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A Way Forward: Psychological Adaptation and Transformation of Life Post COVID-19



This chapter focuses on the exclusive and social experiences of people in post-COVID-19 life. As it can be observed from the current scenario how people have already accepted COVID-19 as a part of their daily routine. That is from wearing masks to using hand sanitizers and other precautionary activities. Based on these observable changes and adaptation of habits, the current chapter will delve into the psychological causes based on various theoretical concepts and the present literature on how humans use varied mechanisms to adapt to aversive situations and emerge by transforming themselves to be more resilient than before. Likewise, the chapter will also focus on individual and social strategies that can be employed to further strengthen the resilience of people post COVID-19.
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A Way Forward: Psychological
Adaptation and Transformation
of Life Post COVID-19
Kanwar HamzaShuja, ArfaMubeen, SaniaMazher
and ShaziaTariq
This chapter focuses on the exclusive and social experiences of people in
post-COVID-19 life. As it can be observed from the current scenario how people have
already accepted COVID-19 as a part of their daily routine. That is from wearing
masks to using hand sanitizers and other precautionary activities. Based on these
observable changes and adaptation of habits, the current chapter will delve into the
psychological causes based on various theoretical concepts and the present literature
on how humans use varied mechanisms to adapt to aversive situations and emerge
by transforming themselves to be more resilient than before. Likewise, the chapter
will also focus on individual and social strategies that can be employed to further
strengthen the resilience of people post COVID-19.
Keywords: post COVID-19, social experiences, psychological adaptation,
transformation, theoretical concepts, resilience
. Introduction
Coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) began as a viral pneumonia in China in late 2019. By
March 2020, it has attained pandemic proportions as it transmitted rapidly through-
out most of the world. The ease of transmission, lack of population immunity, as well
as delayed responses in testing, lack of equipment, and the challenges in implement-
ing community-based measures to limit contact were all taking an unprecedented
toll on our collective health care, political, economic, and social-welfare systems [1].
COVID-19 has hitherto led to the sickening and loss of life for thousands of people
(Figure ). As initial evidence already indicates [2], it contains the potential of
leaving deep psychological scars on many. With its unpredictability and the need for
distance and isolation, COVID-19 has caused a tear in the fabric of our most funda-
mental methods of coping and calls for novel ways of adapting to and thinking about
crises. In this chapter, we will discuss numerous theories and mechanisms of psycho-
logical adaptation to life after COVID-19. Life after COVID-19 is peculiar from the life
before COVID-19. The mental health of people all over the globe has been affected.
But now people are coping and adapting to COVID-19.
OVID-19 Pandemic, Mental Health and Neuroscience - New Scenarios for Understanding...
The COVID-19 epidemic led to a significant shift in how individuals embark on their
routine lives and projects. To control the transmission of the virus, the triple shock of
proclaiming a national health emergency, enforcing an economic shutdown, and com-
bining social isolation and temporal distance became the conventional reaction, all of
which produced long-term effects on how people perceive and perform social behaviors.
From working to learning, from amusement to purchasing, from socializing to family life
and love connections, from the meaning of home and living environments to our ideas
and expectations of citizenship, nearly every sphere of practice has been impacted [3].
Sustainability experts refer to the epidemic as a possible catalyst for change in
the direction of a more ecologically sound, socially just, and ethical future [4]. The
crisis presents a once-in-a-lifetime chance to design a long-term transition depend-
ing on individual lifestyle changes, as well as a multi-stakeholder strategy build-up
of systemic-institutional changes toward a larger, low-carbon arrangement [5]. The
COVID-19-related watershed of changes provides both horror and promise to groups
working to promote sustainable development.
It was evident from the start of the epidemic that individualism was one of the
numerous ways the crisis manifested in our society. People raced to purchase prod-
ucts that they deemed essential. Grocery stores and supermarkets immediately ran
out of toilet paper rolls and hand sanitizers, owing to some people buying far more
than they needed and therefore exhibiting blatant contempt for the needs of others.
Individualism, on the other hand, indicates governments' failure to care for citizens
during challenging times [6].
The shutdown caused everyone's house the center of their existence, making it
the distinct location for a variety of functions that were not initially envisioned.
Excluding the populations like the elderly, few people would have expected to experi-
ence a life that was so physically and socially secluded. Isolation became the current
social norm overnight. These trends predict that previously out-of-home activities
will presently be exclusively conducted at home and that social relations and social
life will be limited to a smaller and more intimate circle of trusted (clean-reliable)
contacts. Accelerated trends allude to pre-COVID-19 initiatives that were scaled up
and amplified during the epidemic, achieving mainstream status [7]. These things
collectively induced a high level of mental distress and anxiety among people as was
observed in several studies [8].
Figure 1.
Worldwide cases of coronavirus.
A Way Forward: Psychological Adaptation and Transformation of Life Post COVID-19
The digitization and remote involvement of both functional and emotional aspects
of life, for example, have forced an internet-mediation of activities, which has pushed
online navigation from the periphery to the center. Work, recreation, study, com-
merce, and love were all taking place in internet-enabled contexts, with the qualities
of remoteness and multi-functionality established. Simultaneously, gamification of
material from the entertainment, social, and academic sectors grew in popularity,
combining virtual socializing and remote learning with immersive technology.
In the same way, wearing a mask was found to remain a visual feature that estab-
lished temporal separation as a public health strategy in a recent study done in the
Italian Venice metropolitan region [9]. Distances were measured by an operator oper-
ating a unique sensor-based “social distancing belt” between February 24 and April 29,
2020. “Unmasked,” “masked,do it yourself (DIY) masked,” “goggles masked,” and
“goggles DIY-masked” were all used interchangeably. People tended to stay closer to an
uncovered individual, but wearing a mask tended to increase the substantial distance
between them. This contradiction can be answered by considering humans' inherent
social nature, which promotes social over antisocial activity. Wearing a mask might
transform unintentional social conduct into intentional antisocial behavior [10].
Mask-wearing and social distance restrictions may be eased in the near future,
depending on danger levels. COVID-19 mitigation techniques might rapidly be
adopted to combat outbreaks and subsequently withdrawn after the threat has
passed—this would involve excellent communication. Without regulations, vulner-
able or risk-averse individuals may continue engaging in pandemic behaviors such
as wearing masks, particularly in congested areas like movie theatres and concert
venues. The most draconian COVID-19 methods, like school closures, lockdowns, and
travel restrictions, may no longer be acceptable to the public [11].
The instability of the contemporary globalized capitalist system, with its reliance
on transnational financialized trades, just-in-time manufacturing, and lengthy,
carbon-intensive international supply chains, has been revealed by COVID-19. It has
also demonstrated how small economies are often more robust to massive shocks and
can provide for themselves effectively and efficiently during a crisis. Economies based
on mutualism and solidarity, which are embedded, inclusive, frequently informal,
and turbulent, have thrived. For example, there has been a notable increase in soli-
darity and grassroots engagement in the domain of food provisioning, ranging from
widespread food donations to the poor in India and Pakistan to the supply of mobile
meals to disadvantaged groups in the United States and Canada [12].
Communities have bonded together to fill up holes in the system and assist people
in need, with civil-society organizations collaborating with concerned governmental
actors on occasion. In India's largely decentralized system, the state of Kerala, for
example, has taken the lead in responding to COVID-19 by providing food distri-
bution through free community meals organized by women's networks [13]. Such
examples are suggestive of the communal bonds that arose and facilitated resilience
in the aftermath of previous tragedies [14]. The question is whether such solidarity
is limited to the specific environment of an emergency, or whether it hints at future
potential economies.
COVID-19 risk reduction led to significant social isolation and loneliness, as
shown by increased anxiety, sadness, drug misuse, and suicide ideation. Sheer
pleasures, such as hugging family or friends, dining out, or seeing a grin that is
not disguised behind a protective mask, appeal to the public. Humans are sociable
creatures by nature. The United States began extensive socializing not long after the
1918 epidemic, with the Roaring Twenties bringing people together in crowded dance
OVID-19 Pandemic, Mental Health and Neuroscience - New Scenarios for Understanding...
halls, movie palaces, and speakeasies. If there is social utility, some epidemic behav-
iors may survive, at least in part. A hybrid working (both remote and in-person)
may outlive the epidemic, providing many people with a better work-life balance
and more housing options. For the time being, air travel may also remain stationary.
International traffic was 72 percent lower in December 2021 than in December 2019,
and it may not rebound until 2024 [11].
. Psychological adaptation after COVID- through the lens of
evolutionary psychology
According to evolutionary psychology, evolutionary changes shape not only the
physique but also the mind, where psychological systems are triggered, which are
thought to be psychological modifications meant to handle issues that previously
aided to survival and growth. Natural selection represents a crucial principle that
Darwin offered that underlies much of current psychology study. It directs psycholo-
gists to groupings of evolutionary issues associated with survival and development.
Evolutionary theory, according to Wiles [15], explains “the diversity of species that
has arisen through descent and adaptation from a distinguished ancestor.” It refers to
variations in life forms of living creatures over time as a result of inherent differences and
organic selection processes that contribute to more egregious preservation and fertility
rates of those better adapted to their surroundings, striving to increase the frequency of
unique characteristics in the inhabitants. Whereas it is commonly believed that variance
occurs at random intervals, natural selection guides the process and leads to the forma-
tion of multiple stressors that influence people differently, like access to food, global
warming, and other types of competitions between organisms in the similar area [16].
Exclusion of population groups due to location or biological constraints might
cause them to follow divergent evolutionary pathways, resulting in differentiation.
Furthermore, the evolutionary theory contends that the existing variety of living spe-
cies arose from a limited number of ancient predecessors [17]. The concept of evolu-
tion, as distinct from abiogenesis, thereby describes the cycle of exchange associated
with every species, like the era of modern humans and our evolution from universal
ancestors with other primates [18].
During the coronavirus epidemic in 2020, there will be significant variations
in how people experience their lives. Teaching and learning processes in academic
environments have evolved from conventional tactics such as face-to-face exchanges
to digital training, in which students utilize technology and computer devices to com-
municate with online content. Many businesses have failed as a result of lockdowns.
Those who can adjust to such alterations more rapidly and easily, on the other hand,
will attend more competition. Furthermore, social relationships have shifted in so
many aspects that the phrase “new normal” has become commonly used to character-
ize new appropriate behaviors that individuals have developed in response to the
epidemic. In this chapter, we discuss psychological features thought to indicate traits
of persons who can successfully adjust to challenges.
. Resilience: the psychological trait of being able to bounce back
For an exceptionally extended period, the word “resilience” has been hotly
disputed in psychology since it has diverse, complicated meanings depending on a
A Way Forward: Psychological Adaptation and Transformation of Life Post COVID-19
person, a community, and a country, if they designate it as a feature, a practice, or a
result. There are several ways to describe resiliency. The term “resilience” is derived
from the Latin word “Resilens,” which indicates “the elastic property of a material”
[19]. The capacity to come back from hardship, disappointment, and misfortune”
[20] is equally described as a talent that will later “advance in self-responsibility” [21].
Another description of resilience represents the capacity to respond to stress-related
situations calmly [22], like the capacity to restore instantly from traumatic circum-
stances [22, 23]. Furthermore, resilience is determined by whether people permit
themselves to be overpowered by pressure and hardship or if they endure and adapt to
obstacles [24]. Nevertheless, resilience can alter as a result of a person's development
and interaction with the world [25]. Individuals may be more resistant at points in
their life and less resilient at others [23].
In terms of cultural ramifications, the notion of resiliency varies according to
a person's surroundings and mastery expertise. Face-to-face conversations with
Afghans on their own meaning of the word “resilience” were utilized by researchers
who conducted research in Afghanistan [26]. The research demonstrated resilience,
which indicatesfaith.” They found that the Afghan people prioritized the future
above the past since it dictated their current problems and well-being because what
happened in the past could not be reversed. Similarly, as per the study of Michel
Ungar, which was undertaken in various nationalities, resilience can vary substan-
tially depending on cultural and contextual factors [27]. As a consequence, instead of
concentrating on individual resilience, we should improve people's levels of resilience
to boost resilience capacity in each person. This will lead to more possibilities for them
to maintain a livelier life [28]. This refers to the concept of systemic resiliency, or the
provision of excellent education and resources so that individuals may recognize their
capability [29].
Resilience training may help with both therapeutic and preventative strategies
for approaching problems. To begin, “the challenge model” proposes that if people
encounter the danger of a non-tragic exposure occurrence, they will enhance their
knowledge and manage it in the future [30]. For example, when teens are confronted
with a modest degree of risk variables, they can benefit from it and practice what they
have acquired when confronted with the same desperate circumstance in the future.
Children are prepared for emergency response procedures and how to respond to a
house fire during fire drills. Furthermore, “the compensating model” defines resil-
ience as a strategy for avoiding traumatic experiences [31]. This is reinforced by stud-
ies on teenage alcohol withdrawal, which will reduce the risk of suicide in teens [32].
Inexorably, “the protective factor model” proposes that if dangers are minimized,
the likelihood of a bad result decreases [30]. According to Andersson and Ledogar's
[32] research, when young individuals are not introduced to substances, they are less
prone to consume alcoholic beverages; consequently, reducing the risk for suicide.
Nevertheless, resilience exhibits some unique traits that set it apart from positiv-
ity, faith, and other attributes [33]. For example, being “proactive and reactive” in the
face of overwhelming odds is a resiliency attribute. It is also defined as “the ability to
come back” from traumas and life-altering situations [22, 34]. As a result, resilience
may be defined as positive attitudes on risk variables that may be identified as risks
that increase the likelihood of a poor consequence or decrease the likelihood of an
optimistic one [35]. Put differently, resilience entails doing something and respond-
ing to adversity. Optimism and hope, on the other hand, represent solely optimistic
states of thought. Briefly expressed, hope and optimism are best applied to events
that may occur with a plan and can be described using identifiable variables, whereas
OVID-19 Pandemic, Mental Health and Neuroscience - New Scenarios for Understanding...
resilience includes the need to be flexible, adjustable, and improvable in specific
conditions [36].
Keeping everything discussed above in mind, resilience may be acquired by
putting things in context and recognizing unreasonable thinking. It is eminent to
recognize a transformation is unavoidable to develop adaptability. Being both positive
and adaptable will aid a person in coping with adverse conditions. Lastly, learn from
history and improve the future [33]. There are several daily steps that everyone may
undertake to improve their resistance. For instance, individuals can go for a stroll to
nourish their bodies moving and generate endorphins into their bodies. People can
equally strike up conversations with someone they are familiar with and can have a
general discussion. Gathering a deep breath every time they are anxious may also be
beneficial. People who acquire this personality feature are more likely to reinforce
their self-responsibility,” allowing them to study more effectively and develop in a
vigorous manner since they have conquered challenges [37]. To explain the psycho-
logical effect of resilience, we can look at a recent ecological model that was suggested
by researchers based on resilience including various resources that were found to be
directly associated with resilience and non-resilience [38].
. Agility: the psychological trait of adapting to changes
Many individuals have explored the word “agility” or learning agility” and
attempted to define it. The capacity to retain from experience shows people's capacity
to control the changing requirements of their employment, according to the defini-
tion of agility” [39]. It was equally described as a person's capacity to study consists
of a broad and varied number of characteristics and proficiencies, including but are
not restricted to persons' intellectual ability [40, 41], eagerness to study and active
pursuit of educational possibilities [42, 43], and personal characteristics such as
openness to experience [44].
The potential to do so rapidly and in a variety of circumstances was also termed
agility [45, 46]. In their search for a more precise definition of the term, DeRue etal.
[47] revealed that learning agility has been predominantly associated with the capac-
ity to learn. They then defined academic agility as the aptitude to rapidly absorb a
situation and move between ideas flexibly in service of knowledge inside and between
interactions.” They also established a scheme of learning agility based on the findings
of Eichinger and Lombardo [48], which imply there are two essential elements of
learning agility: speed and flexibility.
According to the work of Eichinger and Lombardo [48], agility is essential for the
implementation of this psychological structure, as the building of learning agility
originated from the need to produce considerable numbers of competent workers
capable of performing successfully in a changing situation.” The research by Neubert
etal. [49] additionally notes that the association between learning agility and the
trend for no routine and dynamic workplace features is evident.” For instance, it is
crucial to select a worker with high agility so that he or she can adapt to or respond
to a variety of unforeseen situations. On a broader scale, Baran and Bible's [50] study
propose, At the group level, agility extends on what we know about high-performance
groups by adding behaviours and mindsets that facilitate insight making and swift
decision making.” Additionally, as a business attribute, agility may benefit the com-
pany in a variety of ways. Gligor etal. [51] provide six elements of the qualities of agil-
ity that contribute to the growth of a business, including the ability to quickly change
A Way Forward: Psychological Adaptation and Transformation of Life Post COVID-19
course, speed/accelerate processes, monitor the environment, encourage the client,
modify strategies and processes (versatility), and integrate processes across firms.
. Identification and training of possible vulnerable population
Psychologists have various tools that they have used to identify vulnerable
populations and individuals who were affected by COVID-19 pandemic. The most
common factors that were identified and linked with the pandemic were anxiety,
stress, depression, and suicidal ideations [52]. Training should be given to hospital
staff, and more psychological trainees must be hired to increase the reach of iden-
tifying possible cases. Additionally, online resources can be of great help as there
are several studies that used online survey methods for the collection of data from
individuals for connecting and associating possible linkages between COVID-19
and psychological issues [53]. With the help of such tactics, training of other medi-
cal staff can be of great use.
Moreover, resilience itself is a natural phenomenon that each human uses to a
varied extent on daily basis. If psychologists can use mediums like social platforms
to outreach to people and communities they can easily deliver their message across,
teaching people how to use the resources they have to overcome their distress and
fears and use their own capabilities and strengths in these times of need to emerge
into a better-transformed version of themselves.
. Post—COVID- as new era
The post—COVID-19 epidemic period became known as the “new normal.” It is
a time of hardships and insecurity. Flexibility, inquiry, risk minimization, education
by investigating, education by doing, and attention are all highly valued in today's
world. [54]. All conceptions would be undergoing metamorphosis in this new normal.
As the globe continues to confront socioeconomic challenges that highlight the need
for reform, these notions will become more innovative. The kind and direction of
change in the new normal would be determined by the type and quantity of programs
evaluated during the society's crisis or stability state. More inventive strategies are
anticipated to manage the constantly volatile market in this period. Many unique sorts
of obstacles are foreseen in every industry throughout the new normal. This should
increase the likelihood of creativity as a consequence of possibilities that come with
the obstacles, as well as resilience, which represent a necessary attitude for existence
during times of upheaval. This is essential as studies conducted during and post—
COVID-19 pandemic suggested distress of varying degrees, while stating the distress
flow to be continuous at the highest [55].
. Importance of inspiration and resilience during times of transformation
The new normal necessitates effective alternatives that in turn can utilize and spread
to several domains of life. At this pivotal juncture, it is vital to incorporate epidemic
measures into routine lives. Concludingly, it is a period for creativity and endurance,
which increases confidence in people and allows them to implement change [56].
The extreme turmoil caused by the COVID-19 epidemic generated unique possibilities
that can currently be observed in medical and social progress and undiscovered financial
concepts. With the rise of both dire moments and hazards, there are also concealed
OVID-19 Pandemic, Mental Health and Neuroscience - New Scenarios for Understanding...
possibilities. For instance, as the duration of the lockdown increased, individuals began
to experience worry or stress as a consequence of their concerns about their ultimate
possibilities, as a consequence of the volatility and unpredictability that impacted their
employment, educational ambitions, and overall life path. As a result, health officials and
other state authorities must implement more involvement and participation programs to
guarantee each individual has a supervisor to assist him or her in coping with the devas-
tating repercussions of the post—COVID-19 overflow. The advisor's duty is to investigate
the origins and attitude of motivation of the community engaged to promote their
resilience [57].
. A new journey of life and livelihood
More than ever before, this new normal is dictating how we live and earn a living.
For example, we must wholly, at present, live with and fix the underlying factors
that caused the disaster. Isolation difficulties, as well as taking and dealing with all
safeguards, are becoming the standard. The COVID-19 epidemic is even shifting our
criteria of life happiness away from cash and goods and toward capability, which
contributes to the transformation. This requires a shift in attitude that recognizes
the significance of having “life business strategies” that maintain enjoyment without
being constrained by “what happens to you,” but by what occurs from you” [57].
While adjusting to the “New Normal,” supplemental programs are required to
alleviate the sensation and worry of the “BIG changes” arriving so quickly, which
would have an instantaneous psychological effect like job insecurity, according to
Buheji and Sisk [56]. Working from home is getting increasingly difficult, with many
people and even organizations struggling to survive, competing for such scarce posi-
tions. As a result, every one of us must identify our novel regular function as a game
while attempting to manage the unpredictable 3 Fs surrounding us: family, finance,
and freedom.
People would be facing more constrained freedom of many activities that they did
not anticipate to occur in their life during the transition to the new normal, particu-
larly when the majority of this liberty is tied to the reason of preserving lives. As a
result, it is time to reconsider our options for reorganizing. This resetting changes our
mentality and forces us to reconsider what we desire from our lives and the courses we
will follow. This is a watershed moment in our lives, therefore let us seize it.
. Career resilience
After COVID-19, nearly every day, we overhear accounts of how this condition has
tested people's resiliency or inspired them to persevere. Whether it is people handling
telecommuting, health workers risking their personal safety by continuing to perform
their responsibilities in close interaction with each other, or others suffering unem-
ployment, resilience, and employment are intrinsically linked to the coronavirus
Modern scholars disagree on whether career resiliency (CR) is a trait, a skill,
or a behavior. CR has been described in numerous ways [58, 59]. Yet the majority
concur it is about adapting and enduring in the face of shocks or hardship, and they
recognize its value while considering professions in today's fast-changing economy.
Rochat etal. [60] outlined a procedure for determining the “fundamental elements of
professional adaptability,” which contains (1) Evaluating scenarios that may present
threats to employment — in this case, COVID-19; and (2) Identifying related “risk
A Way Forward: Psychological Adaptation and Transformation of Life Post COVID-19
and protective variables” to establish effective, adaptable results. They assert that
CR functions as a mediator between unpleasant professional situations and potential
Most research on CR agrees that both personal and situational factors influence a
person's career adaptability [59, 61, 62]. Personal characteristics, abilities, attitudes,
and actions have been shown to cause favorable or negative effects on a person's
resilience. Considerable implications for CR also include environmental elements
such as welcoming workplaces, occupational characteristics, and supportive families
[59]. These personal and situational traits are the “risk and protective components”
described by Rochat etal. [60], particularly essential for occupational resilience.
Therefore, a lack of resources renders people in danger and can adversely affect their
resistance capacity, but personal resources can produce favorable outcomes.
Despite the indisputable significance of CR, one of the critical provisions of the
endeavor to develop worker resiliency is the emphasis on transforming individuals
instead of the environment, which frequently serves as the source of the problem
[60, 63]. However, a lack of resilience is commonly perceived as a “personality
defect” [64] and firms would prefer to recruit for resiliency and provide resistance
training than adjust the organizational conditions that may be causing the problem.
As organizations plan for a post-pandemic era, we have reached a critical point. How
can institutions that invest in sustaining a competent workforce establish resilient
cultures, and how might HRD assist?
. Sustainability and careers after COVID-
The requirements for successful professions include four factors: longevity, social
space, action, and relevance. In practice, this means that sustainable jobs encompass
the entirety of a person's life, including both paid and unpaid work. They acknowl-
edge the confluence of several life contexts, such as social, professional, and familial,
and accommodate the needs of each. Ultimately, they are assisted by professionally
created options that prioritize both significance and utility [65]. Increased acknowl-
edgment of collective responsibility among employees and their employers is a
fundamental notion. Although these characteristics were not created for the COVID-
19 era, they are well-suited for the future of professions.
Unexpected benefits of hiding in place have included the ability to reflect on one's
professional past, present, and future, which has sometimes led to a re-evaluation of
life and accomplished goals. It has fostered a revitalized awareness of social con-
nectedness, highlighting the more congenial environment in which we live and work,
and has enhanced the ties between work, social, and family life on an unprecedented
scale. As individuals and organizations exit the first phase of COVID-19 adaptation,
the experience will have transformed how we think about and conduct future work.
To develop a successful career post coronavirus, it will be essential to learn from
this occurrence and utilize the knowledge gained. Being in a learning mode is a meta-
competency in the quest of occupational longevity, according to Heslin etal. [66].
The McKinsey Institute [67] echoed this conclusion, but from a systems perspective,
reckoning that “innovation, expertise, and adaptability” will likely be necessary to
successfully emerge from this disaster.
Chudzikowski etal. [68] provided a further dimension to the sustainable link
to the post-COVID study, adding extra layers of difficulty on how an environment
affects professional choice. People make career decisions on the basis of how they
value individual desires in combination with the needs of their communities, and
OVID-19 Pandemic, Mental Health and Neuroscience - New Scenarios for Understanding...
these goals may change with professional phases, leading to numerous decisions at
diverse career stages. Companies committed to retaining talent and developing a
durable environment can assist in this endeavor by providing guidance and studying
ways to maintain people participating and progressing over time [68]. As we progress,
we have the opportunity to establish and strengthen workplaces that adhere to the
triple bottom line of profits, planet, and people. This is an opportunity to begin again.
. The conservation of resources (COR) theory
These many profession elements use Hobfoll's Conservation of Resources (COR)
theory as a theoretical model to illustrate how professions are maintained, the
potential implications of profession interruptions, and how assets can influence
professional resiliency [61, 69, 70]. The COR idea was developed to help comprehend
what occurs when individuals are exposed to distress [71]. Humans, according to
Hobfoll [72], seek to develop and conserve resources and will endeavor to minimize
the erosion of these resources when pressured. COR theory emphasizes the impor-
tance of the environment in the stress reaction and how it might diminish or enhance
people's resources. COR theory highlights the significance of the environment in the
stress response and how it can deplete or boost people's resources [73]. Therefore, this
concept of gathering and keeping resources can characterize and aid in the manage-
ment of professional disruptions, the development of resilience, and the maintenance
of careers.
However, what happens to persons with meager resources? According to Hobfoll
[72], resources are undistributed evenly, and those without resources are most
exposed to increased losses. In addition, Hobfoll [73] hypothesized situations
can threaten a person's resource capacity, with these occurrences offering greater
problems for “less resource-endowed persons of financially affluent nations and for
developing and financially distressed nations.” This occurrence, COVID-19, has exac-
erbated the widening gaps between those with and without in recent years. COVID-
19 has worsened disparities between populations within nations (like low-income
and marginalized groups) and between nations [74]. Many individuals will lack the
resources essential to remain resilient in the face of this career setback.
Consequently, what can be done to ensure that people have the essential skills
and resilience components to enhance their resilience throughout this crisis? Clearly,
this requires more than a singular, temporary solution. On the contrary, it involves
constant efforts by organizations, authorities, and societies to examine a variety of
techniques to aid individuals in amassing and maintaining riches. The importance of
a holistic strategy that acknowledges the interconnection of business, government,
and society. The coronavirus has deepened these links, extending across borders and
requiring coordinated efforts or failure. As we advance in our rehabilitation, we must
be determined not to abandon vast segments of the population.
. Conclusions
Conclusively, humans have a great capacity for adaptability in adverse situations.
History is filled with such evidence of how humans have survived and triumphed over
such difficult situations. Currently, humans have already developed habits such as
using face masks and sanitizers as part of their daily routines. Likewise, using proper
psychological, individual, and social models immensely increase the adaptation and
A Way Forward: Psychological Adaptation and Transformation of Life Post COVID-19
Author details
Kanwar HamzaShuja1*, ArfaMubeen2, SaniaMazher3 and ShaziaTariq4
1 Psychology Department, National University of Modern Languages (NUML),
Islamabad, Pakistan
2 Capital University of Science and Technology (CUST), Islamabad, Pakistan
3 Quaid-I-Azam University (New Campus), Islamabad, Pakistan
4 National University of Modern Languages (NUML), Islamabad, Pakistan
*Address all correspondence to:
transformation of humans into stronger and more persistent organism. The chapter
has greatly discussed and elaborated several theories of resilience and their adaptabil-
ity to the daily lives of people. Likewise, the chapter has also covered various tech-
niques that can be implemented by government and local bodies for the betterment of
humans post COVID-19 pandemic.
No acknowledgment nor any funding sources are present.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
© 2022 The Author(s). Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of
the Creative Commons Attribution License (,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided
the original work is properly cited.
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