discuss thenum-
ber of theTischeriidae species in other Neotropical countries and
provide renewed data.
Keywords: Astrotischeria, leaf miners, new species, trumpet
moths
INTRODUCTION
Biologically, phylogenetically, and judging by
the results of various previous studies, trumpet
moths, Tischeriidae, or trumpet leaf miner moths,
are one of themost intriguing families of theleaf-
mining Lepidoptera. eunique specialised mor-
phological characters of Tischeriidae were sur-
veyed in the monographs by Braun (1972) and
Puplesis, Diškus (2003) as well as discussed in
numerous recent papers (Kobayashiet al., 2016;
Xu et al., 2017, 2018, 2021; Stonis et al., 2018,
2020a, 2020b, 2021a, 2021b, 2021c; Stonis & Solis,
2020). Recently, it was estimated that by theend
of 2021, 170 tischeriid species were described and
named globally (Dobryninaetal., 2022); current-
ly, the number for the world fauna has reached
183 species. eauthors of the latter publica-
tion have also provided temporal dynamics and
190 Jonas R. Stonis, Arūnas Diškus, Wolfram Mey
charts of authors involved in thedescription of
theTischeriidae species. However, some areas
of South East Asia, equatorial Africa, and tropi-
cal America are still poorly investigated (Sto-
nis, Solis, 2020). Moreover, despite thefact that
many new species were already collected, they
still await taxonomic description.
e history of Tischeriidae research is con-
sidered to have begun in 1898 with thenaming
of thefamily, or even much earlier, some 227
years ago (Dobryninaetal., 2022), with thede-
scription of thevery rst species Tischeria eke-
bladella (Bjerkander, 1795) that currently be-
longs to thefamily. In theNeotropics, thestudy
of the Tischeriidae fauna began in the late
19th-early 20th centuries with descriptions of
two species from theCaribbean (Walsingham,
1897), one species from southwestern Mexico
(Walsingham, 1914), one species from Guy-
ana, and three species from Ecuador and Peru
(Meyrick, 1915) (see Stonis et al., 2019a). At
present, twenty species in total are described
from theNeotropics.
For along time, nothing was known about
Tischeriidae from Colombia. Only in 2019,
thanks to some collecting in theValle del Cau-
ca region, southwestern Colombia, the rst
two species of Colombian Tischeriidae were
discovered. By drawing on these ndings, two
new species, A.colombiana Stonis & Vargas
and A.ochrimaculosa Diškus, Stonis & Var-
gas, were described and named. elatter spe-
cies, A.ochrimaculosa, is also known to occur
in Peru, whereas A. colombiana is currently
known only from Colombia (see Stoniset al.,
2019a). ediscovery of these species in Co-
lombia also revealed previously unknown host
plants from theAsteraceae and Malvaceae fam-
ilies (Stonisetal., 2019b).
Approximately at the same time, Wolfram
Mey was collecting in Cundinamarca, Cho-
achi (Colombia), and his eldwork resulted
in an unexpected discovery of anew Dishkeya
species, D.ursipedella Diškus, Mey & Stonis
(Stoniset al., 2022a). D.ursipedella is charac-
terised by rather outstanding morphology of
themale genitalia, and these data contributed
to our general knowledge about avery peculiar
Tischeriidae genus, Dishkeya Stonis (see Stonis
& Solis, 2020).
Our current examination of the material
collected by Wolfram Mey in Charca Azul,
El Cairo and Risaralda Sanctuario de Flora
y Fauna, Otún-Quimbaya Station (Figs 1–4)
in Colombia has resulted in thediscovery of
one more Tischeriidae species, Astrotischeria
recta sp.nov. is new species is characterised
by distinctive, relatively straight dorsal pro-
cesses of thevalva and an asymmetrical phal-
lus of the male genitalia; therefore, the data
on the species morphology and distribution
broaden our knowledge about theColombian
Tischeriidae and Astrotischeria in general.
In this paper, we document and name
thenew species and briey discuss thenumber
of theTischeriidae species in other Neotropical
countries as well as provide renewed data.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
e description of Astrotischeria recta sp. nov.
is based on materials deposited in thecollec-
tion of theNatural History Museum in Berlin
(Museum für Naturkunde, MfN), Germany,
with further transfer of theholotype to theUni-
versidad Nacional de Colombia.
Adults were caught at night time by using
abattery (12V)-operated light tower (F.Weber
company, Germany), equipped with two 15W
super actinic light tubes.
Genitalia mounts on microscope slides were
prepared following the ‘traditional’ method
described in detail by Stonis et al. (2022b).
emaceration of dissected abdomens was
done in 10% KOH. Genitalia capsules and phal-
lus were mounted in Euparal. Temporary and
permanent genitalia mounts were examined
and documented by using aLeica DM2500 mi-
croscope with an attached Leica DFC420 digi-
tal camera. Adults were measured and studied
with a Lomo 10 and aLeica S6D stereoscopic
microscopes, then photographed with a Lei-
ca S6D stereoscopic microscope and a Leica
DFC290 digital camera.
191
Four Tischeriidae species in Colombia, including a new Astrotischeria species: is it not too little...
Figs 1–4. Sites in Valle de Cauca, Colombia. 1–habitat of Astrotischeria recta Diškus, Mey & Stonis sp.nov.,
Charca Azul, El Cairo; 2, 3–same, Risaralda Sanctuario de Flora y Fauna; 4–Otún-Quimbaya Station
192 Jonas R. Stonis, Arūnas Diškus, Wolfram Mey
DESCRIPTION OF THE NEW SPECIES
Astrotischeria recta Diškus, Mey & Stonis, sp.
nov.
urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:F1F192B5-5398-
4932-B4A2-22DAE13647F0
Type material. Holotype: 1, COLOM-
BIA: Valle de Cauca, El Cairo, Charca Azul,
4°49’13”N, 76°10’16”W, elevation 1750 m,
18.ii.2019, leg. Wolfram Mey, genitalia slide
no. AD1122 (MfN). Paratypes (19): 16,
COLOMBIA: same label data as holotype,
genitalia slide no. AD1121 (one specimen
without abdomen) (MfN); 3, COLOMBIA:
Risaralda Sanctuario de Flora y Fauna, Otún-
Quimbaya Station, 4°44’30”N, 75°34’76”W, ele-
vation 1900m, 16.ii.2019, leg. W.Mey, collected
at night time, genitalia slide no. AD1123 (one
specimen with abdomen lost) (MfN).
Diagnosis. From the most similar Astro-
tischeria atlantica Diškus & Stonis, A.bac-
chariphaga Diškus & Stonis, and A.cornuata
Diškus & Stonis, the new species diers in
therelatively straight and wide dorsal processes
of the valva, short lateral lobes of the uncus,
and apically asymmetrical phallus.
Male (Figs 5–7). Forewing length 3.7–
4.1mm; wingspan 7.9–8.8mm (n=20).
Head. Frons and palpi golden cream; pecten
small, slender, golden cream; frontal tu com-
prised of long lamellar scales, yellowish grey,
sometimes glossy white to golden brownish
distally; collar relatively short and indistinctive,
glossy, comprised of brownish grey lamellar
scales; antenna longer than one half the length
of forewing; agellum dark grey on upper side
and underside, with rst basal segments (agel-
lomeres) usually yellowish cream on upper side.
orax. Tegula densely covered with brown-
black ochre-tipped or brown-grey yellow-
tipped scales. orax and forewing densely
speckled with brown-grey ochre-tipped scales;
spots, if present, indistinctive, irregular, formed
of dark grey scales near to thetornus and cos-
tal margin of theforewing; fringe pale grey to
cream grey, usually with an indistinctive (some-
times doubled) fringe line of brown-black
scales; forewing underside grey-brown, slightly
golden glossy with weak purple iridescence,
without androconia or spots, except for some
blackish special scales along thecostal margin
basally. Hindwing grey to pale grey on upper
side and underside, without androconia; fringe
pale grey. Legs brownish cream; forelegs and
midlegs densely covered with brown-grey (oc-
casionally brown-black) scales on upper side.
Abdomen. Brown-grey on upper side, yel-
lowish ochre, speckled with grey-brown scales
on underside; anal tus lateral, indistinctive,
brownish cream; genital segments covered with
brownish cream lamellar scales.
Genitalia (Figs 9–17) with capsule 550–
655µm long (or 650–670µm long if measured
from vinculum to valval tips), 280–300 µm
wide. Uncus (Figs 13–15) comprised of two
longer lateral lobes and two short, rounded,
distally pointed medial lobes (Fig. 14). Valva
410–430µm long (excluding thebasal process),
with long, relatively straight and wide dorsal
lobe (Fig.10). Anellus (Fig.11) thickened only
laterally, with indistinctive 1–2 papillae basally.
Vinculum large, distally triangular or round-
ed. Phallus about 550–590 µm long, slender,
apically divided, with two asymmetrical apical
lobes (Figs8, 9).
Female. Unknown.
Bionomics (Figs1–3, 19). ehost plant is
unknown; probably BaccharisL., Asteraceae
(see Remarks). Adults y in February. Other-
wise, thebiology is unknown.
Distribution. especies is known from
thesubtropical habitats of western Colombia at
an elevation of about 1750–1900m.
Etymolog y. especies name is derived
from the Latin rectus (straight, upright, cor-
rect) in thereference of thelong and relatively
straight dorsal processes of thevalva and rela-
tively long and typical Astrotischeria genital
capsule.
Remarks. ehost plant of Astrotischeria
recta sp.nov. is unknown, but all themost simi-
lar (and, supposedly, phylogenetically related)
species are trophically associated exclusively
with various plants of the genus Baccharis L.
(Asteraceae). erefore, it can be assumed that
A.recta is also aBaccharis-feeding species.
193
Four Tischeriidae species in Colombia, including a new Astrotischeria species: is it not too little...
Figs 5–9. Astrotischeria recta Diškus, Mey & Stonis sp.nov. 5 –male adult, holotype; 6, 7–same, paratypes;
8–phallus, lateral view, paratype, genitalia slide no. AD1121; 9–same, ventral view of theapex, holotype,
genitalia slide no. AD1122 (MfN)
194 Jonas R. Stonis, Arūnas Diškus, Wolfram Mey
Figs 10–12. Astrotischeria recta Diškus, Mey & Stonis sp.nov., holotype, genitalia slide no.AD1122 (MfN).
10, 12–ventral view of capsule with phallus inside; 11–anellus
195
Four Tischeriidae species in Colombia, including a new Astrotischeria species: is it not too little...
Figs 13–17. Astrotischeria recta Diškus, Mey & Stonis sp. nov., paratype, genitalia slide no.AD1121 (MfN).
13–15–uncus; 16, 17–lateral view of capsule with phallus removed
196 Jonas R. Stonis, Arūnas Diškus, Wolfram Mey
DISCUSSION
Someone may be surprised to learn that Tisch-
eriidae are rather poorly presented in many
scientic collections. edocumentation of
these tiny but ecologically and phylogenetically
interesting leaf-mining insects is usually ham-
pered by the lack of qualied specialists and
probably by thesmall size of thestudy object,
themicro moths (Stonisetal., 2019a).
e total number of Tischeriidae of theNe-
otropics now amounts to 28 described spe-
cies, including the newly discovered species
described in this paper. Here, we present an
updated account of thedescribed Tischeriidae
species by area or country: Caribbean countries
(three species), Mexico (two species), Guate-
mala (11 species), Belize (14 species), Hondu-
ras (three species) Guyana (one species), Co-
lombia (four species), Ecuador (ten species),
Peru (13 species), Brazil (two species), Bolivia
(seven species), Paraguay (one species), Uru-
guay (one species), Argentina (three species),
and Chile (one species) (Fig. 18). Some spe-
cies occur in more than one country, which ex-
plains some overlap, and thetotal (76) does not
coincide with thetotal 64 species known from
theregion. We did not list countries which have
no published Tischeriidae records.
Colombia is widely regarded as one of
the world’s ‘megadiverse’ countries possessing
a great complexity of ecological, climatic, bio-
logical, and ecosystemic components and host-
ing extraordinary biodiversity that accounts for
a signicantly large proportion of the Earth’s
total biodiversity. Meanwhile, the current
list of the Colombian Tischeriidae comprises
only about 2% of theworld’s Tischeriidae. Do
the four currently known Tischeriidae species
(Fig.20) already reect thefull picture of theac-
tual diversity of theColombian Tischeriidae?
e Tischeriidae issue is related not to ‘a lack
of species’ but thelack of eort and insucient
sampling throughout Central and South Amer-
ica, particularly in Colombia. We can roughly
speculate about 25–30 or even more species of
Tischeriidae in Colombia awaiting their dis-
covery.
Fig. 18. An updated account of thedescribed Tischeriidae species by country or area. Note that some spe-
cies occur in more than one country, which accounts for some overlap, and thetotal (76) does not coincide
with thetotal of 64 species known from theNeotropical region (countries with no published Tischeriidae
records were not listed)
197
Four Tischeriidae species in Colombia, including a new Astrotischeria species: is it not too little...
Figs 19–20. Colombian Tischeriidae. 19–Risaralda Sanctuario de Flora y Fauna, habitat of Astrotischeria
recta Diškus, Mey & Stonis sp.nov.; 20–distribution map of all currently known Tischeriidae species from
Colombia (map base, courtesy of Virgilijus Gerulaitis)
198 Jonas R. Stonis, Arūnas Diškus, Wolfram Mey
Recently, 14 Tischeriidae species were re-
ported to have been recorded from a single
tropical forest locality in Belize in Central
America (Stonisetal., 2020a). To date, this is
thehighest number of Tischeriidae species re-
corded from asingle locality worldwide and it
exhibits aremarkable range of morphological
structures. In its species numbers, theidentied
fauna from asingle site in Belize (Las Cuevas)
exceeds theentire European fauna and repre-
sents nearly one-fourth of theTischeriidae fau-
na of theNeotropics (Stonisetal., 2020a).
As stated earlier (Stonisetal., 2015), thecur-
rent situation with theColombian Tischeriidae
is still rather disconcerting and requires urgent
action in planning and extensive taxonomic in-
vestigation of Tischeriidae in dierent ecosys-
tems and habitats of this amazing country.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We are grateful to Professor Asociado Dr
Rodulfo Ospina-Torres and his wife Patricia,
our Colombian partners from theUniversidad
Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá.
Funding of collecting for this study was pro-
vided by theBundesministerium für Forschung
und Bildung, Germany (01DN16010) and
theVicerectoria de Investigacion de la Univer-
sidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá (Proyectos
de Importancia Institucional, Codigo Hermes
33103). We also thank the Empresa de Acue-
ducto y Alcantarillado de Bogotá (EAAB) for
authorisation of theaccess to theresearch area.
eexport permission was granted to thethird
author by theAutoridad Nacional de Licencias
Ambientales (ANLA) (Nos 00983 and 00994).
Received 2 October 2022
Accepted 13 October 2022
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ans. Zootaxa. 2021; 5071(1): 76–96. https://
doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5071.1.4
Jonas Rimantas Stonis, Arūnas Diškus,
Wolfram Mey
KETURIOS TISCHERIIDAE RŪŠYS KOLUM-
BIJOJE, TARP JŲ VIENA NAUJA ASTROTIS-
CHERIA: AR NE PER MAŽAI TOKIAI BIOLO-
GINE ĮVAIROVE GARSIAI ŠALIAI?
Santrauka
Straipsnyje aprašoma nauja mokslui mažųjų šeriuo-
taūsių (Tischeriidae) rūšis–Astrotischeria recta sp.
nov. Pateikiami naujausi, gerokai papildyti duome-
nys apie Tischeriidae rūšių skaičių kitose neotropi-
nio regiono šalyse.
Raktažodžiai: Astrotischeria, minuotojai, naujos
rūšys, mažieji šeriuotaūsiai
... Tischeriidae, commonly known as trumpet moths (or trumpet leafminer moths), is a relatively small lepidopteran family of leaf miners currently comprised of 186 described species globally (Stonis et al. 2020b(Stonis et al. , 2021a(Stonis et al. , 2021c(Stonis et al. , 2021d(Stonis et al. , 2022a(Stonis et al. , 2022bDobrynina et al. 2022), including the 12 new species described here. Tischeriids are not wellknown or common in museum holdings worldwide and are probably among the least studied lepidopteran groups of the tropical or subtropical regions worldwide (Stonis et al. 2020c(Stonis et al. , 2020b. ...
... It is interesting to note that two new species were described by Bernard Landry from the Galapagos (Landry & Roque-Albelo 2004), a remote world-famous archipelago. Recently, most species were discovered from the continental Central and South America Stonis & Diškus 2007Diškus & Stonis 2015;Stonis et al. 2016aStonis et al. , 2018aStonis et al. , 2019bStonis et al. , 2019cStonis et al. , 2020aStonis et al. , 2020bStonis et al. , 2020cStonis et al. , 2021bStonis et al. , 2021cStonis et al. , 2022aStonis et al. , 2022bStonis & Solis 2020) and East and South East Asia Stonis et al. 2014Stonis et al. , 2021dKobayashi et al. 2016;Xu et al. 2017Xu et al. , 2018Xu et al. , 2021Kim et al. 2022), tropical and subtropical Africa Mey 2010; including Madagascar (Lees & Stonis 2007). Dobrynina et al. (2022) found that 37 researchers worldwide have contributed to the description of Tischeriidae species. ...
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For the first time, genera of leaf mining Tischeriidae of the global fauna are reviewed and four new genera are described: Coptotrichoides Diškus & Stonis, gen. nov., trophically associated with Sapindaceae from Central and South America; Rytietia Diškus, Xu & Dai, gen. nov., trophically associated with Annonaceae from East and South East Asia; Pafazaria Diškus & Stonis, gen. nov., trophically associated with Fabaceae and Malvaceae from East and South East Asia; and Gnathitischeria Diškus, gen. nov., trophically associated with Malvaceae and Asteraceae from Central America. In addition to the descriptions of new genera, all previously described genera (Coptotriche Walsingham, 1890; Dishkeya Stonis, 2020; Tischeria Zeller, 1839; Manitischeria Diškus & Stonis, 2021; Neotischeria Diškus & Stonis, 2021; Paratischeria Diškus & Stonis, 2017; and Astrotischeria Puplesis & Diškus, 2003) are characterized and a pictorial identification key for all 11 genera is provided. Morphological and biological characteristics of all genera are supplemented with some molecular data. We described 12 new species: South East Asian Coptotriche sapaensis Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov.; Central American Coptotrichoides sapindoidum Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. and Tischeria neokristenseni Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov.; South East Asian Rytietia uncinata Diškus, Xu & Dai, sp. nov., East Asian R. chongyiensis Xu & Dai, sp. nov.; South East Asian Pafazaria capitata Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. and P. faboidica Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov.; Central American Neotischeria antigua Diškus & Remeikis, sp. nov. and N. subantigua Diškus & Remeikis, sp. nov.; South American Astrotischeria incae Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov.; and Central American Gnathitischeria atitlani Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. and G. arcana Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. The taxonomic rank of the East Asian subspecies Tischeria decidua siorkionla Kozlov, 1986 is elevated to species rank: T. siorkionla Kozlov (stat. nov.). The male genitalia of holotypes, paratypes, lectotypes or paralectotypes, or non-type specimens of some little-known species are examined for the first time. We provide the first morphological documentation for the following: Tischeria ceanothi lectotype and paralectotype; T. immaculata (stat. restored) paratype; Coptotrichoides deliquescens (Meyrick) lectotype and paralectotype; lectotypes of Coptotriche aenea (Frey & Boll), Astrotischeria plagifera (Meyrick), A. helianthi (Frey & Boll), and A. ephaptis (Meyrick); Coptotriche berberella (De Prins) paratype; and the first photographic documentation of Tischeria lvoskyi Kozlov holotype. Some non-type specimens deposited at NHMUK, including a few previously neglected species, are also examined and documented, including the American Astrotischeria solidagonifoliella (Clemens) and A. omissa (Braun). Nine new combinations are provided: Coptotrichoides deliquescens (Meyrick, 1915), comb. nov.; C. singularis (Stonis & Diškus) comb. nov.; C. suprafasciata (Diškus & Stonis) comb. nov., C. serjaniphaga (Remeikis & Stonis) comb. nov.; C. braziliensis (Diškus & Stonis) comb. nov.; Pafazaria jingdongensis (Xu & Dai), comb. nov.; Neotischeria explosa (Braun) comb. nov.; N. pallidipennella (Braun) comb. nov.; and Astrotischeria heteroterae (Frey & Boll) comb. nov. The synonymization of Tischeria longeciliata Frey & Boll, 1878 with Astrotischeria helianthi (Frey & Boll, 1878) is confirmed. One new species group, the Tischeria ceanothi group, is established. We also report a new distribution record of T. dodonaea Stainton from the Caucasus, Armenia. Three tables and 569 figures of adult external morphology, male and female genitalia, leaf mines, and cladograms based on molecular characters are provided.
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The article describes three new species of Coptotriche Walsingham, 1890 from China and adjacent northern Vietnam: C. camptotheca Xu & Dai, sp. nov. feeding on Camptotheca acuminata Decne. (Nyssaceae); C. turpinia Xu & Dai, sp. nov. feeding on Turpinia arguta (Lindl.) Seem. (Staphyleaceae); and C. asiana Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. The latter appeared to be a narrow oligophagous species feeding on various Symplocos Jacq.: S. sumuntia Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don, S. poilanei Guill., and Symplocos glauca (Thunb.) Koidz. (Symplocaceae). Nyssaceae and Staphyleaceae are novel host-plant families of Tischeriidae. The new species are illustrated with photographs of adults, male and female genitalia, and leaf mines. The article also briefly discusses about the proportion of monophagous and oligophagous species of Tischeriidae.
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