Thesis

Sustainable development and community empowerment through Tanzanian tourism social enterprises

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

This doctoral project intends to advance our understanding of the potential of social entrepreneurship (SE) towards sustainable development and community empowerment. While research studies linking social entrepreneurship and sustainable development (SD) are steadily increasing, in-depth and holistic investigation of if and how social entrepreneurship (SE), contributes to SD and community empowerment seems to be lacking. Therefore, the central question of this doctoral thesis is as follows: What is the potential of social entrepreneurship in contributing towards SD and community empowerment in developing economies?? To address this question, three papers were developed. Drawing on a systematic literature review and applying alternative development theory, the first paper set the disciplinary context for SE and sustainable development by identifying, synthesizing and critically evaluating the extant literature. The aim is to interrogate how and to what extent social entrepreneurship contribute to the seventeen United National Sustainable Development Goals. Paper one reveals variation of engagement by SE across all seventeen SDGs. SE seems to pay more attention on addressing problems related to SD1, SDG8, SDG3 and SDG17. The focus on SDG17 in particular reveals the importance of working in partnerships among all partners and across sectors by applying both bottom-up and top-down development approaches. These results have inspired the second paper, which aims to generate an empirically-informed picture of the extent to which SE empowers communities. The second and third paper use the context of Tanzania due to the emerging of social enterprises scholarship and practice, which has increasingly been applied in tourism sector, which is one of the key contributors to the country’s GDP. Drawing on 56 qualitative interviews in Tanzania, the second paper reveals that community empowerment is both a process and outcome in multidimensional view. Connected to these community dynamics and social inclusion function of SE, the third paper has taken the study forward by investigating the ability of SE as a vehicle for women empowerment and gender equality. The findings demonstrate there are some issues that need to be examined in-depth and that entail policy/practical interventions, particularly in developing country contexts, such as Tanzania. To enhance the capacity of SE in empowering women, a balanced approach of collaborations and partnerships among actors are essential. The key contribution of the thesis to academic knowledge lies in its ability to advance our understanding on the instrumentality of SE in empowering and enhancing the wellbeing of communities in different domains of sustainable development. Overall, the thesis provides important theoretical and practical implications for academics, policy-makers and other stakeholders in the domains of sustainable development and social entrepreneurship in general. Keywords: Sustainable development, Social entrepreneurship, Community empowerment

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
This article explores the shifting landscapes of light, labor, and value produced by the politics of electrification in Tanzania. Through engaging the anthropologies of infrastructure and electricity, it asks, how do people understand the relationship between electricity and value in the landscapes that sustain them? A brief outline of the history of electrification in Tanzania highlights its role in the production of place, and analysis of fieldwork with residents, leaders, and energy advocates between 2017 and 2020 reveals contemporary understandings of the relationship between electricity, value, and place. The article then chronicles recent government efforts to dramatically expand access to electricity, outlines the processes of selective grid expansion, and describes how people experience and understand its effects. I construct a theory of infrastructural triage to conceptualize the process of assigning degrees of urgency, priority, and value for developing infrastructure in particular spaces and for particular people and highlight its role in newly configuring the landscapes and timescapes in which people live and experience their everyday lives. In the process of enhancing the productivity and labor of some people but not others, electricity facilitates, obstructs, and marks flows of value across landscapes.
Article
Full-text available
Many cities in Africa have their legacy to the colonial masters’ influences. This can be seen in the design of many capital cities created along the coastal areas as transmission centers to dispatch primary raw materials in exchange for manufactured products. Some countries realized the need to establish or relocate their capital cities according to their needs, Tanzania being one of them. However, putting this idea into practice has not been without some serious challenges. The recent successful move by the government of Tanzania to shift her national capital city from Dar es Salaam to Dodoma provides a classic example in terms of challenges and lessons. This paper argues that the successful shifting of the government from Dar es Salaam to Dodoma is a combination of many factors. However, the main one was the strong political commitment of the fifth government and later the continuity of the sixth government to provide strategic leadership in implementing the idea conceived more than forty years by the first President of Tanzania. The article provides critical insights into the conceptualization and strategies adopted to create a new capital city for Tanzania. It also considered some literature on the transfer of capital cities in other parts of the world. It concludes by stressing that the solid personal drives shown by both President John Magufuli and later President Samia Suluhu Hassan has broken the long-held taboo of empty words since the early seventies. This is because many efforts by the previous government to move the city were bogged down by intractable management problems and a lack of foreign exchange.
Article
Full-text available
The study investigates the extent, progress and level of improvement over time of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) reporting by companies worldwide. It also examines whether SDG reporting differs due to country-level institutional factors. Using a sample of 6,942 company-year observations in thirty (30) countries from 2016-2019, the study utilises 17 SDGs indicators developed by the United Nations (UN) as its SDGs reporting index. The findings indicate that, despite little company-level SDG reporting in 2016, the trend has gradually moved upward over the sample period. We also find that SDGs reporting differs for companies in countries with sustainability regulation and better SDGs performance ratings. Contrary to our expectations, higher SDG reporting was found for companies in shareholder-oriented countries than in stakeholder-oriented countries. Furthermore, companies in developing countries did higher company-level SDGs reporting than those in developed countries. The findings of this study have important implications, given that SDG reporting attracts global attention in recent times.
Article
Full-text available
Progress towards the achievement of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development in many ways presupposes the utilisation of science, technology and innovation. Many sustainability-oriented projects across industries make use of space-based technologies and services to contribute to the Goals. Among others, satellite-based Earth observation, positioning, navigation and communication services are used in an array of sectors ranging from monitoring environmental conditions and changes to supporting search and rescue missions. In order to illustrate contributions to the SDGs, space agencies and other institutions have aligned their projects to the SDG framework. This study attempts a more holistic, aggregate mapping of such alignments to gauge which SDGs benefit the most and from space-based projects and technologies, as opposed to those benefiting the least. The results demonstrate that the number of contributing projects varies significantly across the Goal spectrum, as does the share of the various technologies involved, with particular focus on industrial development, hunger elimination, and improved healthcare. Nevertheless, the range of application of space-based technologies is wide and highlights the relevance of space to support the transition towards a sustainable future.
Article
Full-text available
Case synopsis The use of entrepreneurship to deliver profound social impact is a much-needed but poorly understood concept. Although the authors can generally recognize social enterprises when they see them, they lack a common approach to understanding and measuring the different ways they create social value for them. The authors also lack an appropriate method for reducing the difficulties of starting and expanding them within the difficult conditions of developing countries. In the northeast of Nigeria, for example, the mammoth challenge of rebuilding communities in an unfavorable entrepreneurship environment makes the need for a solution even more urgent. This case study illustrates a model of promoting entrepreneurship that advances the conditions of sustainable development goals (SDGs) in local communities using a configuration of the key theories of social impact entrepreneurship (variants of entrepreneurship with blended value or mission orientation, including social entrepreneurship, sustainable entrepreneurship and institutional entrepreneurship). The extent to which ventures can adjust and improve the extent of their contributions to the SDGs are shown using examples of three entrepreneurs at different stages of growth. From this case study, students will be able to understand how entrepreneurs can identify and exploit social impact opportunities in the venture’s business model, within the network of primary stakeholders as well as in the wider institutional environment with the support of Impact+, a simple impact measurement praxis. Learning objectives The case study envisions training students how to hardwire social impact focus in the venture’s business model (social entrepreneurship), how to run ventures with minimal harm to the environment and greatest benefit to stakeholders (sustainable Social entrepreneurship and SDGs: case studies from northeast Nigeria Fardeen Dodo, Lukman Raimi, Edward Bala Rajah  Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies : 2045-0621 Publication date: 6 December 2021 Issue publication date: 6 December 2021 ISSN (International Standard Serial Number.) COVID-19: information on accessing the platform off-site here. Please visit our page.  Welcome Guest user Advanced search Home / Case studies / Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies / Social entrepreneurship and SDGs: case studies from northeast Nigeria Enter your search terms here  Support & Feedback  Manage cookies 12/6/21, 3:34 PM Social entrepreneurship and SDGs: case studies from northeast Nigeria | Emerald Insight https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/EEMCS-10-2019-0264/full/html 2/3 entrepreneurship) and how to contribute to improving the institutional environment for social purpose entrepreneurship (institutional entrepreneurship). At the end of learning this case study, students should be able to: 1. discover an effective model for a startup social venture; 2. explore options for managing a venture sustainably and helping stakeholders out of poverty; and 3. identify ways to contribute to improving the institutional environment for social impact entrepreneurs. Social implications For students, this case will help in educating them on a pragmatic approach to designing social impact ventures – one that calibrates where they are on well-differentiated scales. For business schools, entrepreneurial development institutions and policymakers, this case study can help them learn how to target entrepreneurial development for specific development outcomes. Complexity academic level The case study is preferably for early-stage postgraduate students (MSc or MBA). Supplementary materials Teaching notes are available for educators only. Subject code CSS 3: Entrepreneurship.
Article
Full-text available
There is a growing body of research into market shaping, the process whereby the deliberate actions of market actors create or transform market systems. However, extant studies focus primarily on individual actors who shape markets for economic advantage in Western contexts. This study investigates market shaping undertaken by a social entrepreneurial network in the emerging economy of Ghana. Social entrepreneurship is particularly important in emerging economies due to inherent resource constraints and limited societal infrastructure. Adopting an abductive reasoning approach, we explored the case of Ghana's first and most prominent social entrepreneurship platform and its encompassing network, which includes social entrepreneurs, incubators, and foreign cultural organizations. The study offers a two-stage framework comprising five market-shaping patterns (combinations of institutional work types performed by one or more actors) that facilitate the formation of a market system for social change. The framework has important implications for social entrepreneurs, social entrepreneurial platforms, and policymakers.
Article
Full-text available
The limited size of public budgets raises the need to evaluate public policies more thoroughly. This need also concerns the public funding of social entrepreneurship in Europe and its effectiveness and efficiency when aiming to increase employment among socially excluded people. Based on the propensity score-matching approach, using place of residence, gender, year of birth, and employment status before taking part in the social entrepreneurship program financed by the Operational Program Human Resources and Employment (OP HRE), we compared 307 individuals who received employment support from public budgets and a control group of 1,228 individuals without support. We found a positive effect of the social entrepreneurship program on employment. The supported group has a 19.3% higher chance of being employed 1 year after the support compared to the comparison group. Thus, the OP HRE investment in social enterprise support programs is effective. It is estimated that the public budget will see its investment completely returned in 11 years. From this perspective, the public funding of social enterprises may have positive implications for public sector authorities.
Article
Full-text available
Sustainable development is the theme of the 21st century. To monitor the progress of sustainable development, the United Nations launched Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2015. Subsequently, nations of the world have drawn up a list of localized indicators regarding the United Nations SDGs as a paradigm. We established a database including SDGs indicator systems of 11 economies by collecting and determining a large number of materials. Based on this database, we analyzed SDGs indicators by designing a conceptual framework of comparative analysis that included three views. We found that the SDGs indicator systems of 11 economies are different between the number of indicators, the proportion of different categories, and the connotation of indicators. Although the SDGs indicator systems among economies regarded the United Nations SDGs as a framework and included the major social problems related to sustainability, the inconsistency between SDGs indicator systems is large. It is a major reason why scholars lack the systematic method for developing indicators. There are challenges faced in data accessibility. The framework for comparative analysis could be applied to different economies.
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we apply deductive content analysis to the 100 most influential publications in the field of social entrepreneurship (SE) to identify the normative assumptions in SE scholarship. Using eight contemporary schools of thought in political philosophy as a template for analysis, we identify the philosophies underlying SE literature and the important consequences of their (often ignored) normative stances, such as: ambiguous concepts, justifications and critiques, and normative contradictions. Our study contributes to the SE literature by proposing that political philosophy can help to identify what counts as the ‘social’ in SE. We are showing some of the field’s inherent normative tensions that could dampen its impact, and propose ways in which a normative awareness would help to establish a basis upon which to evaluate and demonstrate the social, economic, and cultural impact of SE.
Article
Full-text available
Research questions The objectives of this study are to identify the need for Social Enterprises (SEs) as an alternative form of working in the Finnish labour market, what alternative forms of co-operation between such types of SEs could be and how larger local companies can support the sustainable operation of these small SEs by employing immigrants and the long-term unemployed. Theory This article draws on the corporate social responsibility CSR theory of traditional enterprises to better explain the factors that can facilitate co-operation between SEs and private enterprises, thereby reaching the sustainable operation of SEs that are run by socially disadvantaged groups of people in Lapland. Phenomenon studied SE is a new phenomenon in Lapland. There are a few SEs in the region that are struggling to maintain their existence in a sustainable manner. It is harder for the members of such SEs to run businesses or to work and to become successful in Lapland; however, obtaining employment or running a proprietorship is not an alternative (Yeasmin, 2016) for these disadvantaged people. Case context The article contributes to the studies on the economic integration and labour market sustainability of immigrants and long-term job seekers, and particularly to the socio-economic integration of the long-term unemployed by focusing on the necessity-driven social entrepreneurship networking model in a sparsely populated region, that being the region of Lapland in Northern Finland. Findings The disadvantaged groups need access to the labour market in Lapland, and social alliances between various partners (e.g., private, public and SE) under different social circumstances (e.g., CSR) can generate alternative options for co-operation to sustain the existence of such SEs in Lapland. An analysis explores future recommendations for co-operation that might sustain SE’s existence and development and might also increase long-term prospects for targeted SEs. Discussion Lapland-based SEs operated by immigrants or the long-term unemployed are issues and themes that do not fall within the responsibility of any single authority or any single sector. Successfully running SEs demands positive interaction and social innovation strategies among many social partners. Networking with a variety of public stakeholder groups alongside the private sector needs to see an investment of social resources for mapping the phenomena on the topic of social economy, which is a social innovation process that might enable such SEs to have successful outcomes in Lapland.
Article
Full-text available
Social innovation is a fast-growing field of practice that has caught the attention of management and entrepreneurship scholars. The recent excitement surrounding “open social innovation” contests raises the question of what makes social innovation solutions successful contenders in these ubiquitous contests. We used uniquely assembled data, including data generated from external evaluators, to explore what determines success in an open social innovation contest (n = 150 out of 871 entries) in the field of poverty alleviation. We found that innovators who had networks with corporations and those who had commercial orientations were more likely to succeed in open social innovation contests. We also discovered that the perceived usefulness and innovativeness of social innovation solutions mediated these positive relationships. Our study offers early insights that deepen our understanding of success in the growing practice of open social innovation.
Article
Full-text available
This article first shows that climate change and the COVID-19 pandemic are typical examples of institutional failure, to a greater extent a serious scenario characterized by government failure and market failure at the same time. To better comprehend the global development of multilateral institutions, this article presents Gunnar Myrdal’s insights into the South Asian countries, which he observed several decades ago, as a regional example. In this regard, this article also describes the institutional development of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). The development of ASEAN (i.e., the emergence of Asian regional planning) has been driven by an implicit process of multilateral interactions and negotiations rather than an orientation of explicit goals. Given the various big crises and unexpected shocks that constantly threaten us all, the article stresses the necessity and urgency of initiating a comprehensive sustainability policy at each individual country level. Only when each country unambiguously chooses its own national agenda on sustainability can the sustainable development goals (SDGs) at the regional or global level be further negotiated and aligned.
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic presents a potential threat to wildlife resources in Africa. In this review, using Tanzania as a case, we examine the impacts and risks that wildlife sectors in Africa are facing or are likely to face as a result of this pandemic. We recognize loss of revenues from tourism as a major impact that could negatively influence the management of wildlife species and habitats. Loss of tourism revenues reduces capacity of the conservation agencies to fund conservation operations and support the benefit sharing schemes. Furthermore, it undermines the efficacy of conservation to compete with alternative economic activities which are ecologically damaging. Increased unemployment and household poverty due to closure of businesses may exacerbate wildlife crime and unsustainable activities. Additionally, contributions from donor-funding organizations and development partners cannot be guaranteed as revenues may be diverted to support other sectors including health. In order to address and minimize the impacts and reduce the risks to the wildlife sector, the following policy measures are recommended: ensure adequate budget for conservation; develop a crisis management plan; reconsider protocols for conducting wildlife trade; develop a comprehensive tourism recovery plan; promote scientific studies focusing on zoonoses and adopt a One-Health Approach as a matter of urgency in dealing with COVID-19 and future pandemics.
Article
Full-text available
Women’s empowerment is essential to improve nutrition in low and middle-income countries. We investigated the empowerment of women in agriculture in association with household production and the dietary diversity of children 12–59 months old and their mothers in Timor-Leste. Using the Abbreviated Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (A-WEAI) we analyzed 156 dual-adult rural households applying multivariable regression models. We found that the dietary diversity scores of empowered women and their children were higher than among those disempowered. The associations between different measures of empowerment and dietary diversity were larger and more significant among women than children. Food production diversity was consistently associated with children’s improved diets. We found small gender gaps in decisions on production, access to resources, and control over income, similar to findings in other Southeast Asian countries. Nutrition-sensitive policies and programmes in Timor-Leste could gain from prioritizing women’s empowerment and promoting agriculture diversification strategies as valuable investments to improve the diets and wellbeing of mothers and children.
Article
Full-text available
After the economic liberalization in mid-2000, Tanzania has assumed that tourism growth spars economic growth due to the consistent significant contribution of tourism sector to the country's annual income. However, there are limited empirical studies that investigated tourism-economic growth relationship in Tanzania. This study aims to investigate an empirical insight into the actual nature of tourism-economic growth in Tanzania by applying the Granger causality and Wald test methods where annual time series data on international tourism receipt, real Gross Domestic Product, and real effective exchange rate over the period 1989–2018 are used. Further, the Impulse Response Function approach is utilized to provide insight into the qualitative nature of the relationships and the length of time necessary for the causal effect to take place. The findings confirm a unidirectional causality from tourism development to economic growth. The study concludes that Tanzania ought to focus on economic strategies that encourage sustainable tourism development as a feasible source of economic growth.
Article
Full-text available
Rural social enterprises are increasingly recognized as organisations that contribute to local development by providing goods and/or services to meet community needs and by fostering inclusive social and governance relations. The purpose of this paper is to explore how rural social enterprises engage in a plurality of socioeconomic relations with different dimensions of their 'place' when contributing to the development of their localities. Based on three in-depth case studies of social enterprises operating in rural Ireland, our findings illustrate how rural social enterprises engage with locational, institutional, material and identity aspects of their 'place', which indicates their 'placial embeddedness'. Moreover, our findings also demonstrate how these organisations engage in, and combine market, redistribution and reciprocity relations, which indicates their 'substantive hybridity'. Based on the interrelated nature of these findings, we argue that it is through a process of placial substantive hybridity that rural social enterprises foster social innovation in order to contribute to an integrated development of their localities. They harness and (re)valorise (untapped) local resources while complementing these with other resources from extra-local sources and accommodate and/or respond to structural-exogenous forces based on the needs of their local population in line with neo-endogenous rural development.
Article
Full-text available
The study stipulates phases to observe the proposed mechanism in formulating the travel and leisure industry's recovery strategies. The present pandemic COVID-19 has resulted in global challenges, economic and healthcare crises, and posed spillover impacts on the global industries, including tourism and travel that the major contributor to the service industry worldwide. The tourism and leisure industry has faced the COVID-19 tourism impacts hardest-hit and lies among the most damaged global industries. The leisure and internal tourism indicated a steep decline amounting to 2.86 trillion US dollars, which quantified more than 50% revenue losses. In the first step, the study explores the consequences and settings of the COVID-19 pandemic and how innovation and change can contribute to the tourism industry's revival to the next normal. Thus, the study determines that tourism enterprises and scholars must consider and change the basic principles, main assumptions, and organizational situations related to research and practice framework through rebuilding and establishing the tourism sector. In the second step, the study discusses direct COVID-19 tourism impacts, attitudes, and practices in gaining the leisure industry's boom and recovery. In the third phase, the study proposes to observe the characteristics and COVID-19 tourism consequences on the travel and tourism research. The findings provide insights in regaining the tourism industry's operational activities and offer helpful suggestions to government officials, scholars, and tourism firms to reinvest in the tourism industry to set it back to a normal position.
Article
Full-text available
In the emerging field of academic research on social entrepreneurship, studies linking social entrepreneurship to sustainability is gaining interest due to the importance of connecting these two constructs. The purpose of this study is to propose an updated conceptual framework that links social entrepreneurship to sustainability. A literature review of social entrepreneurship journals was conducted, resulting in identifying four key dimensions in social entrepreneurship which are social, economic, behaviour and governance. These four dimensions have been categorised to have an effect on social entrepreneurship and sustainability. Additionally, the theory of change and logic model are business processes that have been identified, extending into the measurement of social impact by using either the social return on impact or balanced scorecard approach to complete the conceptual framework. Hence, this study is envisioned to provide original work in the theoretical development of linking social entrepreneurship to sustainability that will benefit academicians and practitioners alike.
Article
Full-text available
Concern about environmental problems has led to more attention being paid to the sustainable development objective. Social entrepreneurship, and entrepreneurship in general, show a direct relationship with this objective, due mainly to the activities carried out by entrepreneurs regarding the development of new products, the search for new markets, and the introduction of innovations. Because of this, it is important to identify the variables that influence both types of entrepreneurship to adequately design measures to stimulate sustainable development through these activities. These variables can be grouped into two groups: sociocultural factors and economic factors. The objective of this paper is to analyze the behavior of these two groups over general entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship, in addition to the impact of these two types of entrepreneurship on sustainable development. To carry out this analysis, we have developed an empirical analysis with structural equations for the case of 15 OECD countries between 2015 and 2016. La preocupación por los problemas ambientales ha llevado a que se preste más atención al objetivo de desarrollo sostenible. El emprendimiento social, y el emprendimiento en general, muestran una relación directa con este objetivo, debido principalmente a las actividades llevadas a cabo por los emprendedores en relación con el desarrollo de nuevos productos, la búsqueda de nuevos mercados y la introducción de innovaciones. Debido a esto, es importante identificar las variables que influyen en ambos tipos de emprendimiento para diseñar adecuadamente medidas para estimular el desarrollo sostenible a través de estas actividades. Estas variables se pueden agrupar en dos grupos: factores socioculturales y factores económicos. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar el comportamiento de estos dos grupos sobre el emprendimiento general y el emprendimiento social, además del impacto de estos dos tipos de emprendimiento en el desarrollo sostenible. Para llevar a cabo este análisis, hemos desarrollado un análisis empírico con ecuaciones estructurales para el caso de 15 países de la OCDE entre 2015 y 2016.
Article
Full-text available
Social entrepreneurship plays a role in sustainable development to value creation, delivering and capturing, in this article, researchers attempted to find the nature of the relationships between the sustainable development and its latent variables, and how can these variables effect on sustainable development. Two models were used to estimate the relationships mentioned before, structural equation model and bidirectional causality model, in the case of 15 the regional comprehensive economic partnership (RCEP) countries that are home to nearly a third of the world's population, and account for 29% of GDP. The study found some interesting results which consistence with the results of previous studies in this field, like that there has a positive relationship between the social entrepreneurship and sustainable development, and positive relationship between the innovations and sustainable development and in the regard of the institutions variable, the study also found that there is an indirect effect on innovation.
Article
Full-text available
Tourism has received considerable attention in recent years with regards to the impacts of tourism and its ability to contribute toward sustainability. This article focuses on the positive impact community-based tourism can have on the empowerment of women. Four domains of empowerment have been identified in literature, and the objective of this research specifically reviews the social and economic empowerment domains, which community-based tourism has had on the lives of women involved in tourism. Primary data in the form of life histories were collected through semi-structured interviews by the researchers, and data analyzed according to an empowerment framework. The results yielded a number of women considered to be empowered on both economic and social levels. However, despite the considered empowerment of women, aspects of disempowerment were noted. The study fundamentally reveals that Sustainable Development Goal 5, pertaining to women empowerment, can be achieved through the economic empowerment of women who in turn socially empower the communities in which they reside.
Article
Full-text available
Cities, the main place of human settlements, are required to offer high-quality environments to citizens. To achieve this, it is essential to overcome several mega challenges of urbanization, population growth, economic development, environmental deterioration, and climate change. Urban infrastructure construction is capable of enhancing economic growth and promoting urban sustainability, while it will lead to many environmental problems if the infrastructure construction is not properly planned and designed. To address this challenge, this study aims to understand how to ensure the construction land expansion sustainably in rapidly urbanizing cities. In particular, this study analyzed the suitability of construction land expansion in Nanchang, a rapid urbanizing city in China, from 1995 to 2015. The results indicate that the urban expansion speed from 1995 to 2005 was faster than that from 2005 to 2015. The construction land in Nanchang was expanding towards “all directions” and sprawled towards surrounding districts and counties from the original core areas. Nevertheless, about 70% of the Nanchang area was allowable construction area (highly suitable expansion, relatively suitable expansion, and basically suitable expansion areas), indicating that the abundant reserved land resources for urban construction. This study also identified multiple suitability expansion paths of construction land, providing a scientific guidance for the land use planning of Nanchang city. Overall, this study provides a reference to the understanding of the construction land expansion for the achievement of United Nations sustainable development goals. It can also promote the understanding of spatial territory planning and practically enhance the capabilities of land use planning and design.
Article
Full-text available
Culinary tourism becomes increasingly influential in shaping visitors' decision-making and holiday experience on top of providing significant socio-cultural and economic benefits. This study examines the contributions of culinary tourism to the socio-economic development and cultural revitalization of tourism destinations using Porter's value chain theory. The study adopts a qualitative research approach with an exploratory design and collects data from 71 purposively selected informants. Research findings reveal that the proper planning, development, and management of culinary tourism promotes the economic development and socio-cultural revitalization of destinations by strengthening inter-sectorial linkages and empowering local communities. The existence of diverse agricultural products coupled with unique gastronomic heritage does not only improve the experience of visitors but also extend their length of stay. The provision of authentic culinary products also enables to manifest local culture and thereby portray a positive destination image. Several challenges including maintaining a consistent partnership between local gastronomic ingredient suppliers and the hospitality service providers hamper the successful development of culinary tourism in Amhara National Regional State. By adopting and extending the classic Porter’s value chain theory, this study makes substantive theoretical contributions and practical implications about the multifaceted roles of culinary tourism in agriculturally reliant destinations. Conclusions and implications are also discussed along with study limitations and opportunities for further research.
Article
Sustainable development goals (SDG) represent one of the pillars of the UN’s 2030 agenda aiming to secure a more sustainable future for all nations. The 17 goals comprising the SDG framework form a transformative action plan that is designed to help nations achieve a more sustainable future focusing on their environmental, social, and economic systems. Achieving the goals within the designated timeframe, however, entails overcoming multiple challenges related to policy design, resources management, and harnessing the synergies and trade-offs among the goals themselves. Recognizing the vital role modeling and simulation can play in facilitating the achievement of the SDG, this paper provides a review of the academic literature published between 2015 and 2021 relating to the models developed to tackle SDG related issues. The main purpose of this review is to explore the modeling practices related to SDG and to determine how aligned those modeling practices are with the priorities of sustainability science. We developed a multi-dimension classification scheme to categorize the models retrieved from the literature based on their main characteristics focusing on characteristics such as the modeling approach used, model uncertainty treatment, model temporal and spatial scales, and which science priority the model focuses on. The results of this research show that most of the models focused on studying policy changes needed to achieve the SDG and monitoring the progress of the SDG. The results also highlight missing important characteristics in SDG models such as cross-scale treatment and advanced uncertainty treatment. While this research can be valuable in informing modelers about the gaps need to be filled in SDG modeling and facilitates the communication between modelers and policy makers, it can be further extended by including an evaluation for the modeling approaches used in SDG contexts as well as adding more characteristics to the model categorization scheme.
Purpose This paper examines the accountability and governance mechanisms and the challenges in a multi-stakeholder partnership seeking to implement the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in a developing country (DC), namely Tanzania. Design/methodology/approach The paper draws on work on the shift from government to governance to meta-governance to examine the SDGs framework's governance regime. The data stems from documentation, focussed group discussions and face-to-face interviews with key stakeholders involved in the localisation of SDGs in Tanzania. Findings Despite the emphasis given by promoters of SDGs on the need for multi-stakeholder engagement, and network and market-based governance, Tanzania's hierarchical governance framed in national legislations dominated the localisation of the SDGs. The national-level meta-governance structures were somewhat dysfunctional, partly due to a lack of well-designed coordination mechanisms for collaborative engagement with key stakeholders. The limited involvement of different meta-governors, and particularly network and market-based governance arrangements, has had severe implications for achieving the SDGs in DCs in general and Tanzania, in particular. Practical implications The paper calls for a more explicit SDG policy and strategy, alongside strengthening institutional structures and related governance arrangements in Tanzania, to promote the realisation of the SDGs. For the SDGs framework to succeed, the authors suggest that, in addition to adopting SDG friendly policies, the Tanzanian government should devise plans for financial resources, strategies for empowering and engaging with key stakeholders and promote an integrative governance system that underpins accountability at the local level. Originality/value Focussing on Tanzania, the paper sheds light on how context in DCs, interactions between state and non-state actors, modes of governance and accountability mechanisms shape the localisation of SDGs and realising the SDGs' agenda. The implementation in Tanzania focussed on priorities in the development plan, thereby neglecting some important SDGs. This raises doubts about the possibility of meeting the SDGs by 2030. The localisation of SDGs remained within the top-down governance structure, as Tanzania's government failed to enact the policy and strategy for multi-stakeholder partnership consistent with the SDGs' principle of “leave no-one behind”. Consequently, meta-governors' efforts and ability to monitor and demand accountability from the government was constrained by the political context, the governance system and regulations enacted to side-line them.
Article
The aim of this paper is to investigate whether cities can improve their interna-tional attractiveness by investing in their public transport infrastructure. For this purpose, we examine the influence of a metro shock on the number of greenfield for-eign direct investment (FDI) projects received by a city during the period 2003–2014. We find that cities which have invested in expanding their metro network have at-tracted, on average, more FDI than comparable cities which have not improved their urban transport infrastructure.
Article
In African countries, women with disability encounter severe discrimination as their devalued status as women intersects with negative and hostile community attitudes toward disability. Women with disability who are engaged as leaders in the disability movement play a vital role in addressing this discrimination. Through in-depth interviews, this study examined barriers and pathways to leadership encountered by women with disability from Tanzania, Ghana, and Kenya who were active within the disability movement. By dismantling and reshaping stigmatising attitudes the participants had been able to form a positive sense of self and gain the self-esteem needed to succeed as leaders. Publicly, they defied traditional gender roles by leveraging their privileged status as leaders; Leadership was often linked to educational attainment, and being educated legitimised and their achievements as women. Using an intersectional lens, this study sheds further light on the discrimination specific to African women with disability and the strategies that they employ to overcome them. • Points of interest • African women with disability encounter severe forms of discrimination both due to their gender and due to their disability • Women with disabilities who are engaged as leaders in the African disability movement play an important role in fighting this discrimination • In this study, we identified how women with disability had overcome various barriers to become disability leaders • We found that by resisting negative attitudes the women were able to develop the confidence they needed to become leaders • The women also had to ensure that others accepted them as leaders. Being educated was one way in which they were able to convince others that they were competent as leaders.
Article
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were set by the United Nations General Assembly in 2015 to work towards a sustainable society in which economic prosperity is achieved and social and environmental concerns are met. Under the SDGs, businesses are expected to assume increasingly active roles. However, little is known about the relationship between the preferences of stakeholders and businesses' contributions to the SDGs. This study, therefore, investigates whether the SDGs can function as business norms by examining stakeholder support for sustainable practices. Specifically, the study examines preferences for companies that contribute to the SDGs and the effects of raising awareness regarding the inherent nature of the SDGs on stakeholders' preferences. To this end, we used a nationwide online survey dataset conducted in Japan (n = 6043) and employed a combination of conjoint analysis and an information treatment experiment. The results showed that implementing the SDGs increased stakeholders' preferences for companies. However, a gap existed between the stakeholders' preferred SDGs and the companies' priorities concerning the SDG implementation. The findings suggest that increasing stakeholders' awareness is effective in closing the gap.
Article
Purpose: This article is based on a single case study of a social entrepreneurial startup called ‘Pahal,’ which used social entrepreneurial strategies to encourage women to engage in economic activities, which helped them in gaining economic empowerment. This social enterprise also influenced the existing intersectional positions. Methodology: The researcher alongside the social entrepreneur visited the field for eight months from August 2016 to March 2017 and interviewed multiple stakeholder-employees (as partners) of the social enterprise. The study was done by conducting interviews with all the stakeholders in all the three social entrepreneurial phases, i.e., Pre-PAHAL, During-PAHAL, and After-PAHAL. The interviews and observations were recorded and analyzed using social entrepreneurial lens and intersectionality. Findings: “Pahal Initiative” – is a social entrepreneurial intervention that helped the women in the household to start a food delivery business with the support of the social entrepreneur. Consequently, women gained confidence and self-respect. The attitude of men in the household changed when the women in the household generated additional income. It impacted their position and status which led to an increase in their participation in decision making in the household and economic independence. The women become more interactive and expressive in a predominantly patriarchal household. Within one year, the entrepreneur had to stop the Pahal initiative. Then, we observed and recorded that this event curtailed the economic activities undertaken by the women in their village and their social status reverted to what it was before the initiative. Social Implications: From this case study, one observes that social entrepreneurship has a strong potential to bring about social and economic change. This study helps policymaker, NGOs to solve poverty, and gender discrimination related problems using social entrepreneurial strategies. Practical Implications: First, social entrepreneurial strategies lead to economic value creation and lead overall socio-economic gains. Second, social entrepreneurial strategies address the problems of patriarchy and gender discrimination. Third, economic activities undertaken by women changed the social perceptions of the family members towards women in the families. Originality: The study uses social entrepreneurial intervention to understand and bring about change in the socio-economic status of women in rural India. The study uses an intersectionality lens to make sense of the data, reality and reflects on how intersectional positions are altered when women are economically empowered either through training or through a proper organization or both.
Chapter
Drawing on the theme of gender equality in tourism, this book aims to identify the main obstacles to women's advancement in the tourism industry, and to discover and share successful strategies to overcome them, drawing on case studies from all over the world. Interlaced between the 12 chapters of the book are stories from women who work in tourism. The chapters and stories that make up this book explore women's stories of empowerment beyond the neoliberal conceptualizations of economic improvement, to highlight the structural inequalities that prevent true gender equality. The collection points to the slow and small changes that women are making and how women are using the transformations tourism brings to their advantage. The book has a subject index.
Article
This study analyzes the impact of international articles on the reputation of finance journals. The association between journal rankings and geographical contents is examined by focusing on two citation-based indicators and two ranking methods using expert opinions. The results clearly indicate that the four methodologies are correlated with a strong preference for articles focusing on the United States. They also show that international topics are often associated with lower journal rankings. Although articles with a global or European scope do not seem to affect journal reputation, contents focusing on world regions such as Asia or Africa are often correlated with lower journal visibility. These results suggest that the strong emphasis placed by scholars on top-ranked finance journals may conflict with the internationalization of business education.
Article
Tracking progress toward the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires monitoring of various social-ecological indicators over space and time, including the ratio of land consumption rate to population growth rate (LCRPGR), an indicator of land-use efficiency (SDG 11.3.1). In this study, we analyzed state-of-the-art Earth observation data (1975–2015) to address three key questions. First, how has the LCRPGR varied over space and time? Second, how is built-up expansion related to population increase across regions? Third, what are some important issues related to the SDGs' land-use efficiency concept? We found that the “Europe and Northern America” SDG region was the least efficient region, having the highest LCRPGR in 1975–2000 and 2000–2015, but the “Eastern and South-Eastern Asia” SDG region is catching up. The World Bank's “high income” region and the United Nations' “very high human development” region were the least efficient regions in 1975–2000, but their places were respectively taken over by the “upper middle income” and “high human development” regions in 2000–2015. Although land consumption rate and population growth rate were positively and significantly correlated at the global level, this was not always the case across regions, indicating that land consumption was not always proportionate to population increase. We identified the non-inclusion of changes in in situ natural capital and the external impacts of cities and urban regions as among the important limitations of the SDGs' land-use efficiency concept. This can be considered in its future reconceptualization.
Article
Purpose Social entrepreneurship (SE) is an emerging social phenomenon gaining tangible traction for its ability to tackle complex social and environmental problems against a backdrop of global sustainability challenges. This paper aims to unpack SE intentions, mindset and motivations to elucidate “why” and “how” social entrepreneurs (SE) initiate, perpetuate and sustain pro-social entrepreneurship activity. It specifically asks why SE do what they do, how they develop and sustain pro-social entrepreneurship action and how these normative drivers affect the social change process. Design/methodology/approach This qualitative research adopts an exploratory multiple case design approach in examining the tacit experience of eight SE tackling complex water, sanitation and environmental challenges in Indonesia, and combines this with scholarly insights from multiple bodies of knowledge. Case studies include six SE recognised by the Ashoka Foundation and two lesser-known “social enterprises” to enable finding patterns across the cases and compare key differences between pro-social and conventional entrepreneurship. Triangulating semi-structured interviews with secondary data analysis and semi-ethnographic fieldwork observations, this paper provides a rich theoretical and empirical basis to understand the emerging transformative potential of SE in tackling a range of sustainability issues. Findings Interviews with eight SE highlighted their intentions to advance inter and intra-generational equity, social justice and sustainability, bringing socially embedded empathetic values and a growth mindset to overcome challenges associated with disrupting existing social order. Direct engagement with the SE revealed 10 critical enabling factors to foster future SE potential, namely, individual background and experience, unmet social needs, empathy, sense of belonging, willingness/passion to alleviate other’s suffering, growth mindset, internal/external catalysts, intrinsic and extrinsic needs, beliefs and goals and declaration of a social mission to ensure consistency in behaviour and action. This demonstrates that while SE are motivated by a variety of self and other-oriented mechanisms, it is ultimately the process of developing empathy, a growth mindset and declaring a social mission that drives and sustains pro-social entrepreneurship action. Practical implications The output of this research is a new intentions model, which outlines the 5 phases of enterprise development and 10 critical enabling factors to foster future SE potential. These insights are critical to leveraging the emerging transformative potential of SE in tackling the world’s most urgent sustainability issues. Social implications The paper presents a deep analysis of data on individual background, experience and characteristics in developing a new SE intentions model. Originality/value The distinct focus on inputs over processes and outcomes answers to a highly elusive topic while offering an alternative approach to understand how SE create remarkably different strategies, processes and outcomes to conventional developmental approaches.
Article
Men continue to dominate the supply-side narratives of energy access projects, leaving an unexplored gap in gendered organizations. To fill this gap, the article utilises interviews with women workers to consider their lived experience working for an energy access-based organisation. Through the use of narrative analysis, this study highlights the importance of socio-cultural contextualisation of social entrepreneurial activities and social missions. It takes a persuasive case-study approach to analysing Husk Power Systems (HPS), which operates primarily in Bihar, India. HPS, a mini grid-based social enterprise, began its operations in Bihar in 2007 with the goal of ameliorating rural Bihar’s energy access problems and secondarily, empowering women through employment opportunities. Drawing on the concepts of women’s empowerment, social inequalities, and intersectionality, this article argues that although HPS provides formal employment opportunities, its presence has not secured long-lasting women’s empowerment in Bihar. As a social enterprise, HPS has limited capacity to reform social inequalities. Although HPS guarantees local job creation, we underscore further exploration of the intersectional dimensions influencing social enterprises’ energy access business operations’ longevity and impact, including those of local systems of power, caste, gender, and class.
Article
Despite the growing attention on social enterprises, the extant research lacks an overarching theory and a solid empirical basis to examine these enterprises’ performance implications. This study addresses this gap by taking a novel research approach with new data to identify social enterprises and by comparing market performance within social enterprises and between social and commercial ventures. Using the Kauffman Firm Survey (KFS) longitudinal dataset of 4,928 new ventures in the United States between 2004 and 2010, we find that new social enterprises tend to survive significantly longer, but do not achieve higher sales growth than commercial ventures. Our econometric analyses among 232 social enterprises further show that social enterprises perform better when they offer innovative products or services, participate in social sectors, and localize their businesses.
Article
This study explored the role of non-partner violence on adolescent girls and young women’s (AGYW) risk of partner violence in Tanzania. Among currently partnered AGYW, 36.7% reported lifetime physical and/or sexual partner violence. Prevalence of parental punishment, dating relationship violence, and sexual assault measured 3.0%, 2.5%, and 2.9%, respectively. There is evidence that exposure to all forms of non-partner abuse is associated with partner violence. Population attributable fractions suggest that 20% of partner violence incidence was because of non-partner violence. Adolescence and young adulthood is a critical intervention age group to prevent multiple forms of violence including in intimate relationships.
Article
Inequalities in access to university education are of concern across the world, but many countries in Africa have faced particularly pronounced regional and ethnic inequalities in educational attainment. Have such disparities increased or decreased since the 1960s? Using census data to trace the sub-national origins of university students in seven African countries (Botswana, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia) over successive birth cohorts shows that regional inequalities in access have taken a u-shaped path. In the first two decades of independence, as higher education expanded from a low base, graduates were growing more regionally and ethnically representative of the national populations. Since the 1980s regional inequalities have increased in most countries, on account of a growing attainment gap between people born in the largest cities and the remaining populations. This growing educational advantage accruing to those born in the main urban metropolises was initially driven by a slowdown in enrolment growth, coupled with high rates of skills-selective urban migration and higher educational performance in the urban regions. This new urban bias is rapidly changing the composition of the region’s educational elites.
Article
The understanding of how educational and spatial factors influence appreciation of conservation benefits to locals living adjacent to protected areas is a very important aspect in conservation initiatives. In this study we compared how educational and spatial factors affect the appreciation of conservation benefits to local communities adjoining the two Tanzanian national parks; Tarangire National Park (TNP) and Saadani National Park (SANAPA). Questionnaire surveys including closed-ended questions were conducted in eight villages, four near each of the two parks. A total of 400 randomly selected households were interviewed (50 in each village). Results from these questionnaires showed that the local people’s appreciation of benefits was negatively related to increasing distance from the parks boundaries. Moreover, people with secondary education or higher, appreciated to receive more benefits than those with primary and tended to appreciate benefits more often than those with no formal education. In addition, people living around TNP responded that the park itself benefited more in terms of benefits from tourism compared to communities surrounding SANAPA. The underlying mechanisms for establishing strong relationships, e.g., by initiating conservation benefits close to national parks, is key to improve views on conservation practices from local people surrounding national parks.
Article
In anticipation of recovery in the tourism industry post COVID-19, this study examines the economic impact of tourism on economic growth and other macroeconomic variables in a panel of 46 countries. Using system-GMM estimation, I find that tourism has a statistically significant positive effect on economic growth. In the linear model, the positive effect on growth is 50 percent higher if tourism receipts relative to GDP is used as the tourism measure, instead of tourist arrivals per capita. When the non-linear specification is considered, it is found that tourism specialization at higher levels dampens the positive effect on growth. However, increased tourist receipts have a positive effect on growth, at all levels. Regardless of the measure of tourism, an increase in tourism augurs well for the services and agriculture value-added shares of GDP as well as the labour prospect in the service and industry sectors and among the vulnerable employed. Increase in the tourism receipts relative to GDP is expected to positively impact the net FDI inflows to GDP ratio. The results suggest that policy makers should be measured in their approach as they navigate their economies post-COVID-19 when the tourism industry is in the recovery phase. JEL codes: Z32, F62, O47
Article
Analysis of land use and land cover change (LULCC) offers useful results for the determination and implementation of land management policies. In this study, the change in the amount of arable land in Tanzania and its main determinants were identified, and suggestions for agricultural land management policy were put forward. For this purpose, datasets related to spatial, biophysical, demographic, and socio-economic variables that can affect the amount of arable land were prepared and analysed with appropriate econometric models. The coefficients of the established models were estimated by the Engle-Granger method and according to the results of the forecast; the increase in amount of variables such as gross domestic product (GDP), the quantity of exported goods, annual population growth and the amount of arable land per capita cause a positive effect in the amount of total arable land compared to an increase in other land use areas such as residential settlement areas, infrastructure land areas, while the increase in the presence of forested land has a negative effect on the amount of arable land. On the other hand, the results of the Granger causality test, conducted to analyse the causality relationships among the GDP, annual population growth, residential areas and other lands and arable land have determined that there is causality of residential areas and other lands to arable land with annual population growth. According to the results of the research, the demographic and socio-economic factors have been determined to have a greater influence on the change in the amount of arable land in Tanzania. In this context, it is possible to contribute to the sustainability of land resources by developing non-agricultural activities and opportunities by reducing population pressure on the land, as well as developing efforts towards land ownership and tenure systems in rural areas and urban fringe premises.
Article
Improved environmental management is key to several of the sustainable development goals (SDGs). This paper focuses on the interaction between formalization of the Artisanal and Small-scale Mining (ASM) sector in Tanzania, and the regulation of negative environmental impacts. Key environmental impacts associated with ASM in Tanzania include: deforestation, use of mercury and cyanide in gold processing, dust and noise pollution, generalized water pollution, soil contamination, and failure to properly reclaim mining areas, and/or secure or fill-in mine shafts. Previous studies found that the Tanzanian regulatory framework was not well suited to the needs of the ASM sector, governance of ASM environmental issues was overly centralized, and environmental awareness amongst miners was low. Over the past five years, the Tanzanian government has reformed environmental regulations in the mining sector and has attempted to formalize ASM. It has also aligned some of its development targets to the SDGs. This paper describes current environmental regulations and policies, discusses actual and potential linkages to formalization initiatives, and assesses the capacities of different stakeholders to regulate and reduce environmental impacts, in the context of the SDGs.
Article
Reimagining innovation explores contemporary issues of animal geographies within terrestrial and aquatic landscapes in relation to entrepreneurial ecosystems. Wolves are used to narrate global challenges that keystone species face in human-dominated spaces while sea lions are taken to explore the “social” difference between oceanic and riparian (river) regions. Understanding these issues and the position of human stakeholders presents an opportunity for posthumanist “social” entrepreneurship as an institutional mechanism to frame “support” within entrepreneurial support organizations. Key solutions for entrepreneurial networks examine aspects of policy, economics, and the environment by coadapting business models to address Sustainable Development Goals 14—Life Below Water and 15—Life Above Land. Small and medium-sized enterprises have the potential to rethink innovation toward new world economies by supporting habitat connectivity, ecosystem services, wildlife protections, nonhuman stakeholder models, measures of coexistence, and expanding the notion of what it means to be “entrepreneurial” and “whom” can become it.
Article
Sustainable development is a part of every recent global agenda; the world has been trying to establish a more sustainable path and various goals and targets have been set to achieve this. The 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), introduced by the United Nations in 2015, aim to tackle economic, social and environmental issues that plague the world and to promote the concept of sustainability. This paper provides a comprehensive literature review regarding each SDG, the problem that each one addresses and why it is important to tackle it. Recent data regarding various targets are provided and compared to previous years, while a trend analysis is carried out to evaluate global progress and in different world regions. Based on UN estimations, an evaluation is extracted of each SDG’s progress and those areas where attention is needed are identified. These assessments reveal that economy-related targets, such as targets included in the 8th SDG (decent work and economic growth), the 9th (industry, innovation and infrastructure) and 12th SDG (responsible consumption and production) are close to being achieved, while acceleration is needed in order to achieve targets and goals regarding education (4th SDG), cities and communities’ sustainability (11th SDG) and in particular climate change (13th SDG).
Article
Crises can exacerbate existing inequalities. The climate change crisis affects the environment, health and wellbeing of lowincome nations (Venn, 2019). War and refugee crises force displacement of millions, over half of whom are children (UN, 2020). The COVID-19 pandemic is deepening social and economic inequalities (Jamal & Higham, 2021), particularly in the developing world. Scholars even question the fairness of instituting measures such as social distancing for socially and politically marginalised or disadvantaged groups, such as migrant workers, people experiencing homelessness and individuals of lower socio-economic status (Silva & Smith, 2020). Lockdown in many of these countries has put millions of tourism, hospitality and gig workers out of work, facing financial hardship, debt and poverty. In countries with less capacity to alleviate the impacts of the pandemic, the tourism workforce is now more vulnerable than ever. Tourism has been at the forefront of attention during the crisis because tourism and its affiliated industries are playing significant roles in the economies of many developing nations. These ‘tourism-dependent communities’ have now become ‘communities in crisis’ (Nepal, 2020). The livelihoods and social wellbeing of many in such communities are now threatened.
Article
The year 2020 has urged Humanity to rethink the sustainable development agenda. The COVID-19 pandemic rearticulated the gaps in implementing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to benefit remote regions and and their populations including Arctic Indigenous Peoples. In this brief communication, we want to draw attention to the need of reshaping UN SDGs in light of the ‘new normal’ to promote sustainable development of Arctic Indigenous communities. The UN Agenda 2030 sets priorities that have relevance to the Arctic, with its rapidly changing environmental and social systems that are interlinked to other parts of the globe. Successful implementation of SDGs in the Arctic can only be accomplished through an open and pluralistic dialog among global and Arctic stakeholders with the engagement, equal partnership, and under the guidance of the Arctic Indigenous Peoples. This process, we argue, could start by revising the existing 17 goals and creating five new ones (Sustainable Governance and Indigenous Rights, Resilient Indigenous Societies, Livelihoods and Knowledge systems, Life on Ice and Permafrost, Equity and Equality in Access to Natural Resources, and Investment in Youth and Future Generations) that represent Indigenous People’s knowledge and aspirations for sustainable development. By indigenizing SDGs in the Arctic, we will not only build the Arctic’s own sustainable development framework but attain greater equity and expand the knowledge base of sustainable development globally.
Article
Business-non-profit partnerships are expected to create sustained impact, yet they often remain temporary or episodic. By using relationship ending theory and drawing on partnership types from Austin and Seitanidi (2012a), we explore the termination of business-non-profit partnerships and connect how partnerships end to their potential long-term impact. Specifically, we ask: How and why do business-non-profit partnerships end? And, what is the relationship between partnership type and partnership endings? Through interviews and focus groups, we identify two partnership endings: ‘exit’ and ‘spinout.’ The former is the expected severance of ties due to dissatisfaction or the accomplishment of an intended outcome. The latter is more intriguing. As illustrated through two case examples, successful partnerships can create financially self-sustaining social enterprises that continue tackling the chosen problems independently. We argue that spinning out a social enterprise offers a pragmatic pathway that precludes deeper integration between partners – contrary to what is often proposed in the partnership literature – and is best understood as a relationship ending process.