Pimenta dioica (allspice)

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This datasheet on Pimenta dioica covers Identity, Overview, Associated Diseases, Pests or Pathogens, Distribution, Dispersal, Diagnosis, Biology & Ecology, Environmental Requirements, Natural Enemies, Impacts, Uses, Prevention/Control, Management, Genetics and Breeding, Food Safety, Economics, Further Information.

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An improved method of sample preparation was used in a microplate assay to evaluate the bactericidal activity levels of 96 essential oils and 23 oil compounds against Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica obtained from food and clinical sources. Bactericidal activity (BA50) was defined as the percentage of the sample in the assay mixture that resulted in a 50% decrease in CFU relative to a buffer control. Twenty-seven oils and 12 compounds were active against all four species of bacteria. The oils that were most active against C. jejuni (with BA50 values ranging from 0.003 to 0.009) were marigold, ginger root, jasmine, patchouli, gardenia, cedarwood, carrot seed, celery seed, mugwort, spikenard, and orange bitter oils; those that were most active against E. coli (with BA50 values ranging from 0.046 to 0.14) were oregano, thyme, cinnamon, palmarosa, bay leaf, clove bud, lemon grass, and allspice oils; those that were most active against L monocytogenes (with BA50 values ranging from 0.057 to 0.092) were gardenia, cedarwood, bay leaf, clove bud, oregano, cinnamon, allspice, thyme, and patchouli oils; and those that were most active against S. enterica (with BA50 values ranging from 0.045 to 0.14) were thyme, oregano, cinnamon, clove bud, allspice, bay leaf, palmarosa, and marjoram oils. The oil compounds that were most active against C. jejuni (with BA50 values ranging from 0.003 to 0.034) were cinnamaldehyde, estragole, carvacrol, benzaldehyde, citral, thymol, eugenol, perillaldehyde, carvone R, and geranyl acetate; those that were most active against E. coli (with BA50 values ranging from 0.057 to 0.28) were carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, thymol, eugenol, salicylaldehyde, geraniol, isoeugenol, citral, perillaldehyde, and estragole; those that were most active against L monocytogenes (with BA50 values ranging from 0.019 to 0.43) were cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, thymol, carvacrol, citral, geraniol, perillaldehyde, carvone S, estragole, and salicylaldehyde; and those that were most active against S. enterica (with BA50 values ranging from 0.034 to 0.21) were thymol, cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, eugenol, salicylaldehyde, geraniol, isoeugenol, terpineol, perillaldehyde, and estragole. The possible significance of these results with regard to food microbiology is discussed.
An aqueous suspension of allspice, Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae), has been studied for antiinflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, gastric antiulcer, and cytoprotective activities in experimental models. The suspension produced significant inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema, cotton pellet granuloma in rats, a significant inhibition of acetic acid-induced writhing and tail flick reaction time and reduction of yeast-induced hyperpyrexia in mice. The suspension also showed antiulcer and cytoprotective activity by protecting gastric mucosa against indomethacin and various necrotizing agents including 80% ethanol, 0.2M NaOH and 25% NaCl in rats. The allspice suspension also increased the gastric wall mucus in rats. Acute toxicity studies showed neither mortality nor adverse effects up to a dose of 7.5 g/kg in mice.
The rust fungus Puccinia psidii infects the foliage and causes dieback of actively growing tips on several myrtaceous plants in South and Central America. It has recently been discovered in south Florida causing a similar disease on Melaleuca quinquenervia. We therefore evaluated P. psidii as a potential biological control agent of this invasive tree. Typical disease symptoms on M. quinquenervia included distortion and abscission of young foliage and dieback of severely infected tips. Young stems with living bark developed lesions and localized swellings. The stems became brittle and prone to breakage at the point of these swellings. Often, flowers and young seed capsules also developed eruptive pustules. Host range tests were performed on 18 species in 11 genera of Myrtaceae by inoculating expanding leaves with uredospores of two P. psidii isolates: MISOL, obtained from M. quinquenervia, and PISOL, obtained from Pimenta dioica. Results showed Callistemon viminalis, Eugenia reinwardtiana, M. decora, M. quinquenervia, Myrcianthes fragrans, Myrciaria cauliflora, P. dioica, and Psidium guajava to be susceptible to both isolates. Eucalyptus grandis, Eugenia paniculatum, and Syzygium cumini manifested chlorotic halos that developed into brown leaf spots but had no sporulation and were therefore considered resistant. The remaining seven species (Calyptranthes pallens, Eugenia confusa, Eugenia foetida, Eugenia uniflora, Feijoa sellowiana, Psidium cattleianum, and S. jambos) exhibited no symptoms and were considered immune to both isolates. The ability of these isolates to initiate pustules on susceptible hosts differed significantly. Overall, both isolates induced more pustules on M. quinquenervia, E. reinwardtiana, and P. dioica than on other susceptible species. Based on host range, both Florida isolates of P. psidii appear similar to one that infects Pimenta spp. in Jamaica. Our studies included a limited number of plant species grown under optimal conditions for disease expression. Field tests will be needed to ascertain their susceptibility under more natural conditions. The P. psidii and M. quinquenervia pathosystem probably represents a "new association," because of the disparate origins of the two species involved and their adventive status in Florida.
Plant essential oils from 26 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against the Japanese termite, Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe, using a fumigation bioassay. Responses varied with source, exposure time, and concentration. Among the essential oils tested, strong insecticidal activity was observed with the essential oils of ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ), allspice ( Pimenta dioica ), caraway ( Carum carvi ), dill ( Anethum graveolens ), geranium ( Pelargonium graveolens ), and litsea ( Litsea cubeba ). The composition of six essential oils was identified by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The compounds thus identified were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against Japanese termites. Responses varied in a dose-dependent manner for each compound. Phenol compounds exhibited the strongest insecticidal activity among the test compounds; furthermore, alcohol and aldehyde groups were more toxic than hydrocarbons. The essential oils and compounds described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for termite control.
The inhibitory effects of 29 commercial powdered spices on the growth and toxin production of three species of toxigenic Aspergillus were observed by introducing these materials into culture media for mycotoxin production. Of the 29 samples tested, cloves, star anise seeds, and allspice completely inhibited the fungal growth, whereas most of the others inhibited only the toxin production. Eugenol extracted from cloves and thymol from thyme caused complete inhibition of the growth of both Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus versicolor at 0.4 mg/ml or less. At a concentration of 2 mg/ml, anethol extracted from star anise seeds inhibited the growth of all the strains.
Climate change in the UK overseas territories: An overview of the science policy and you. Peterborough UK: Joint Nature Conservation Committee
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Pimento a short economic history
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Agronomy of tree spices (clove nutmeg cinnamon and allspice) - a review
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