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Association between the Big Five personality traits and medication adherence in patients with cardiovascular disease: A cross-sectional study

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The correlation between personality traits and health outcomes of primary prevention has been examined. However, there is a lack of evidence on the association between the assessment of personality traits and medication adherence for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Thus, this study aimed to explore the association between personality traits and medication adherence, including compliance to prescribed medications and attitudes toward taking medications among patients with cardiovascular disease. This cross-sectional study included patients hospitalized for cardiovascular disease. We assessed the Big Five personality traits (conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness, extraversion, and agreeableness) of each patient at discharge using the Ten-Item Personality Inventory. In addition, we evaluated four aspects of medication adherence using a 12-item version of the medication adherence scale: medication compliance, collaboration with health care providers, willingness to access and use information on medication, and acceptance to take medication. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the correlation between the level of each medication adherence domain and each personality trait. The data of 128 patients with cardiovascular disease were analyzed. Higher conscientiousness score was significantly associated with a high compliance score (odds ratio per 1 point increase, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-2.79; p = 0.001), high collaboration score (1.90; 1.31-2.76; p = 0.001), and high willingness score (1.74; 1.19-2.54; p = 0.004) after adjustment for potential confounders. Other combinations of personality traits and medication adherence showed no statistically significant correlations in multivariate analyses. The findings of this study suggest that assessment of personality traits, especially conscientiousness, may facilitate patient-medical staff communication for the improvement of medication adherence in patients with cardiovascular disease.
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RESEARCH ARTICLE
Association between the Big Five personality
traits and medication adherence in patients
with cardiovascular disease: A cross-sectional
study
Takuji AdachiID
1,2
*, Yuki Tsunekawa
2
, Daisuke Tanimura
3
1Department of Integrated Health Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya,
Japan, 2Department of Rehabilitation, Nagoya Ekisaikai Hospital, Nagoya, Japan, 3Department of
Cardiology, Nagoya Ekisaikai Hospital, Nagoya, Japan
*t.adachi@met.nagoya-u.ac.jp
Abstract
The correlation between personality traits and health outcomes of primary prevention has
been examined. However, there is a lack of evidence on the association between the
assessment of personality traits and medication adherence for secondary prevention of car-
diovascular disease. Thus, this study aimed to explore the association between personality
traits and medication adherence, including compliance to prescribed medications and atti-
tudes toward taking medications among patients with cardiovascular disease. This cross-
sectional study included patients hospitalized for cardiovascular disease. We assessed the
Big Five personality traits (conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness, extraversion, and
agreeableness) of each patient at discharge using the Ten-Item Personality Inventory. In
addition, we evaluated four aspects of medication adherence using a 12-item version of the
medication adherence scale: medication compliance, collaboration with health care provid-
ers, willingness to access and use information on medication, and acceptance to take medi-
cation. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the correlation between the
level of each medication adherence domain and each personality trait. The data of 128
patients with cardiovascular disease were analyzed. Higher conscientiousness score was
significantly associated with a high compliance score (odds ratio per 1 point increase, 1.90;
95% confidence interval, 1.30–2.79; p = 0.001), high collaboration score (1.90; 1.31–2.76; p
= 0.001), and high willingness score (1.74; 1.19–2.54; p = 0.004) after adjustment for poten-
tial confounders. Other combinations of personality traits and medication adherence
showed no statistically significant correlations in multivariate analyses. The findings of this
study suggest that assessment of personality traits, especially conscientiousness, may facil-
itate patient–medical staff communication for the improvement of medication adherence in
patients with cardiovascular disease.
PLOS ONE
PLOS ONE | https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0278534 December 1, 2022 1 / 12
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OPEN ACCESS
Citation: Adachi T, Tsunekawa Y, Tanimura D
(2022) Association between the Big Five
personality traits and medication adherence in
patients with cardiovascular disease: A cross-
sectional study. PLoS ONE 17(12): e0278534.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0278534
Editor: Shukri AlSaif, Saud Al-Babtain Cardiac
Centre, SAUDI ARABIA
Received: September 6, 2022
Accepted: November 17, 2022
Published: December 1, 2022
Copyright: ©2022 Adachi et al. This is an open
access article distributed under the terms of the
Creative Commons Attribution License, which
permits unrestricted use, distribution, and
reproduction in any medium, provided the original
author and source are credited.
Data Availability Statement: All relevant data are
within the paper and its Supporting Information
files.
Funding: This work was partly supported by JSPS
KAKENHI (https://www.jsps.go.jp/index.html, Grant
number: 19K24311, TA). The funders had no role
in study design, data collection and analysis,
decision to publish, or preparation of the
manuscript.
Competing interests: The authors have declared
that no competing interests exist.
Introduction
Medication adherence is a key factor in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease
(CVD) [1]. Several cardioprotective drugs have been established as first-line treatment for
heart failure, especially among patients with reduced ventricular ejection fraction [2]. In addi-
tion, optimal medical therapy is increasingly being considered the cornerstone of treatment
for patients with acute and chronic coronary syndrome [3]. Furthermore, the guidelines for
the prevention of CVD indicate that controlling recognized cardiovascular risk factors is a
requirement for safe and effective cardiac rehabilitation [4]. Thus, guideline-directed medical
therapy is crucial for lowering the risk of mortality and recurrence in patients with various
CVDs. However, a meta-analysis demonstrated that the prevalence of good compliance to tak-
ing cardiovascular medications as prescribed ranges from 50% to 70% and that 9% of all car-
diovascular events may be attributed to poor medication compliance [5]. Recent studies have
focused on multiple aspects of medication “adherence,” a concept that includes patients’
understanding of medications and active participation in treatment decisions [6]. According
to a recent systematic review, medication adherence scales with multidomain have been
increasingly used in studies as patient-reported outcome measures [7]. Therefore, a multidisci-
plinary behavioral approach and effective patient–medical staff communication for the
improvement of medication adherence, including patients’ attitude toward taking medica-
tions, play key roles in secondary prevention of CVD.
Personality traits have been proposed as fundamental constructs of health-related behavior,
and communication with health care providers [8] may also help in understanding the inter-
ests or concerns of patients regarding cardiovascular therapy. The Big Five model, also
known as the five-factor model, is a widely accepted model of personality traits [9,10],
which are closely associated with the long-term health outcomes of primary prevention of
CVD [11]. As the name suggests, the Big Five model includes five personality traits: consci-
entiousness, neuroticism, openness, extraversion, and agreeableness. Conscientiousness
reflects the propensity to follow rules and be self-controlled, task- and goal-directed, and
planful. Neuroticism contrasts even-temperedness with the experience of anxiety, worry,
anger, and depression. Openness refers to the proneness to be original, complex, creative,
and open to new ideas. Extraversion refers to the propensity to be sociable, active, and asser-
tive and to have a positive affect. Agreeableness refers to the degree to which a person needs
pleasant and harmonious relationships with others [9,10]. Since beliefs on medicine can
influence patients’ decisions for taking medications [12], several studies have attempted to
explore the relationship between personality traits and medication adherence. According to
these studies, conscientiousness and neuroticism are associated with adherence to medica-
tions and doctor’s regimens [13,14]. In addition, a recent study among patients with CVD
reported an association between low conscientiousness and high dropout rate of cardiac
rehabilitation [15]. Regarding lifestyle behaviors, low conscientiousness and high neuroti-
cism are associated with unfavorable lifestyle habits such as physical inactivity, smoking,
alcohol consumption, and unhealthy eating [1618]. Therefore, assessment of personality
traits may provide insights, which can help facilitate effective communication for medication
adherence among patients with CVD.
The correlation between personality traits and health outcomes of primary prevention has
been examined. However, there is a lack of evidence on the association between assessment of
personality traits and medication adherence for secondary CVD prevention. Therefore, this
study aimed to explore the association between the Big Five personality traits and medication
adherence in patients with CVD.
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Methods
Study design and participants
In this cross-sectional study, we retrospectively retrieved and analyzed the data of patients
with CVD admitted at Nagoya Ekisaikai Hospital in Nagoya City, Japan, between April 2021
and March 2022. The inclusion criteria were participation in an inpatient cardiac rehabilita-
tion program and completion of a routine clinical assessment questionnaire during hospitali-
zation. Patients with one or more of the following conditions were excluded: not receiving
prescribed medications for chronic disease before admission, inability to walk, unable to fill in
the questionnaire owing to visual or hearing impairment, presence of severe psychiatric or
neurological disorders, presence of physician-diagnosed dementia or taking anti-dementia
drugs (N06D in the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System) before
admission.
In Japan, inpatient cardiac rehabilitation has become standard care for patients hospitalized
for CVD. In 2017, the implementation rates for inpatient cardiac rehabilitation were 76.5%,
65.6%, and 46.9% for patients hospitalized for cardiac surgery, acute coronary syndrome, and
heart failure, respectively [19], which constitute the main population of this study. Health
insurance is mandatory in Japan, and cardiac rehabilitation is covered by the Japanese health
care system. Hence, the participants in the present study did not require special medical care.
In inpatient cardiac rehabilitation, all patients received rehabilitation based on the Japanese
Circulation Society guidelines [20]. Pharmacists and nurses provided each patient with guid-
ance for taking prescribed medication as routine patient care during hospitalization.
Personality traits
The personality traits of each patient were assessed during routine clinical practice using the
Japanese version of the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI-J) [21]. The original Ten-Item
Personality Inventory scale is widely used as a brief scale for the evaluation of the Big Five per-
sonality traits [22]. The TIPI-J includes two items on each of the Big Five domains, making a
total of 10 items. Each domain is assessed using one positively keyed item and one negatively
keyed item. The responses for each item are graded using a seven-category response scale, and
the average score of the two items included in each trait are calculated to determine the score
for each trait (ranging from 1 to 7 points). Higher scores indicate a higher level of the trait.
The reliability and validity of the TIPI-J have been reported [21]. In addition, the reliability
and concurrent validity of the TIPI-J for the assessment of older individuals have been con-
firmed [23].
Medication adherence
The World Health Organization has highlighted the need for patient consent to and participa-
tion in treatment [6], suggesting that health communication between patients and health care
providers is an important psychosocial aspect of medication support and treatment decision
making. This concept is consistent with several reports on medication adherence among peo-
ple with chronic diseases [24,25]. Therefore, we evaluated multiple aspects of medication
adherence in the present study using a 12-item version of the medication adherence scale
developed by Ueno et al. [26] This scale includes four subscales on adherence: medication
compliance (e.g., “I have stopped taking medication based on my own judgment [not includ-
ing times when I forgot to take my medication]”); collaboration with health care providers
(e.g., “I feel comfortable asking my health care provider about my medication”); willingness to
access and use information on medication (e.g., “I understand both the effects and the side
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effects of my medication”); and acceptance to take medication and how taking medication fits
the patient’s lifestyle (e.g., “I accept the necessity of taking medication in the prescribed man-
ner to treat my illness”). The items for medication compliance were answered based on pre-
hospitalization experience, and the other items were answered based on perspective and atti-
tudes toward the treatment and medications at the time of response. Each subscale contains
three items that are answered using a five-category response scale. The sum of the scores of the
three items for each subscale ranges from 3 to 15 points. Higher scores indicate higher medica-
tion adherence. The reliability and validity of the scale for the assessment of patients with
chronic diseases, including heart disease and coronary risk factors, have been confirmed [26].
In addition, the usefulness of this medication adherence scale for the assessment of elderly
adults has been examined [27].
Clinical data
Patients’ medical records were reviewed to extract data on age, sex, body mass index, principal
etiology, comorbidities, left ventricular ejection fraction, biochemical parameters, medications
prescribed at discharge, need for a walking device, or need for walking assistance during hospi-
tal stay. Comorbidities were evaluated using the Charlson Comorbidity Index [28].
Statistical analysis
Continuous variables are expressed as mean and standard deviation (SD) for normally distrib-
uted variables and as median with interquartile range for non-normally distributed data. Cate-
gorical data are expressed as numbers and percentages.
Some subscale scores of medication adherence showed skewed distributions. Therefore,
each subscale was categorized into binary variables of high and low levels using median values.
Thereafter, logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between
medication adherence (high/low) and the Big Five personality traits. To explore their potential
correlations, logistic regression analysis adjusted for age was first performed, with medication
adherence as a dependent variable and personality trait as an independent variable. Thereafter,
multivariate analyses were further performed adjusted for the potential confounders if the rela-
tionships were significant in the age-adjusted analyses. The number of independent variables
was based on the concept of one variable per 10 outcome events in the logistic regression anal-
ysis [29]. To follow this concept as closely as possible, a logistic regression model that included
six variables was used in multivariate analyses.
All statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE software version 15.1 (StataCorp LP).
A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. This study was an exploratory anal-
ysis of the association between personality traits and multidimensional medication adherence;
thus, no adjustment for multiple testing was performed. Considering the potential for type I
error, this study should be considered a hypothesis-generating study.
Ethical considerations
This study was performed according to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki and was
approved by the ethics committee of Nagoya Ekisaikai Hospital (Approval No.: 2019–043).
The requirement to obtain informed consent from the patients was waived because of the ret-
rospective nature of the study. Instead, all patients were informed about their participation in
this study and each patient was offered the opportunity to opt out of the study. Information
regarding this study, such as the inclusion criteria and opportunity to opt out, was provided
on the hospital’s website. The ethics committees approved this consent procedure. No patient
opted out of the study at the time of analysis.
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Results
A total of 128 patients hospitalized for CVD were analyzed (Fig 1). The median age of the
patients was 70 years (interquartile range, 58–78 years), and 73.4% patients were male. The
mean body mass index of the patients was 22.9 kg/m
2
(SD, 4.3 kg/m
2
), and 41.4% patients
were hospitalized due to acute coronary syndrome (Table 1). The distributions of the Big Five
personality traits and medication adherence scores are summarized in Table 2. Comparisons
of personality traits according to several patient characteristics are presented in S1 Table.
Patients with older age (70 years) had lower neuroticism and agreeableness levels compared
to younger patients (<70 years). Patients with heart failure showed a lower agreeableness level
compared to those without heart failure. There were no differences in personality traits accord-
ing to sex and number of prescribed medications.
Fig 2 shows the results of the logistic regression analysis adjusted for age. Higher conscien-
tiousness was associated with high compliance, high collaboration, and high willingness scores
(p<0.05). Higher neuroticism tended to be associated with high willingness score (p = 0.069).
Higher extraversion tended to be associated with a high collaboration score; however, the
result was not statistically significant (p = 0.071).
The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis are presented in Table 3. After
adjustment for age, sex, heart failure, number of medications prescribed, and Charlson
Comorbidity Index, higher conscientiousness was significantly associated with a high compli-
ance score (odds ratio per 1 point increase, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.30–2.79;
p = 0.001), high collaboration score (1.90; 1.31–2.76; p = 0.001), and high willingness score
(1.74; 1.19–2.54; p = 0.004). The results of all multivariate analyses are summarized in
S2 Table.
Discussion
In this cross-sectional study, we explored the association between multiple aspects of the Big
Five personality traits and medication adherence in patients with CVD. The results indicated
that a higher level of conscientiousness, a personality trait known to be related to a healthy life-
style, was positively associated with medication compliance, collaboration with health care
Fig 1. Flowchart of the study participants. CVD, cardiovascular disease; TIPI-J, Japanese version of the Ten-Item
Personality Inventory.
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providers, and willingness to access and use medical information. Although this study should
be considered a hypothesis-generating study due to the exploratory analysis performed during
data analysis, the findings suggest that assessment of personality traits may provide clues for
patient–medical staff communication in promoting medication adherence.
The positive association between high conscientiousness and favorable medication compli-
ance observed in the present study corroborates the results of a previous meta-analysis of
patients with chronic diseases, including hypertension and diabetes mellitus [13]. The results
of the present study imply that conscientiousness is also a predictive factor for good compli-
ance to taking prescribed medications for secondary prevention of CVD. Although data on the
possible underlying mechanisms of the relationship between conscientiousness and medica-
tion compliance was not elucidated in the present study, low conscientiousness may reflect for-
getfulness, a known characteristic of non-adherence [30]. The authors of a recent systematic
review recommended the use of reminder tools for patients who forget to take prescribed med-
ications [31]. Additionally, a previous study on patients with CVD demonstrated the correla-
tion between conscientiousness and self-efficacy in following the recommendations of the
medical team [32]. Therefore, medical professionals may need to consider tailoring medical
Table 1. Characteristics of the study participants (n = 128).
Median (IQR), Mean (SD), or %
Age, years 70 (58–78)
Men 73.4%
Body mass index, kg/m
2
22.9 (4.3)
Reason for hospitalization
Acute coronary syndrome 41.4%
Heart failure 32.8%
Cardiac surgery 23.4%
Others 2.3%
Comorbidities
Hypertension 58.6%
Dyslipidemia 40.6%
Diabetes mellitus 28.1%
Prior heart failure 14.8%
Stroke 9.4%
Charlson Comorbidity Index, points 1 (1–2)
LVEF, % (n = 118) 50 (44–61)
Prescribed medication
Beta blocker 75.8%
ACEi/ARB 56.3%
MRA 35.2%
Diuretic 33.6%
Satin 78.1%
Antithrombotic agent 66.4%
Anticoagulant 65.6%
Number of prescribed medications 5 (4–7)
Length of hospital stay, days 16 (12–20)
Living alone 18.1%
IQR, interquartile range; SD, standard deviation; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; ACEi, angiotensin
converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blocker; MRA, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist
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communication according to a patient’s subjective conscientiousness and self-efficacy for
more effective disease management.
Another novel finding of the present study is the potential relationship between conscien-
tiousness and collaboration with health care providers and willingness to access medical infor-
mation. To date, research on the association between personality traits and medication
adherence has focused on compliance to taking medication as prescribed [33,34]. However,
there is a growing interest in the psychological aspect of medication adherence [6,24,25].
Therefore, we evaluated multiple aspects of medication adherence in the present study. The
collaboration score assessed in this study reflects whether patients can communicate with
medical staff. Meanwhile, the willingness score indicates the ability to collect medical informa-
tion associated with prescribed medication and understand its effects and side effects. Since
patients usually do not directly feel the effects of cardioprotective medications or drugs used
for controlling CVD risk factors, understanding the reasons for taking prescribed medications
is key for enhancing long-term adherence [30]. Indeed, several trials have been conducted
with the aim of improving medication adherence by promoting patient understanding
through education and counseling in addition to providing reminders [31]. However, further
longitudinal research is needed to examine whether the collaboration and willingness aspects
of medication adherence are related to future medication compliance and subsequent
improved clinical outcomes in patients with CVD.
In the present study, extraversion tended to be associated with a high collaboration score,
although they were not statistically significant. This result may support the findings reported
by a previous study on patients with diabetes mellitus, which showed that extraversion was
associated with medication adherence, especially among older individuals [34]. Since the aver-
age age of patients with CVD has increased in Japan [35], extraversion may be helpful for
patients’ understanding or communication with health care providers in secondary CVD pre-
vention. However, this personality trait had no correlation with compliance in taking pre-
scribed medication. Since the medication compliance in this study reflected pre-
hospitalization condition, further assessments need to be conducted on post-discharge disease
management.
Table 2. Distribution of Big Five personality traits and medication adherence scores.
Median (IQR) Mean (SD)
Big Five personality traits
Conscientiousness 4.0 (3.5–5.0) 4.10 (1.15)
Neuroticism 4.0 (3.5–4.5) 3.07 (1.00)
Openness 4.0 (3.0–4.5) 3.80 (1.08)
Extraversion 4.0 (3.5–4.5) 4.09 (1.11)
Agreeableness 3.5 (2.5–4.0) 3.20 (1.16)
Medication adherence
Compliance score 10 (9–11) 9.72 (1.77)
Collaboration score 12 (10–12) 10.99 (2.38)
Willingness score 9 (8–11) 9.14 (2.62)
Acceptance score 11 (10–13) 11.31 (2.13)
IQR, interquartile range; SD, standard deviation
Each Big Five personality trait was normally distributed.
Among the medication adherence scores, compliance and acceptance were normally distributed, and collaboration
and willingness showed right-skewed distribution.
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Neuroticism has a negative effect on medication adherence [33,34]; however, such a rela-
tionship was not observed in the present study. In contrast to previous studies, the present
study included hospitalized patients who had recently developed or have worsened CVDs.
Therefore, patients’ apprehension on illness-specific symptoms of CVD could likely affect the
results of the present study. Another study on patients with asthma reported that patients with
negative affectivity tended to be more aware of and correctly report disease-specific symptoms
[36]. Openness is another personality trait related to the use of complementary and alternative
medicine or low medication adherence [37]; however, this was not observed on the present
study. The presence of symptoms and subjective severity of disease may affect the association
between personality traits and attitudes toward lifestyle and medical treatment.
Fig 2. Results of age-adjusted logistic regression analysis. OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.
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Several studies on agreeableness and healthy lifestyle have reported varied results [11,16,
34,38,39]. Although this trait refers to one’s tendency to prioritize interpersonal relationships
[9,10], it was not correlated with any domains of medication adherence in this study. This
may be due to a risk of bias as this study is a single center retrospective analysis. Additionally,
agreeableness was lower in older patients with heart failure, suggesting the necessity of sub-
group analysis based on several patient characteristics. Because of the limited sample size of
this study, further research on the correlation between agreeableness and health behaviors,
especially with regard to secondary prevention of CVD, is needed.
This study has some limitations. First, medication adherence was assessed using a self-
reported questionnaire. Of the domains of adherence assessed in this study, pill counts or elec-
tronic lids should be considered for compliance in taking prescribed medications. Second,
there was a potential for selection bias in the present study due to its single-center retrospective
design. Hence, the generalizability of our results should be carefully considered. Third, due to
the limited size of the study population, not all confounding factors with available data were
considered in multivariate analyses. Additionally, subgroup analysis for sensitivity analyses of
different patient characteristics could not be performed owing to the small sample size of this
study. Fourth, several potential confounding factors, such as genetic predisposition and socio-
economic status, were not assessed in this study. Therefore, as discussed previously, this
exploratory analysis should be considered a hypothesis-generating study. Finally, as this was a
cross-sectional analysis, the longitudinal association between personality traits and actual
health behavior after discharge was not evaluated.
Conclusions
This study shows that a high level of conscientiousness is positively associated with several
aspects of medication adherence, including acceptance to take medications, collaboration with
Table 3. Results of multivariate logistic regression analysis.
Dependent variable Independent variables OR (95% CI) p
High compliance Conscientiousness, per 1 pt 1.90 (1.30–2.79) 0.001
Age, per 1yr 1.00 (0.96–1.03) 0.819
Sex (women) 0.79 (0.31–2.01) 0.621
Complication of heart failure 1.01 (0.38–2.66) 0.983
Number of prescribed medications, per 1 drug 0.93 (0.74–1.17) 0.549
Charlson Comorbidity Index, per 1 pt 1.25 (0.76–2.07) 0.380
High collaboration Conscientiousness, per 1 pt 1.90 (1.31–2.76) 0.001
Age, per 1yr 0.97 (0.94–1.01) 0.110
Sex (women) 0.78 (0.31–1.96) 0.603
Complication of heart failure 0.83 (0.31–2.20) 0.701
Number of prescribed medications, per 1 drug 1.21 (0.97–1.53) 0.091
Charlson Comorbidity Index, per 1 pt 0.94 (0.58–1.54) 0.817
High willingness Conscientiousness, per 1 pt 1.74 (1.19–2.54) 0.004
Age, per 1yr 0.95 (0.92–0.98) 0.004
Sex (women) 0.95 (0.38–2.36) 0.904
Complication of heart failure 1.00 (0.36–2.76) 0.994
Number of prescribed medications, per 1 drug 1.12 (0.89–1.42) 0.345
Charlson Comorbidity Index, per 1 pt 0.91 (0.55–1.51) 0.718
OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval
Complication of heart failure is defined as heart failure hospitalization and/or prior heart failure.
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health care providers, and willingness to access and use medical information. Although this
study should be considered a hypothesis-generating study due to the exploratory nature of the
analysis, its findings suggest that assessment of personality traits may provide clues that facili-
tate patient–medical staff communication in promoting medication adherence.
Supporting information
S1 Table. Big Five personality traits according to the patient characteristics.
(DOCX)
S2 Table. Results of multivariate logistic regression analysis for the association between
Big Five personality traits and four domains of medication adherence (dependent vari-
able).
(DOCX)
S1 Dataset.
(XLSX)
Acknowledgments
The authors sincerely appreciate Ms. Takako Kameyama, Mr. Koya Kobayashi, and Ms. Rina
Terasawa for their contributions in data collection.
Author Contributions
Conceptualization: Takuji Adachi.
Data curation: Yuki Tsunekawa.
Formal analysis: Takuji Adachi.
Funding acquisition: Takuji Adachi.
Investigation: Takuji Adachi.
Supervision: Daisuke Tanimura.
Visualization: Takuji Adachi.
Writing original draft: Takuji Adachi.
Writing review & editing: Takuji Adachi, Yuki Tsunekawa, Daisuke Tanimura.
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Personality traits and medication adherence in CVD
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... Higher conscientiousness scores were significantly associated with high compliance scores. However other combinations of personality traits and medical adherence did not show statistically significant correlations in multivariate analyses [40]. ...
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