Article

SOYBEAN AS AN ALTERNATIVE NUTRIENT MEDIUM FOR Bacillus subtilis GROWTH

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Abstract

Nutrient agar is a commonly used medium for the isolation and growth of a broad range of microorganisms. The feasibility of using soybean as a base medium in the development of alternative growth media was assessed in this study. Nutrient agar was used as a standard guide to evaluating the performance of the formulated soybean agar. Bacillus subtilis was inoculated and allowed to grow on nutrient agar and soybean agar. Their growth was compared within 24 h after inoculation based on the morphology of individual colonies formed on both media and the pattern of bacterial growth. Our results showed that soybean agar had comparable performance to nutrient agar as the morphological characteristics of B. subtilis colonies formed on both media are generally identical in terms of texture, margin, optical properties, colour, elevation, and shape. However, due to the similar appearance of the bacterial colonies and the soybean agar, the colonies formed on the soybean agar were slightly larger than those formed on nutrient agar. In addition, our findings also revealed that agar strips formed the best soybean agar compared to gelatin and agar powder. Ultimately, this study has shown that locally available soybeans and agar strips can be easily formulated as an alternative to commercial nutrient agar and have great potential for bacteriological research.

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Culture media, even in the emerging era of rapid microbiological methods (and notwithstanding that many rapid methods are culture-based), continues to remain a fundamental tool in the pharmaceutical and healthcare microbiology laboratory. Culture media is an important part of pharmaceutical microbiology: to enumerate and identify microorganisms. Control of culture media, in terms of appropriate records through to plate reading, forms an important part of data integrity in the microbiology laboratory (as assessed by Saha (2016) and Sandle (2016). Media is devised on the basis of microorganisms requiring nutrients in order to grow. These nutrients are formulated and supplied by either solid or liquid culture media. The standard solid medium is a type of nutrient agar, a gelatinous substance derived from seaweed. The standard liquid medium is a type of nutrient broth, composed of water, meat extract peptone, and sodium chloride. While many aspects of the manufacture and use of culture media are well-described, the aim of this article is to pinpoint one of those aspects that is not always adequately and this which can lead to errors: sterilization.
Article
Characteristics and gel properties of spray-dried goat skin gelatin (SDGG) and freeze-dried counterpart (FDGG) were determined, in comparison with commercial bovine gelatin (BG). SDGG gel had the similar gel strength to FDGG gel and their gel strengths were higher than that of BG gel. SDGG gel showed slightly higher a* and b* values as well as the higher solution turbidity than those of FDGG. Both SDGG and FDGG solutions could set at room temperature (25–28 °C) within 18.52–19.30 min and showed the gelling and melting temperatures of 25.14–25.23 and 34.09–34.18 °C, respectively. Gels from SDGG and FDGG had the denser structure with smaller voids than that from BG. Therefore, drying methods affected the characteristics and gel properties of gelatin from goat skin to some degree.
Article
The soybean is one of the most economical and valuable agricultural commodities because of its unique chemical composition. Among cereal and other legume species, it has the highest protein content (around 40%); other legumes have a protein content between 20% and 30%, whereas cereals have a protein content in the range of 8-15%. The soybean also contains about 20% oil, the second highest content among all food legumes. (The highest oil content is found in peanut, which is about 48% on dry matter basis. The third highest oil content is chickpea, which is about 5%. The remaining food legume species have oil contents in the range of 1-3.6%) (Salunkhe et al. 1983). Other valuable components found in soybeans include phospholipids, vitamins, and minerals. Furthermore, soybeans contain many minor substances, some of which, such as trypsin inhibitors, phytates, and oligosaccharides, are known to be biologically active. Others, such as isoflavones, are just being recognized for their powerful ability to prevent human cancers and other diseases (Messina et al. 1994, Chapter 10 of this book). In this chapter the chemical components of soybeans are discussed with respect to their occurrences, properties, nutritional value, physiological roles, and assay methodology.
Article
Fruit peels, also known as rinds or skins, are wastes readily available in large quantities. Here, we have used pineapple (PA) and watermelon (WM) peels as substrates in the culture media (containing 5 % sucrose and 0.7 % ammonium sulfate) for production of bacterial cellulose (BC). The bacterial culture used in the study, Komagataeibacter hansenii produced BC under static conditions as a pellicle at the air-liquid interface in standard Hestrin and Schramm (HS) medium. The yield obtained was ~3.0 g/100 ml (on a wet weight basis). The cellulosic nature of the pellicle was confirmed by CO2, H2O, N2, and SO2 (CHNS) analysis and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) of the pellicle revealed the presence of flat twisted ribbonlike fibrils (70-130 nm wide). X-ray diffraction analysis proved its crystalline nature (matching cellulose I) with a crystallinity index of 67 %. When K. hansenii was grown in PA and WM media, BC yields were threefolds or fourfolds higher than those obtained in HS medium. Interestingly, textural characterization tests (viz., SEM, crystallinity index, resilience, hardness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, springiness, shear energy and stress, and energy required for puncturing the pellicle) proved that the quality of BC produced in PA and WM media was superior to the BC produced in HS medium. These findings demonstrate the utility of the newly designed media for getting higher yields and better quality of BC, which could make fermentative production of BC more attractive on a commercial scale.
Article
Xanthan gum is a water-soluble exo-polysaccharide. It is produced industrially from carbon sources by fermentation using the gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas campestris. There have been various attempts to produce xanthan gum by fermentation method using bacteria and yeast by using various cheap raw materials. This review explains the recent methods of production, recovery and applications of various industries such as food, agriculture, oil, paint and cosmetics.
Article
The proximate composition, mineral constituents and amino acid profile of four important legumes (chickpea, lentil, cowpea and green pea) were studied in order to evaluate their nutritional performance. Significant (P < 0.05) variations existed among the legumes with respect to their proximate composition, mineral constituent and amino acid profile. Lentil was found to be a good source of protein, while cowpea was good in ash among the grain legumes tested. All four types of legumes were also better suppliers of mineral matter, particularly potassium, phosphorus, calcium, copper, iron, and zinc. However, the concentrations of various mineral constituents was not in good nutritional balance. It was concluded that the four legumes tested were rich in lysine, leucine and arginine and can fulfil the essential amino acid requirement of human diet except for S-containing amino acids and tryptophan. In order to make good, the deficiency of certain essential amino acids in legume protein, they must be supplemented with other vegetables, meat and dairy products (e.g., Whey, yogurt).
Soybeans 101:Nutrition Facts and Health Effects [WWW Document
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Valorization of pineapple peels through single cell protein production using saccharomyces cerevisiae NCDC 364
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