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Using the Geopolariton Tomography Based on Uav to Explore and Monitor Coalfield Subsurface Structures in Shaanxi, China

Authors:
  • Hebei DSF-GEOS Technology Co., Ltd, China
  • Hebei DSF-GEOS Technology Co., Ltd, China

Abstract and Figures

Geopolariton tomography technology is a passive geophysical method that uses nonequilibrium geopolariton radiation of the Earth to explore the stress-strain state of rocks. The use of technology makes it possible not only to assess the prospects of a mining area at the design stage of work but also to control the safety of mining operations by monitoring the stress-strain state of rocks. This exploration was carried out to identify the subsurface structures of a coalfield as part of the project 2022-05-JSFU-01 commissioned by Yulin University, China. Aerogeophysical work was carried out in Shaanxi Province in northern China at the licensed area of the mining company Shenmu Shimengou Mining Co., Ltd. Shaanxi is among the provinces with abundant coal resources. An area of 2.5 km2 was investigated according to the geological task. As a result of the study, in the coalfield, at a depth of 127 m, abandoned mine workings were found. According to the obtained geophysical information, the coal mining design plans for this section of coalfield have been adjusted. Coalfield monitoring agreements were achieved. Ministry of Emergency Management published a recommendation for using geopolariton tomography to monitor the safety of underground mines.
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Monitoring'2022
XVI International Scientific Conference “Monitoring of Geological Processes”
and Ecological Condition of the Environment”
15–18 November 2022, Kyiv, Ukraine
Mon22-080
Using the geopolariton tomography based on UAV to explore and
monitor coalfield subsurface structures in Shaanxi, China
S. I. Prokopenko (Hebei DSF-GEOS Technology Co., Ltd, China), *O. O. Vodopianov (Hebei
DSF-GEOS Technology Co., Ltd, China), X. Chen (Hebei DSF-GEOS Technology Co., Ltd, China)
SUMMARY
Geopolariton tomography technology is a passive geophysical method that uses
nonequilibrium geopolariton radiation of the Earth to explore the stress-strain state of rocks.
The use of technology makes it possible not only to assess the prospects of a mining area at
the design stage of work but also to control the safety of mining operations by monitoring the
stress-strain state of rocks. This exploration was carried out to identify the subsurface
structures of a coalfield as part of the project 2022-05-JSFU-01 commissioned by Yulin
University, China. Aerogeophysical work was carried out in Shaanxi Province in northern
China at the licensed area of the mining company Shenmu Shimengou Mining Co., Ltd.
Shaanxi is among the provinces with abundant coal resources. An area of 2.5 km2 was
investigated according to the geological task. As a result of the study, in the coalfield, at a
depth of 127 m, abandoned mine workings were found. According to the obtained
geophysical information, the coal mining design plans for this section of coalfield have been
adjusted. Coalfield monitoring agreements were achieved. Ministry of Emergency
Management published a recommendation for using geopolariton tomography to monitor the
safety of underground mines.
Monitoring'2022
XVI International Scientific Conference “Monitoring of Geological Processes”
and Ecological Condition of the Environment”
15–18 November 2022, Kyiv, Ukraine
Introduction. In recent years, thanks to continuous innovations in the field of passive electromagnetic
exploration technologies, geopolariton tomography technology is gradually being implemented by the
industry for geological exploration. The technology was firstly used in the exploration and accounting
of oil, and natural gas reserves at relatively large depths. These explorations achieved good results
(Bogdanov et al., 2019; Xu et al., 2014). An innovative solution is using DSF geopolariton
tomography equipment installed on a UAV to explore and monitor the subsurface structures at
relatively small depths (Bogdanov et al., 2020). This solution was successfully tested on the coalfield
of the mining company Shenmu Shimengou Mining Co., Ltd. Shaanxi is among the provinces with
abundant coal resources in North China. These enormous coal resources (approx. 4143 Gt) are widely
distributed in the Ordos Basin and its marginal fold belts (Yuan et al., 2021). According to the
geological task, an area of 2.5 km2 was investigated. The scope of work amounted to 51 measuring
profiles, 11 of them are longitudinal and 40 transverse with a total length of 56 km. The licensed
coalfield area is located in the northern part of the Loess Plateau and on the southern edge of the Mu
Us desert. A loess ravine relief form mainly prevails in the deposit area. The general trend of the relief
is high in the south and low in the north. The highest point with a height of 1292.7 m is located on the
northern drainage field in the southern part of the field, and the lowest point with a height of 1106.6 m
is located in the northeastern corner of the field. The total height is 1120 ~ 1250 m, and the relative
maximum height difference is 186.1 m. The general feature is that the plateau surface is relatively
wide and the ravines are relatively narrow, the slopes of the ravines are steep, and the loess is eroding
vertically, often forming narrow and short ditches.
Method and Theory. Geopolariton tomography technology (GPTS) is a passive geophysical method
that uses nonequilibrium geopolariton radiation of the Earth to explore the stress-strain state of rocks.
The magnetic component of the Earth's geopolariton radiation is received in the low-frequency range
from 1 to 50 kHz (Bogdanov et al., 2008). Geopolariton radiation, registered on the earth's surface, is
the reflection and indicator of the nonlinearity of mechano-electromagnetic transformations in the
lithosphere as a distributed gain medium. The main process, which occurs in this medium, is the
process of self-organization. (Bogdanov et al., 2010) The power source of geopolariton waves that
"shine through" the mantle, asthenosphere, and lithosphere of the planet is the energy of slow waves
and natural elastic vibrations of the Earth's core (Bogdanov, 2017).
The technology of geopolariton tomography has advantages in the explorations of active local
structures, active faults (including their intersection nodes), and tectonic stress zones, it can adapt to
complex terrain.
Hardware and software. The software and hardware complex includes:
DJI Unmanned Aerial Platform Matrice 300 RTK (UAV).
UAV remote control and management device.
DSF equipment for the geopolariton tomography of the Earth (GPTS).
The appearance of the equipment is shown in figure 1. Table 1 shows the technical characteristics of
the UAV and DSF equipment.
Table 1 The main characteristics of the UAV and DSF equipment
Platform (quadcopter)
DJI - Matrice 300 RTK
Maximum flight speed, m/s
23
Take-off weight, g
2700
Maximum wind speed resistance, m/s
12
GPTS Hardware Complex
DSF
Spectral range, kHz
1-50
Weight, g
2000
- signal processing unit
1500
- antennas unit
500
Overall dimensions, mm:
- signal processing unit
160 х 100 х 65
- antennas unit
100 х 100 х 90
Monitoring'2022
XVI International Scientific Conference “Monitoring of Geological Processes”
and Ecological Condition of the Environment”
15–18 November 2022, Kyiv, Ukraine
Structurally, DSF equipment consists of two
units - receiving antennas unit and a signal
processing unit. Enclosures of the units have a
certain degree of environmental protection
IP64. The receiving antenna unit contains three
antenna modules, each of which has a special
electrical shield. The antennas’ patterns are
located in three mutually perpendicular planes.
The main advantages of GPTS hardware and
software complex:
Exploration of the coal drift surfaces, not
only at the upper part but also with a
significant slope.
Making a geological and geophysical
section of the interested sector.
Monitoring of chosen structural horizons of the selected area.
Monitoring of seismic and microseismic processes activation level in the coalfields area.
Inspection of large areas in a short time.
Detection of dangerous geodynamic areas at an early stage, which allows for taking timely action
to minimize damage.
Detection of rock underground mining zones.
Performing aerogeophysical work in any climatic and difficult terrain conditions.
Results of investigations. During the implementation of the project, the UAV-based DSF
geopolariton tomography equipment was tested in difficult mountain terrain and weather conditions
with strong winds. It met all the declared technical characteristics. Equipment effectively coped with
the task of identifying places with high mountain pressure, flooded mountain ranges, rocks loosening
areas, and coal seam 3-1 development zones. Underground mine workings were discovered.
Geopolariton radiation intensity map, radiating horizon of coal seam 3-1 map, and vertical cross-
sections were created. The correlation method and Laguerre spectral method were used to build the
vertical cross-sections (Bogdanov and Vodopianov, 2017). GPTS software made it possible to create
structural and density 2D and 3D models of the studied volumes of geological rocks with spatial
reference to global coordinates (Prokopenko et al., 2021).
Figure 2 shows the location of coalfield (a) and a map of coalfield geopolariton radiation intensity (b).
There are three zones with reduced intensity of geopolariton radiation highlighted in blue on this map.
The reduced intensity of geopolariton radiation indicates that the rocks have less dense in these places
and it can be assumed that mining operations were carried out in these areas previously. This map can
be generated automatically from survey data and can be used for area monitoring.
The map of the density distribution characteristics of the radiating horizon of the coal seam 3-1 is
shown in figure 3a. Places with low density are shown in blue, which indicates dislocations of the coal
seam. A geophysical cross-section along the 1.1 km length line PR-SSK2 is shown on the top of
figure 3b. Four zones of rock extraction are shown with red dashed circles. A speed cross-section
(figure 3b, bottom) shows the layered structure of the mountain massif. The section is consistent with
the drilling data of the well SSK2 with high accuracy.
Conclusions. Based on the results of the survey of a 2.5 km2 area by GPTS technology, a map of the
geopolariton radiation intensity, a distribution map of the density characteristics of the coal seam 3-1
radiating horizon with an indication of reduced density areas on it, geophysical and velocity sections
up to the depth of 200 m along the 1.1 km line PR-SSK2 were created. The zone of underground
mining workings at the depth of 127 m in the area of well SSK2 has been confirmed.
Figure 1 DSF geopolariton tomography equipment
based on the UAV
Monitoring'2022
XVI International Scientific Conference “Monitoring of Geological Processes”
and Ecological Condition of the Environment”
15–18 November 2022, Kyiv, Ukraine
On the cross-sections and on the distribution map is shown that coal mining operations have already
been carried out in this area which confirms the corresponding assumption. Taking into account the
received geophysical information, the design plans for the coal mining in this coalfield section have
been adjusted. As a result of the work, the flying platform with DSF equipment was tested to visualize
the current state of the controlled object with spatial reference.
Figure 2 (a) Location of coalfield; (b) the map of coalfield geopolariton radiation intensity. The color
indicates the radiation intensity (red - high, blue low)
Figure 3 (a) The map of density characteristics distribution of the coal seam 3-1; (b) the geophysical
(top) and the speed (bottom) cross-sections along the orange line PR-SSK2. The color on the map and
speed section indicates the density of rocks (red is high, blue is low)
Monitoring'2022
XVI International Scientific Conference “Monitoring of Geological Processes”
and Ecological Condition of the Environment”
15–18 November 2022, Kyiv, Ukraine
With the regular inspection of the same object by GPTS technology, it becomes possible to control the
evolution of geodynamic processes of the rock state and control the boundaries of rock production.
The use of the UAV-based GPTS hardware and software complex for aerial monitoring of the
geopolariton activity of rocks greatly simplifies the development of large coal deposit areas and
increases the efficiency of detecting dangerous geodynamic manifestations. As a result of this and a
series of other similar projects, carried out with GPTS technology (Li et al., 2022), the Ministry of
Emergency Management published a recommendation for using geopolariton tomography to monitor
the safety of underground mines1.
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1Notice of the State Mine Safety Supervision Bureau of the Ministry of Emergency Management on the Issuance of the
”14th Five-Year Plan for Mine Safety Production". 2022. Emergency No. 64.
URL: https://www.mem.gov.cn/gk/zfxxgkpt/fdzdgknr/202208/t20220810_419897.shtml.
Date of application (2022-08-10 ).
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
The investigation and trial utilization of geopolariton sensing technology
  • Z Xu
  • Q Meng
  • Z Cui
  • W Gao
Mineralogical Characteristic Differences of Coals from the Main Coal Fields in Shaanxi, North China. Energies 2021, 14, 7905. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14237905. Xu, Z., Meng Q., Cui, Z. and Gao, W. (2014). The investigation and trial utilization of geopolariton sensing technology. Geophysical and Chemical Exploration, 38 (4), 758-763. https://doi.org 10.11720/wtyht.2014.4.23.