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Parents’ Role in Children's Learning During and After the Covid-19 Pandemic



When children only see their friends in little squares via Google Meet or Zoom, can teachers really address concepts like the importance of teamwork or how to manage conflict? This is a learning phenomenon during the COVID-19 pandemic and the era after it. This study aims to see the role of parents as children's learning companions in terms of mentors and motivators when online education takes place. This research using photovoice within phenomenological methodology and have been doing with thematic analysis and collecting data through interviews and observations. The participants were eight parents and one female teacher as a homeroom teacher. The research findings show that although there are many obstacles in online learning for children, learning during the COVID-19 pandemic can still run by involving the role of parents and teachers as pillars of education for preschool-age children. 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Jurnal Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini Undiksha
Volume 10, Nomor 2, Tahun 2022, pp. 283-290
P-ISSN: 2613-9669 E-ISSN: 2613-9650
Open Access:
*Corresponding author.
E-mail addresses: budirahardjopaud@gmail.coms (Budi Rahardjo)
Teachers’ Role as Communicator and Motivator in Facilitating
Early Childhood Sex Education in Kindergarten
Budi Rahardjo1*, Nur Amalia Olby Anwar2, Ayu Aprilia Pangestu Putri3, Fachrul
1,2,3,4 Teacher Education for Early Childhood Education, Mulawarman University, Samarinda, Indonesia
Permasalahan kekerasan seks terhadap anak di Indonesia terus
meningkat dimana tercatat kenaikan 30% pengaduan kasus pada tahun
2020. Guru sebagai garda terdepan pemberian rangsangan pada anak
harus mampu menjadi komunikator dan motivator yang baik sehingga
pendidikan seks mampu mencegah terjadinya kekerasan seks pada
anak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis peran guru sebagai
komunikator, motivator serta strategi yang mereka terapkan dalam
memberikan pendidikan seks di Taman Kanak-kanak. Subjek penelitian
ini adalah kepala sekolah dan guru pada salah satu TK di Samarinda yang
dipilih menggunakan teknik purposive sampling. Penelitian kualitatif
dengan pendekatan studi kasus digunakan untuk memperoleh data
penelitian berdasarkan hasil pengamatan, pengumpulan data, analisis
data serta kegiatan pelaporan. Data di analisis dengan teknik data reduksi
lalu diuji keabsahannya dengan triangulasi. Hasil penelitan menunjukan
bahwa guru selalu menyampaikan informasi seperti konsep menutup
aurat, cara merawat diri dan lain-lain. Guru senantiasa menciptakan
suasana belajar yang menyenangkan dengan kegiatan seperti forum
ayah-bunda, program pembiasaan dan lain-lain. Temuan ini sejalan
dengan implementasi program seks pada anak yang menekankan
kegiatan dan pemberian informasi mengenai kondisi tumbuh anak,
perbedaan lawan jenis dan sikap preventif. Kegiatan dialog aktif, program
parenting dan fasilitas pengobatan untuk anak korban kekerasan seks
dapat diterapkan sebagai strategi pendidikan seks di taman kanak-kanak.
Problems related to sexual violence towards children in Indonesia continue to increase in which an
increase to 30% of case complaints to was recorded in 2020. Teachers as frontliners in prodiving
stimulus to children should capable of becoming good communicator and motivator to prevent sexual
violence against children. This study aims to analyses the role of teachers as communicator, motivator
and the strategies teachers apply in providing sex education in kindergarten. Qualitative research with
a case study approach was implemented to obtain the data from observation, data collection, data
analysis and reports of activities. The subject of the sutdy were headmaster and teachers of one of the
Kindergarten in Samarinda selected through purposive sampling technique. The data were analyzed
using data reduction technique and triangulated to test the validity. The results of the study
demonstrated that the teachers always conveyed necessary information such as the concept of covering
aurat, self-care of themselves and etc. Furthermore, the teachers frequently tried to create an enjoyable
learning atmosphere for children through activities such as father-mother forum, habit program and etc.
These activities were aligned with the implementation of sex program for children focusing on activities
as well as providing information about children's growing conditions, differences in the opposite sex and
preventive attitudes. Active dialogue activities, parenting program and treatment facilities for children
who experienced sexual violence can be implemented as one of the sex education strategies in
Early childhood education is an effort to provide both spiritual and physical stimulation to optimize
aspects of children development. Stimuli given to children must be adapted to the age development (Bauer
& Booth, 2019; Putri, 2020). In this case, teachers are the frontliners to provide stimulation in early
Article history:
Received June 11, 2022
Revised June 13, 2022
Accepted August 13, 2022
Available online August 25, 2022
Kata Kunci:
Motivator, Komunikator,
Pendidikan Seks, Guru, Taman
Motivator, Communicator, Sex
Education, Teacher, Kindergarten
This is an open access article under
CC BY-SA license.
Copyright © 2022 by Author.
Published by Universitas
Pendidikan Ganesha.
Jurnal Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini Undiksha, Vol. 10, No. 2, Tahun 2022, pp. 283-290 284
JJPAUD. P-ISSN: 2613-9669 E-ISSN: 2613-9650
childhood education institutions, but it turns out that there are still many Kindergartens that require
teaching materials and activity references in providing sex education (Astuti et al., 2017; Davies et al., 2021;
Reddington, 2020). The suitability of teaching materials and activities given to children is closely related to
the professionalism of the teacher. Professional teachers act as communicators and motivators for children.
Teachers as communicator can be interpreted as planner, implementer, and creator of a communicative
condition in activities carried out by children to assist teachers in measuring children developmental
achievement (Arfandi & Samsudin, 2021; Scanlon et al., 2022). Teachers as motivator refers to the ability in
guiding children to receive the process of activities, helping children to become active and excited and
growing their interest to the activities so that the purpose of the activities could be achieved optimally (Fen
& Poh, 2015; Umasugi, 2020).
Successful education for children is closely associated with teachers’ role. Teachers who are
capable to communicate well can create effective and efficient learning activities which eventually create
pleasant social and emotional learning situation for children and learners in carrying out their duties and
responsibilities (Caena, 2014; Önder et al., 2020). Furthermore, to enable successful transfer of knowledge
and information and to conduct learning fruitfully for learners require teachers to be able to attract
learners’ interest towards learning activities and materials. Teachers as the main actors in co nducting
successful learning for the learners cannot merely depend the ability to transfer of knowledge and creating
learning activities but also capable of motivating learners. Motivated learners will highly likely to perform
more learning activities and to improve faster than demotivated learners (Fen & Poh, 2015; Martí et al.,
2022). Teachers’ role as communicator and motivator are connected to each other because teachers should
not only be capable of conducting instructions but also should be able to pay attention on ways to
communicate learning materials to students, to motivate learners to participate actively, and to gauge their
interest to the learning material and activities.
In recent years there has been an increase in the recording of cases of sexual violence experienced
by children in Indonesia (Hidayati & Nurhafizah, 2022; Novrianza & Santoso, 2022). Sexual violence
committed by perpetrators is caused by internal factors which include biological, moral and psychological
as well as external factors such as mass media, economy and socio-culture related to the era of open culture
modernization and increasingly free association (Kurniasari et al., 2018; Zahirah et al., 2019). Inadequacy
of verbal ability and expressing feeling are among the reasons why sex violence often occur to children
(Alucyana et al., 2020; Chasanah, 2018). Several studies argue that children who experience sexual violence
are highly prone to the disorder of behaviour, cognition, and emotion (Ningsih et al., 2017; Yun & Szu-
Hsiena, 2020). Sexual violence strongly affect the continuation of their live. These children will experience
acute trauma until they reach adulthood (Bigras et al., 2021; Yuliejantiningsih et al., 2019). Children are the
investments for a nation’s future, when they pass the golden age, namely at an early age, they should get an
education that strives for optimal growth and development. Sex education from an early age is crucial to
help children becoming individuals capable of self-protection in avoiding forbidden acts, cultivating
vigilance and gaining strong religious beliefs.
Generally, sex education concerns on sex anatomy, reproduction, birth control, sexual health and
well-being, sex orientation, gender identity and gender roles (Krumm et al., 2016; Ramadhani &
Syamsyudin, 2020). More specifically, sex education is an effort to make young learners understand about
the function of sex genitalia, instinctive problems during puberty, a guidance on the importance of taking
care of human private body parts, an understanding of healthy sexual behaviors as well as on possible
various risks due to sex problems (Astuti et al., 2017; Gustinah et al., 2020). The information given to
learners cover gender differences, private body pars which cannot be touched and the introduction of
norms and religious values in which all of them are taught to the learners based on the stage of their
development (cognitive, attitude, behavior). In this research, sex education refers to the transfer of
information on sexual organs which can and cannot be touched, self-identity, gender differences, covering
aurat, and guidance on the importance of taking care of human private body parts (Astuti et al., 2017;
Robinson et al., 2017).
The provision of sex education to children is one of the efforts to prevent sexual violence. However,
the majority of adults stated that sex education was inappropriate for children due to their young age
(Habig, 2020; Ramadhani & Syamsyudin, 2020). Even though adults presence around children environment
had a great impact on the formation of child’s self-concept from giving information about sex education
(Gustinah et al., 2020; Sari & Andriyani, 2020). The similar argument was found in the previous research
which stated that the strengthening of sex education for children should be adapted to the curriculum
related to the provision of self-development learning in schools (Sinclair et al., 2016). Not only the
curriculum, but also the lack of teachers’ skills related to the understanding and the knowledge in in
educational implementation is not fully implemented by early childhood education institutions in
kindergartens in Indonesia (Erhamwilda et al., 2017; Kotob & Arnouss, 2019). This statement is supported
Jurnal Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini Undiksha, Vol. 10, No. 2, Tahun 2022, pp. 283-290 285
Budi Rahardjo / Teachers’ Role as Communicator and Motivator in Facilitating Early Childhood Sex Education in Kindergarten
by the activities of providing sex education for early childhood which mainly focus on the child’s cognitive,
kinaesthetic and socio-emotional using the Standard Levelling of Children Achievement and Development
(STTPA) resulting in a highly rigid activities for children.
Based on the statements above, the researchers were interested to conduct a qualitative study on
a private kindergarten in Samarinda in which the kindergarten chosen by the researchers was the only and
the first kindergarten to develop a program for sex education in their curriculum. This information was
obtained from initial interview to the headmaster of the kindergarten. It was reported by the headmaster
that they had implemented the program in which the teacher acted as communicator and motivator in the
designed activities. The Programs designed for sex education strategies by the kindergarten could
contribute as a reference for other early childhood institutions. More specifically, this study was carried out
to analyses how teachers act as communicator, motivator and implement various strategies in sex education
to early childhood in kindergarten level.
This study applied qualitative research method using a case study approach by collecting data
through observation, interviews and documentation (Hussain, 2015; Miles et al., 1994). The research
activities ware carried out in one of the Kindergartens in Samarinda using purposive sampling technique,
namely to the headmaster and teachers at the Kindergarten to obtain relevant data to the research
objectives. The kindergarten was chosen due to the fact that it is the only kindergarten in Samarinda which
has implemented sex education for young children. The kindergarten is an Islamic private kindergarten
with total of 63 young learners of 35 boys and 28 girls grouped into four learning group, A1, B1, B2, and B3.
All data collection activities carried out by researchers were divided into primary and secondary
data. Primary data relate to direct data obtained from teachers in the form of the teacher's role as a
communicator and motivator as well as the strategies implemented by the institution in facilitating sex
education for early childhood, while the secondary data in the form of data that has been presented at the
institution which includes the Learning Implementation Plan (RPP) and documentation of activities in the
implementation of research.
Data reduction was carried out by selecting and simplifying initial information based on records
obtained in the field and then limiting the data to only a collection of information which is a description of
the presentation of data as conclusions and taking an action in facilitating sex education in kindergarten.
The validity of the the data were tested using triangulation techniques through participatory observation
activities, in-depth interviews and documentation for the same data source. Grid of interview instrument is
show in Table 1.
Table 1. Grid of Interview Instrument
Rising cases on sexual violence to children
Perspectives on sex education for children
Preventive actions on sexual violence to children,
Teacher’s roles in sex education for children
Obstacles in implementing sex education to children
Strategies in maximizing sex education to children.
The research was conducted by interviewing and observing three teachers in the Kindergarten as
the main data source that provide in-depth information regarding their role, especially in sex education.
Interviews were conducted to obtain more complete and structured data and to collect data that were not
previously obtained during the observation. In addition, the results of the study are presented in three
themes, namely; teacehers’ as communicator, teachers’ as motivator, and teachers’ strategies in sex
Role of teachers as communicator
Conceptually, teachers’ role as a communicator in sex education refers to teachers’ involvement in
providing information (conveying message) concerning self-identity, cleanliness and the health of private
body parts. This involvement are inferred from the activities implemented by teachers, how teachers and
students’ interact during sex education, and the adequacy of teachers’ knowledge on sex education.
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JJPAUD. P-ISSN: 2613-9669 E-ISSN: 2613-9650
The results of interviews and observations revealed that the provision of sexual education carried
out by teachers was practiced every day. Generally, children have high curiosity which encourages them to
question many things. As found during the observation process, when one child asked about the obligation
of circumcision for moslem boys, at that time the teacher also explained that it was also one of the gender
differences between men and women. Furthermore, some questions were also posed by another student
whose having high curiosity. The questions ranged from topics about marriage, definition of spouse and
menstruation cycle occured to wemen. the teacher tried to to answer the questions by giving simple and
understandable answers to the questions.
Summarized and inferred from the interview and observation of the three informants, the role of
the teacher as a communicator can be seen from the conversations that occur in the middle of learning. As
a communicator in facilitating sexual education, it can be seen from the adequacy of teacher knowledge
about what information needs to be conveyed to their students related to sex education, as well as the ability
and alertness of teachers in answering questions raised by children. All informants agreed that sex
education for early childhood is important. They also understood appropriate sex education for children.
According to the three teachers, sex education for children is about providing knowledge about gender
differences, body parts which can and cannot be touched, and how to take care of oneself, especially in
private areas. These findings indicate the compatibility between the program developed by the school and
the reality in the field in which the school prepared teachers to master materials about sex education before
applying them to make the teachers capable in answering questions from the children.
Teachers’ role as motivator
Teachers’ role as a motivator in sexual education is related to the teacher's ability to create an
enjoyable and interesting learning atmosphere to help students to process information optimally. In other
words, teachers as motivator related to how teachers’ grab students’ interest to the learning process
through various activities. Based on the findings in the form of observations and interviews, the teachers
acts as a motivator by providing sex education in a fun and engaging way, one of which is by singing song.
By singing, children feel a happy atmosphere. The chosen song is also a song that is easy for children to
remember and with word choices that are easy for children to understand. This fun athmosphere as the
ultimate purpose of inviting children to sing simple song together was also conducted to simultaneously
teaching students about some body parts which can and cannot be touched. As taken from the interview to
the last informant, the song chosen by the teacher is a song entitled "Touch is allowed and touch is not
allowed". These findings indicate the compatibility between the program developed by the school and the
reality in the field. Thus, the results of the interview and observation on the role of teachers as motivator in
sex education were pictured in their efforts create a pleasant learning athmosphere by inviting students to
sing relevant songs while simulataneously teaching them about some body parts which are allowed and
not allowed to touch.
Teachers’ strategies
Strategy is a plan carried out to achieve a goal. Thus, in this case it is related to the plans made by
the teacher so that the provision of sex education facilities to their students can be maximized according to
the plan. The strategies are manifested into different programs for sex education.
The results of interview and obervation yielded that the institution had a special program for the
students. The program started with theme and is maxized every dayt through habituation activities,
collaboration between teachers and parents, as well as maturation of teachers’ abilities. The teachers’
strategies in carrying out sexual education were seen from the activities of reminding children on etiquette
to defecate, cleanliness, how to take care of oneself regarding their private body parts, what they can or
cannot do every day, what can and cannot be toucheh. in addition, the teachers also integrated singing
activities in their strategies which were practiced regularly when conducting sexual education.
Based on the results above, the researcher concluded that in implementing sex education in
Kindergarten, the three teachers applied habituation method through daily repetition as their strategy. This
repetition is carried out with the hope that children will always remember the contents in sex education
such as etiquette to defecate, the boundaries between men and women, how to take care of themselves, as
well as how to take care of themselves to avoid the possibility of sexual violence acts.
Based on the elaboration of the findings above, it can be inferred that the programs designed and
the results of data collection that have been carried out by researchers are similar. The teacher as a
communicator is the teacher's way of conveying something to children (Arfandi & Samsudin, 2021;
Ratminingsih et al., 2018). From the results shown in the observation notes and interviews, it was found
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Budi Rahardjo / Teachers’ Role as Communicator and Motivator in Facilitating Early Childhood Sex Education in Kindergarten
that the teacher already had some knowledge about the materials that needed to be mastered and then
delivered to the children. These materials include the concept of male and female genitalia, the differences
between men and women, private parts of the body, touching allowed and not allowed body parts, etiquette
to defecate, and how to take care of oneself.
These findings support the argument that sexual violence can be avoided by providing educational
programs in the form of explanations to children about their body conditions, explaining differences with
the opposite sex inculcating religious morals that involve the introduction of male and female boundaries
(Astuti et al., 2017; Fajrin et al., 2020). The presentation of information on the activities studied is in
harmony with the themes being discussed. Presentation of sex education, the themes include; me and
myself, me and my family, my needs which latter is maximized through daily activities at school (Haryono
et al., 2018; Robinson et al., 2017). The delivery of this information is not only carried out according to the
school activity plan, but is also carried out when the teacher receives critical questions from his students
and then fulfills the curiosity of his students by answering them. Therefore, it can inferred that this research
unveil the implementation of teachers’ role as communicators in introducing and facilitating sex education
to young children. This role as a communicator is indicated from the delivery of information which includes;
the concept of male and female genitalia, differences between men and women, private parts of the body,
touching is allowed and touching is not allowed, etiquette to defecate, and how to take care of yourself. In
addition, the results of the study supports the argument that the implementation of sex education in early
childhood education can be carried out regardless of time and theme of learning proceess.
Motivation is a condition in a person that encourages him/her to do something whether
consciously or not to achieve a certain goal (Andriani & Rasto, 2019; Baidi, 2019). The high number of cases
of sexual violence against children encourages teachers to take their role and involve themselves in
providing sex education. In this case, the teacher's role as a motivator in facilitating sex education is
indicated by ability to create an enjoyable learning atmosphere to make children are interested and to
maximize knowledge absorption. There are many methods that can be applied to provide sex education for
early childhood, such as through discussions, games, demonstrations, role playing, and so on. Based on the
research findings in the observation and interview notes, the teacher's role is shown in creating a pleasant
atmosphere for children by using the singing method as a form of application of sex education in touch
materials that can be done and touches that should not be done (Kollmayer et al., 2018; Sari & Andriyani,
Conversation activities, singing songs related to sex education, and inviting children forward one
by one before the end of learning activities are fun methods in children's learning (Alucyana et al., 2020;
Mashudi & Nur’aini, 2015). The song-oriented teaching is in line with the teaching concept of "personal
safety skills including; 1) recognize, in this component children are taught to recognize private body parts
that should not be touched by anyone, and how to say no when other people touch unsafely, 2) resist, namely
the child's ability to stop acts of sexual violence, for example by screaming for help, 3) report, which is the
child's ability to report the uncomfortable behavior he received and be open to their parents. In addition,
we can build the intellectual personality of the child. When receiving questions from children, the teacher
also always answered calmly to make children comfortable while studying, despite their high curiosity.
Thus, Regardless the topic, in this case sex education, creating an enjoyable and pleasant learning
atmosphere is always be one of the main concerns for teachers in motivating students and raising their
interest to the learning materials or activities. Kinasthetic activities and singing songs related to contents of
sex education were shown to be the most practiced by teachers in motivating the students.
In terms of implementing sex education as a preventive measure against sexual violence, teachers’
role is among the paramount factors. Teachers as the frontliner in introducing sex education to children
through learning process shoud be able to commuincate or convey information appropriately, engage with
students actively and apply strategies which integrate the purpose of sex education with the learning
material and activities. Secondly, programs in collaboration with parents which include active dialogue
activities, parenting programs, and ongoing treatment about sex education both at school and at home can
be implemented to help preventing furhter case of sexual violence against young children (Robinson et al.,
2017; Windiastuti & Syamsudin, 2019). One strategy that can be applied for the application of sex education
is the central learning model and the use of media that contains sex education such as dolls and body parts
puzzles (Haryono et al., 2018; Robinson et al., 2017). Apart from that, the Kindergarten which is the place
of research to make strategies for offline learning which are currently being carried out by making habits
in the form of repeating information every day in several ways. The method chosen is through storytelling
activities, singing or just reminding by giving advice. This habit is practiced with the hope that the
information obtained by the child can be processed optimally. Based on the description above, it can be
concluded that the teacher's strategy is to carry out his role as a communicator and motivator in facilitating
sex education through habituation programs, storytelling activities, singing, and direct advice. Another
Jurnal Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini Undiksha, Vol. 10, No. 2, Tahun 2022, pp. 283-290 288
JJPAUD. P-ISSN: 2613-9669 E-ISSN: 2613-9650
strategy used is to collaborate with parents/student guardians through an association that was formed
called “Father Mother Forum”.
Though this study has revealed the the roles of teachers in sexual education in kindergarten, the
study was not conducted from the initial time of sexual education program in the kindergarten since the
first semester. Thus the whole picture of the teachers’ roles were not pictured in full. Therefore, future
studies might conduct similar research to capture complete description of teachers’ role in facilitating and
implementing sexual education. Additionally, information on the sex education program which consists of
various activities implemented by teachers might be experimented to find out the effectiveness of the
implementation of the program itself. And lastly, based on the results of various learning materials for sex
education, an existing need of developing a suitable and approriate learning material for sex education
might be necessary to improve the quality of sex education for children in different contexts.
The teachers’ role as communicator and motivator in sex education were conducted using simple
instruction and activities on daily basis during teaching and learning process. In motivating the students,
the teachers mainly integrated singing with students and simple kinesthetic activities in sex education.
Regarding strategies in conducting sex education, the strategies are limited to certain practice, such as
habituation or repetition through simple activities. Despite having flexibility in conducting sex education,
the teachers’ role in communicating, motivating, and implementing strategies in sex education were more
or less similar.
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... Pembelajaran daring sudah pasti akan melibatkan orang tua (Apriyanti, 2021;Rahardjo et al., 2022), dimana para orang tua pada umumya belum pernah menjalankan metode pembelajaran yang baru ini, yang mengharuskan orang tua berperan lebih aktif untuk membimbing dan memotivasi anaknya belajar di rumah sepenuhnya. Keadaan ini membuat sebagian orang tua kaget, dan memaksa mereka harus mampu beradaptasi dengan kondisi ini, tidak sedikit orang tua yang mengeluhkan karena menganggap belajar online ribet dan merepotkan (Bhamani et al., 2020;Susilowati & Azzasyofia, 2020;Ribeiro et al., 2021). ...
This study was conducted to determine the role of parents in educating children learning from home, as well as the implementation and obstacles faced by parents in educating children to learn from home during the Covid-19 pandemic at SMP Muhammadiyah 1 Teluk Kuantan. This study was motivated by symptoms in the field such as obstacles felt by parents when carrying out a role in learning from home, the difficulty of the learning process carried out online, limited learning time and process, internet connection and other things. This study uses a qualitative descriptive approach, namely to determine the role of parents in educating children learning from home,as well as the implementation and obstacles faced by parents in educating children to learn from home during the Covid-19 pandemic at SMP Muhammadiyah 1 Teluk Kuantan. The result of the study is that the role of parents in educating children learning from home is realized quite well in the midst of various kinds of professions and busyness carried out by parents. The implementation of learning from home during the Covid-19 pandemic does not necessarily run smoothly, complaints that are often expressed by teachers such as the difficulty of the learning process carried out online, limited learning time and process, internet connection and other things. This is also so many obstacles faced by parents in educating children in learning from home during the Covid-19 pandemic, namely for parents who have high, medium and low busyness such as not being able to accompany children's activities, not understanding children's learning, not having gadgets and internet networks, and situations and conditions at home are not comfortable for children.
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the role of professional teachers in carrying out activities as educators obligate to have a capability in the learning plan, performing the learning activities, and evaluate learning outcomes. Professional teachers have to own competence, both personal competence, pedagogical competence, and social competence. There are several important roles for a professional teacher that are as a leader, guide, supervisor, counselor, expeditor, motivator, facilitator, and communicator. The role of the teacher as a facilitator to provide great service with the aim of providing convenience to students in teaching and learning activities, to realize teachers as facilitators, teacher needs to provide various learning resources and learning media that are relevant as well as make active learning, innovative, creative and fun. Whereas, the teacher as a communicator in teaching and learning activities that the relationship between the teacher and students is not only "top-down" but a partnership, through the partnership model the teacher will act as a guide and companion in teaching and learning activities so that created a delight and democratic learning atmosphere.
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This study examines the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on parents and preschool children from parents’ perspectives. We used an open-ended online questionnaire to reach parents (81: 60 mothers and 21 fathers). The questionnaire includes questions about gender, age, occupation and educational level, and questions about the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. The ecological model is used as the theoretical construct to examine interactions between children and parents at home. Three main categories are identified: changing behaviours and routines, challenges and difficulties, and opportunities for parenting. The participants report that children’s 11 social and emotional behaviours change during the pandemic in general and the lockdown. The findings indicate that the parents experience difficulties and have a lack of knowledge and expertise in supporting children’s online learning. The findings contribute to studies on parental involvement by showing that the participant fathers are keener to spend time with children and help children’s homework.
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The obligatory provision of CLIL is raising concerns about the discouraging effects it may have. Yet little research so far has explored the impact of collaborative classroom methodologies on learners' motivation towards both content and language in integration. The present study sets out to examine the potential benefits of peer-tutoring in raising motivation towards CLIL in Mathematics for Compulsory Secondary Education. A pretest-posttest with control group design was adopted. Participants were 408 students from grades 7, 8 and 9 in a state-run secondary school based in the Valencian Community (Spain). Two factors were analyzed: intrinsic motivation (i.e. positive attitude and classroom enjoyment) and motivational force (i.e. confidence and anxiety). Eight focus groups provided qualitative data. Findings point to statistical significant increases for the experimental group in both factors but with moderate effect sizes. The peer-tutoring experience proves more positive for the younger participants (7 graders) and for enhancing males' intrinsic motivation and females' motivational force. The qualitative results obtained from the focus groups also suggest that these pedagogical practices may reduce students' anxiety, build their self-confidence and encourage more positive attitudes towards CLIL. Implementing peer-tutoring in CLIL, then, might improve students’ motivation towards Mathematics through English.
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h i g h l i g h t s This paper examined the attitudes towards inclusion of 922 teachers in kindergartens in Bulgaria across three dimensions (cognitive, affective, behavioural), their concerns, and self-efficacy in this regard. Teachers were most likely to hold negative affective attitudes and positive behavioural attitudes towards inclusion. Inclusion-related training significantly predicted positive attitudes towards inclusion across cognitive, behavioural, and affective domains. The findings accentuate the importance of continuous professional development for teachers already teaching in the system in fostering more positive attitudes towards inclusion. a b s t r a c t The purpose of this paper was to determine the readiness of kindergarten teachers in Bulgaria in anticipation of impending inclusion-driven reforms in the education system. Data on 922 kindergarten teachers' attitudes towards inclusion across three dimensions (cognitive, affective, and behavioural), their concerns, and self-efficacy were analysed. Overall, teachers reported being willing to adapt their behaviour to promote inclusion in their classroom, despite not feeling particularly positively about inclusion. Inclusion-related training, which is critical for teachers to meet the demands of reforms, was a robust, positive predictor of teachers' attitudes across all three dimensions.
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Open conversations regarding sexuality education and gender and sexual diversity with young children in early childhood education settings are still highly constrained. Educators report lacking professional training and fearing parental and community pushback when explicitly addressing these topics in their professional practices. As such, gender and sexual diversity and conversations of bodily development are left silenced and, when addressed, filtered through heteronormative and cisnormative frameworks. Through a Foucauldian post-structural lens, this article analyses data from open-ended qualitative questions in a previous research study regarding early childhood educators’ perceptions on discussing the development of sexuality in early learning settings in an Ontario, Canada context. Through this Foucauldian post-structural analysis, the authors discuss forms of surveillance and regulation that early childhood educators experience in early learning settings regarding the open discussion of gender and sexuality. The authors explore how both the lack of explicit curricula addressing gender and sexuality in the early years in Ontario and taken-for-granted notions of developmentally appropriate practice, childhood innocence, and the gender binary – employed in discourses of sexuality education in the early years – regulate early childhood educators’ professional practices. The authors provide recommendations which critique the developmentalist logics – specifically, normative development – that are used to silence non-heterosexual and non-cisgender identities in the early years, while articulating the need for explicit curricula for educators in the early years regarding gender and sexuality in young children.
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Parents' emotional management was highly required during the COVID-19 lockdown, as juggling as their own job moved online and with being a parent of a child whose school was online proved to be a challenge for many. Our sample was restricted to parents who had to work online from their homes while their children had to attend school online, as external imposed conditions. The present study was based on Mayer and Salovey's theory and we aimed to investigate the relationship between parents' emotional intelligence and their ability to manage their emotions during this period, hypothesizing that a higher emotional intelligence and well-developed emotional management abilities contribute to better adjustment to everyday challenges, thus contributing to keeping levels of exhaustion low. The double role played by these adults strained their resources, therefore we were also interested in their level of burnout after almost a year spent in a home turned into office and school. We also investigated the participants' level of flourishing, as described by Ed Diener, as these changes impacted differently on every parent's well-being. The analysis of the data obtained offered us the possibility of issuing a series of recommendations for parents' well-being in such a situation, as the prospect of continuing to work and learn online in future seems very real. The need to set clear boundaries between the roles played in these settings emerged as a main objective of future therapeutic interventions based on positive psychology.
This study aims to determine the changing routines of nurses in maternal role due to Covid-19 outbreak. This is qualitative interview research and is based on the descriptions of the interviews with the participants. Interviews were recorded on the phone with nurses. It was semi-structured and used a snowball sample, and in-depth interviews were made. We determined three themes in this research. The themes are 1. Imperatives of the Covid-19 pandemic, 2. Theme: Concerns about infecting their children with Covid-19, 3. Theme: Impaired communication with children. Also, we determined in the themes; nurses express difficulty about child care, communication with children and concerns about infecting their children. Nurses and their children have been adversely affected by this process and have a feeling of inadequate parental roles.
The main purpose of this study is to obtain information from parents in serving online learning using the ZOOM application at Kindergarten Model Al Azhar Medan both in terms of preparation and implementation of learning. Research on using the ZOOM application exclusively involved 20 people. The method used by the writer is descriptive qualitative method using interview and observation instruments. After collecting the data, researchers used triangulation to analyze and verify the data. The results of this study provide information that people find it difficult because they are not familiar with the ZOOM application, are constrained by equipment related to the ZOOM application, must use an internet quota package with a really good network, parents also have to prepare a location or a possible place. there are no sounds that interfere with the learning process, it requires extra patience, parents must always direct their children to the ongoing learning process, the learning process time is up to 2 hours (09.00 to 11.00), making parents have to postpone work homework that is usually done every day.
During physical distancing, children do not meet their peers to play or talk together. Peer relationships have a crucial influence on all child development, especially for social skills or behaviour during early childhood. This study aims to determine changes in children's social behaviour during physical distancing during the Covid-19 pandemic. This research method is a descriptive quantitative study designed with the percentage value was used as a score for measuring the results of parental observations of children concerning the child's social behaviour instrument. Quota sampling (150 parents) was used to reach participants from various cities in Indonesia to see cultural differences. Data on children's social behaviour was obtained using the Preschool and Kindergarten Behaviour Scale (PKBS) tests. The data were then analysed using descriptive statistics. The results show that there are changes in children's social behaviour during physical distancing. 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