Few researches have been investigated on the effects of ambient air pollutants from coal combustion on acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) hospitalizations. The whole time series was split into heating season and non-heating season. We used a quasi-Poisson generalized linear regression model combined with distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) to estimate the relative cumulative risk and calculate the air pollutant hospitalization burden of AECOPD for lag 0–7 days in heating season and non-heating season. There were higher PM2.5, PM10, NO2, SO2, and CO concentrations in heating seasons than non-heating season in Shijiazhuang; however, O3 was higher in non-heating season than heating season. The AECOPD-associated relative cumulative risks for PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and SO2 for lag 0–7 days were significantly positively associated with hospitalization in heating and non-heating season; we found that the cumulative relative risk of NO2 was the greatest in every 1 unit of air pollutants during the heating season and the cumulative relative risk of SO2 was the greatest during the non-heating season. The results showed that 17.8%, 12.9%, 1.7%, 16.7%, and 10.5% of AECOPD hospitalizations could be attributable to PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, and CO exposure in heating season, respectively. However, the results showed that 19.5%, 22.4%, 15%, 8.3%, and 10.4% of AECOPD hospitalizations could be attributable to PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, and O3 exposure in non-heating season, respectively. The attributable burden of AECOPD hospitalization in heating season and non-heating season are different. PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and CO are the main factors of heating season, while PM10, PM2.5, SO2, and O3 are the main factors of non-heating season. In conclusions, the centralized heating can change the influence of attributable risk. When government departments formulate interventions to reduce the risk of acute hospitalization of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the influence of heating on disease burden should be considered.