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This work analyzes CO2 emissions per capita (CpC) in the period 1990-2020. The dataset includes 212 countries, 99.8% of the global CO2 emissions. The world average CpC was 4.3366 tCO2/y,cap in 2020, 4.1% above the 1990 level. CO2 emissions above the world average CpC in the period 1990-2020 by 81 countries were 39% of the global CO2 emissions in this period, which increased Global Warming by 0.249°C. The average CpC in 2020 of the 81 countries above the world average CpC was 8.62 tCO2/y,cap in 2020, 5.6 times more than the countries below the world average. 100 countries reduced CO2 emissions per capita between 1990 and 2020 by 21% on average, compared to the world average increase of 53%. The reduction of the CpC by the 100 countries decreased Global Warming by 0.21°C. OECD (1990) countries and Annex I (Kyoto) countries, 41 countries having 22% of the world population, caused 49% of the Global Warming +0.316°C between 1990 and 2020. This group of countries reduced CO2 emissions by 21% between 1990 and 2020, however, the group’s average CpC was still 206% of the world average in 2020, with 8.94 tCO2/y,cap, compared to 3.38 tCO2/y,cap of the rest of the world. 10 countries above the world average of CO2 emissions per capita (2020) with the highest change in cumulative CO2 emissions between 1990 and 2020, caused 63% of the Global Warming, +0.407°C, in the period. The average CpC of these 10 countries was 195% of the world average, 8.71 tCO2/y,cap in 2020, compared to 2.36 tCO2/y,cap of the rest of the world. The CO2 emission of 5 countries from this group is above the group’s average CpC of 8.71 tCO2/y,cap, 7% of the global emissions of the world.
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CO2 Emissions per Capita
Joseph Nowarski, M.Sc., ME – Energy Conservation Expert
Version 1.1.1, 30 October 2022
DOI:10.5281/zenodo.7264405
all versions DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.7264404
Abstract
This work analyzes CO2 emissions per capita (CpC) in the period 1990-2020. The
dataset includes 212 countries, 99.8% of the global CO2 emissions.
The world average CpC was 4.3366 tCO2/y,cap in 2020, 4.1% above the 1990
level.
CO2 emissions above the world average CpC in the period 1990-2020 by 81
countries were 39% of the global CO2 emissions in this period, which increased
Global Warming by 0.249°C. The average CpC in 2020 of the 81 countries above
the world average CpC was 8.62 tCO2/y,cap in 2020, 5.6 times more than the
countries below the world average.
100 countries reduced CO2 emissions per capita between 1990 and 2020 by 21%
on average, compared to the world average increase of 53%. The reduction of
the CpC by the 100 countries decreased Global Warming by 0.21°C.
OECD (1990) countries and Annex I (Kyoto) countries, 41 countries having 22% of
the world population, caused 49% of the Global Warming +0.316°C between 1990
and 2020. This group of countries reduced CO2 emissions by 21% between 1990
and 2020, however, the group’s average CpC was still 206% of the world average
in 2020, with 8.94 tCO2/y,cap, compared to 3.38 tCO2/y,cap of the rest of the
world.
10 countries above the world average of CO2 emissions per capita (2020) with the
highest change in cumulative CO2 emissions between 1990 and 2020, caused 63%
CO2 Emissions per Capita - Joseph Nowarski
2 / 26
of the Global Warming, +0.407°C, in the period. The average CpC of these 10
countries was 195% of the world average, 8.71 tCO2/y,cap in 2020, compared to
2.36 tCO2/y,cap of the rest of the world. The CO2 emission of 5 countries from this
group is above the group’s average CpC of 8.71 tCO2/y,cap, 7% of the global
emissions of the world.
Keywords: Climate Change, Global Warming, CO2 emissions, CO2 per capita
Glossary
ΔCO2 CO2 emissions of the country above the world emissions per
capita in the period 1991-2020, tCO2
Ave average
BL baseline
CCO2 global cumulative CO2 emissions according to publication [1] [2],
CO2 emissions produced from fossil fuels and cement production
only – land use change is not included, tCO2
CO2 emissions of Carbon Dioxide, CO2
CO2GW correlation between cumulative CO2 emissions and Global
Warming = 0.000745°C/GtCO2 [3]
CpC CO2 emissions per capita, tCO2/y,cap (ton CO2 per year, per
population of the country)
CpCW world average CO2 emissions per capita, tCO2/y,cap (ton CO2
per year, per population of the world)
Global Warming global surface temperature change over land+ocean above
1850-1900 baseline (°C)
Group+10P 10 countries above the world average of CO2 emissions per
capita (2020) with the highest change in cumulative CO2
emissions between 1990 and 2020
CO2 Emissions per Capita - Joseph Nowarski
3 / 26
Group1990 OECD members in 1990 or Annex I countries which signed or
ratified Kyoto Protocol
Group2022 OECD members in 2022 or Annex I countries which signed or
ratified Paris Agreement.
GtCO2 Giga-ton of CO2, 109 ton, 10^9 ton, 1,000,000,000 ton of CO2
ktCO2 kilo-ton CO2 = 103 ton, 10^3 ton, 1,000 ton CO2
MtCO2 Mega-ton CO2 = 106 ton, 10^6 ton, 1,000,000 ton CO2
OWID Our World in Data – Internet site [1] [2]
Pn Population of the country in year n
Ref reference
tCO2 ton CO2
tCO2/y,cap ton CO2 per year, per capita
Formula for Average Annual Change
Formula 1 - Average annual change of parameter X in the period 1990-2020
[%/year]
rX = (X2/X1)^(1/(y2-y1)) - 1
rX average annual change of parameter X in the period from y1 to y2,
%/year
X1 value of parameter X at the beginning of the period
X2 value of parameter X at the end of the period
y1 beginning of the period = 1990
y2 end of the period = 2020
CO2 Emissions per Capita - Joseph Nowarski
4 / 26
Correlation between Cumulative CO2 Emissions and Global Warming
The correlation between cumulative CO2 emissions and Global Warming was
analyzed in the publication “Global Warming and Cumulative CO2” [3].
The correlation is:
Formula 2 - Correlation between Cumulative CO2 Emissions and Global Warming
[3] [°C/GtCO2]
CO2GW = 0.000745°C/GtCO2
Dataset
Table 1 - CO2 emissions and population dataset [1] [2]
CO2 emissions
World Countries
International
Transport
Population
Source of data OWID OWID OWID OWID
Reference [1] [2] [1] [2] [1] [2] [1] [2]
Countries 212 212
From year 1750 1950 varies for each country
To year 2020 2020 2020 2020
CO2 from fossil fuels Yes Yes Yes
CO2 from cement production Yes Yes
CO2 from other sources No No
Other GHG No No No
Land use change No No
Units tCO2/y tCO2/y MtCO2/y
Resolution 1 tCO2/y 1 tCO2/y 1 ktCO2/y 1 Resident
Cumulative CO2 emissions baseline 1749 1949 1989
The datasets are from publication [1] [2], CO2 emissions produced from fossil fuels
and cement production only – land use change is not included.
Table 2 - Completeness of data for 1990
CO2 Population
MtCO2/y
World 22,750 5,327,529,078
International transport 558
World without international transport 22,192
Dataset 212 countries 22,192 5,318,336,356
Dataset to World 100.0% 99.8%
CO2 Emissions per Capita - Joseph Nowarski
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Table 3 - Completeness of data for 2020
CO2 Population
MtCO2/y
World 34,807 7,794,798,725
International transport 1,004
World without international transport 33,803
Dataset 212 countries 33,790 7,782,877,679
Dataset to world 100.0% 99.8%
Cumulative Global CO2 Emissions
Total global CO2 emissions per year are from 1750 [1] [2]. This is also the first year of
calculations of the cumulative CO2 emissions of the world, which means that for
this parameter the baseline is 1749.
However, international transport CO2 emissions are from 1950 and the first year of
the cumulative CO2 emissions is 1950 [1] [2], which means that for this parameter
the baseline is 1949.
The dataset was converted to the 1875 baseline in the publications [6] [7].
Table 4 - Global cumulative CO2 emissions and international transport [6]
[7] [tCO2 above 1875 baseline]
1990 2020
Global cumulative CO2 emissions including
international transport tCO2 792,689,057,443 1,681,608,597,211
International transport cumulative CO2 emissions tCO2 16,042,804,984 43,700,803,946
Global cumulative CO2 emissions without
international transport tCO2 776,646,252,459 1,637,907,793,265
International transport cumulative CO2 emissions are not related to the specific
country, therefore, the comparison between the countries’ CO2 emissions and the
world is to the global cumulative CO2 emissions without international transport.
CO2 Emissions per Capita - Joseph Nowarski
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World CO2 Emissions per Capita
Chart 1 - World CO2 emissions per capita [1] [2] [tCO2 per year, per capita]
3.8
3.9
4.0
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
Table 5 - World averages [1] [2]
1990 2020
CO2 emissions MtCO2/y 22,192 33,803
1990-2020 change %/year +1.41%
Population 5,327,529,078 7,794,798,725
1990-2020 change %/year +1.28%
CO2 per Capita tCO2/y,cap 4.1655 4.3366
1990-2020 change per period 4.1%
average annual change %/year +0.13%
CO2 Emissions per Capita - Joseph Nowarski
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CO2 Emissions per Capita in 2020
Chart 2 - 60 countries with the highest CO2 emission per capita in 2020 [part 1/4]
[tCO2 per capita]
5.4
5.6
5.9
6.0
6.0
6.1
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.5
6.7
6.8
6.8
6.9
7.1
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.4
7.6
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.9
8.1
8.1
8.2
8.2
8.4
8.6
8.8
8.9
9.1
10.0
10.8
11.5
11.5
11.7
12.1
12.2
12.5
13.1
14.0
14.2
14.2
14.5
15.2
15.4
15.5
18.0
20.3
20.5
20.8
23.2
25.4
27.0
30.4
37.0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Bulgaria
Slovakia
Bahamas
Andorra
Slovenia
Belarus
Martinique
Guadeloupe
Israel
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Austria
Ireland
Niue
New Zealand
Aruba
Finland
Belgium
Equatorial Guinea
Libya
China
Norway
South Africa
Germany
Singapore
Estonia
Poland
Netherlands
Japan
Anguilla
Czechia
Malaysia
Iceland
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Iran
Greenland
Bermuda
Russia
Taiwan
Bonaire St Eustatius Saba
South Korea
Palau
Oman
Turkmenistan
Luxembourg
Faeroe Islands
Canada
United States
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
United Arab Emirates
Australia
Kazakhstan
Saudi Arabia
Curacao
Bahrain
Kuwait
Brunei
Trinidad and Tobago
Mongolia
New Caledonia
Qatar
The green range is the world average in 2020 = 4.3366 tCO2/y,cap
CO2 Emissions per Capita - Joseph Nowarski
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Chart 3 - CO2 emission per capita in 2020 [part 2/4] [tCO2 per capita]
2.4
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.8
2.8
2.8
2.9
3.0
3.1
3.3
3.4
3.4
3.5
3.5
3.6
3.6
3.7
3.7
3.7
3.7
3.7
3.7
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
4.0
4.0
4.1
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.4
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.7
4.9
4.9
4.9
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.1
5.1
5.2
5.2
5.3
5.4
0123456
French Guiana
Bhutan
Jordan
Panama
Georgia
Jamaica
Marshall Islands
Dominican Republic
Vietnam
Grenada
Mexico
Botswana
Guyana
French Polynesia
Venezuela
Mauritius
Maldives
Uzbekistan
North Macedonia
Argentina
Algeria
Latvia
Malta
Montenegro
Thailand
Liechtenstein
Romania
Azerbaijan
Switzerland
Barbados
Suriname
Lebanon
Sweden
Portugal
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Croatia
Hong Kong
France
Chile
Antigua Barbuda
Spain
Cook Islands
Denmark
British Virgin Islands
Laos
Turkey
United Kingdom
Ukraine
Serbia
Seychelles
Hungary
Montserrat
Greece
Italy
Lithuania
Reunion
Iraq
Turks and Caicos
Nauru
Cyprus
The green range is the world average in 2020 = 4.3366 tCO2/y,cap
CO2 Emissions per Capita - Joseph Nowarski
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Chart 4 - CO2 emission per capita in 2020 [part 3/4] [tCO2 per capita]
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.8
0.8
0.9
0.9
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.2
1.2
1.3
1.3
1.4
1.4
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.4
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0
Bangladesh
Congo
Palestinian Authority
Kiribati
Nepal
Vanuatu
Nigeria
Senegal
Myanmar
Angola
Tuvalu
Zimbabwe
Mauritania
Papua New Guinea
Nicaragua
Eswatini
Cambodia
El Salvador
Honduras
Sri Lanka
Cape Verde
Tajikistan
Lesotho
Guatemala
Paraguay
Pakistan
Mayotte
North Korea
Samoa
Philippines
Moldova
Micronesia
Peru
Tonga
Belize
Saint Helena
Namibia
Costa Rica
Fiji
Albania
Uruguay
Syria
Morocco
Colombia
Ecuador
Kyrgyzstan
India
Bolivia
Cuba
St Vincent
Dominica
Gabon
Macao
Armenia
Egypt
Indonesia
Brazil
Wallis and Futuna
Tunisia
Saint Lucia
CO2 Emissions per Capita - Joseph Nowarski
10 / 26
Chart 5 - CO2 emission per capita in 2020 [part 4/4] [tCO2 per capita]
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.07
0.08
0.11
0.11
0.11
0.13
0.13
0.15
0.17
0.18
0.19
0.20
0.20
0.21
0.21
0.26
0.26
0.26
0.26
0.30
0.30
0.31
0.33
0.36
0.36
0.38
0.40
0.43
0.44
0.51
0.52
0.55
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0
Congo DR
Somalia
Central African Republic
Burundi
Chad
Niger
Malawi
Rwanda
South Sudan
Uganda
Sierra Leone
Ethiopia
Madagascar
Guinea-Bissau
Mali
Tanzania
Burkina Faso
Liberia
Eritrea
Gambia
Mozambique
Haiti
Guinea
Cameroon
Togo
Comoros
Kenya
Afghanistan
Yemen
Djibouti
Zambia
Cote d'Ivoire
Timor
Sudan
Solomon Islands
Ghana
Sao Tome and Principe
Benin
Table 6 - Countries above and below the world average CO2 emissions per
capita (CpCW) in 2020
CO2/y CpC
Countries Population 2020 2020
MtCO2/y tCO2/y,cap
Countries > World 81 3,080,893,558 26,545 8.62
Countries < World 131 4,702,082,049 7,245 1.54
CO2 Emissions per Capita - Joseph Nowarski
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Change in CO2 Average Annual Emissions per Capita from 1990 to 2020
The average annual change in the world CO2 emissions per capita in the period
1990-2020 was calculated using Formula 1.
The average change is 0.134% per year.
Chart 6 - CO2 emissions per capita in the period 1990-2020 [#1/4]: 60 countries
with the biggest average annual change [%/year]
2.157%
2.167%
2.170%
2.283%
2.336%
2.349%
2.368%
2.372%
2.392%
2.418%
2.422%
2.445%
2.500%
2.544%
2.593%
2.695%
2.741%
2.760%
2.771%
2.829%
2.831%
2.909%
2.935%
2.937%
2.952%
2.979%
3.112%
3.129%
3.152%
3.275%
3.363%
3.534%
3.543%
3.675%
4.084%
4.217%
4.288%
4.321%
4.876%
5.054%
5.123%
5.127%
6.187%
6.470%
6.504%
7.358%
8.140%
9.577%
13.007%
14.017%
0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16%
Taiwan
Kiribati
Iraq
Morocco
South Korea
Guatemala
Oman
El Salvador
Honduras
Cook Islands
Ghana
Dominican Republic
Ethiopia
Paraguay
Bolivia
Turks and Caicos Islands
Tanzania
Mauritius
Niue
Samoa
Dominica
Seychelles
Thailand
Panama
Grenada
Iran
Saint Vincent Grenadines
Uganda
Reunion
Indonesia
India
Malaysia
Mozambique
Burkina Faso
New Caledonia
Mali
China
Cape Verde
Bangladesh
Maldives
Sri Lanka
Benin
Mongolia
Myanmar
Cambodia
Vietnam
Bhutan
Nepal
Laos
Equatorial Guinea
The green range is the world average change in 1990-2020 = 0.134%/y
CO2 Emissions per Capita - Joseph Nowarski
12 / 26
Chart 7 - Average annual change in CO2 emissions per capita in the period
1990-2020 [#2/4] [%/year]
0.152%
0.339%
0.432%
0.529%
0.557%
0.576%
0.620%
0.633%
0.680%
0.683%
0.689%
0.769%
0.829%
0.891%
0.936%
0.941%
0.998%
1.000%
1.002%
1.003%
1.004%
1.016%
1.027%
1.155%
1.168%
1.171%
1.177%
1.179%
1.228%
1.336%
1.359%
1.381%
1.384%
1.414%
1.415%
1.427%
1.445%
1.519%
1.542%
1.551%
1.629%
1.630%
1.685%
1.735%
1.739%
1.747%
1.787%
1.788%
1.825%
1.841%
1.936%
2.036%
2.042%
2.042%
2.064%
2.092%
2.093%
2.132%
2.146%
2.152%
0.00% 0.50% 1.00% 1.50% 2.00% 2.50%
Togo
Ecuador
Rwanda
Kuwait
Montenegro
Lesotho
Cameroon
Algeria
Bermuda
British Virgin Islands
Zambia
Antigua Barbuda
Kenya
Sao Tome Principe
Uruguay
Martinique
French Polynesia
Vanuatu
Botswana
South Sudan
Lebanon
Congo
Burundi
Saint Helena
Fiji
Peru
Palestinian Authority
Saudi Arabia
Anguilla
Turkmenistan
Bosnia Herzegovina
Brazil
Tunisia
Saint Kitts Nevis
Afghanistan
Nigeria
Senegal
Qatar
Nicaragua
Egypt
Angola
Papua New Guinea
Mayotte
Turkey
Costa Rica
Guinea
Tonga
Madagascar
Pakistan
Chile
Mauritania
Trinidad Tobago
Montserrat
Haiti
Saint Lucia
Sudan
Guyana
Philippines
Comoros
Guadeloupe
The green range is the world average change in 1990-2020 = 0.134%/y
CO2 Emissions per Capita - Joseph Nowarski
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Chart 8 - Average annual change in CO2 emissions per capita in the period
1990-2020 [#3/4] [%/year]
-1.520%
-1.500%
-1.439%
-1.420%
-1.394%
-1.307%
-1.153%
-1.152%
-1.120%
-1.053%
-0.995%
-0.967%
-0.919%
-0.909%
-0.880%
-0.850%
-0.811%
-0.799%
-0.755%
-0.725%
-0.712%
-0.704%
-0.700%
-0.654%
-0.623%
-0.573%
-0.555%
-0.551%
-0.534%
-0.522%
-0.506%
-0.497%
-0.493%
-0.449%
-0.401%
-0.379%
-0.376%
-0.348%
-0.336%
-0.334%
-0.323%
-0.320%
-0.316%
-0.299%
-0.265%
-0.252%
-0.246%
-0.214%
-0.192%
-0.188%
-0.181%
-0.171%
-0.165%
-0.113%
-0.079%
-0.067%
-0.029%
0.067%
0.092%
0.098%
-1.80% -1.60% -1.40% -1.20% -1.00% -0.80% -0.60% -0.40% -0.20% 0.00% 0.20% 0.40%
Russia
Cuba
Curacao
Italy
Macao
Uzbekistan
United States
Hungary
Eswatini
Ireland
Mexico
Netherlands
Spain
Bahamas
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Djibouti
Palau
Armenia
Poland
Slovenia
Greenland
Andorra
Jamaica
Israel
Serbia
Austria
Georgia
Guinea-Bissau
Bahrain
Croatia
Jordan
Canada
Portugal
Japan
Hong Kong
Suriname
Cyprus
Belize
Aruba
Chad
South Africa
Liberia
Libya
Kazakhstan
Barbados
New Zealand
Norway
Sierra Leone
Australia
Faeroe Islands
Solomon Islands
Albania
Malawi
Niger
Cote d'Ivoire
Brunei
Iceland
Argentina
Gambia
Colombia
CO2 Emissions per Capita - Joseph Nowarski
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Chart 9 - Average annual change in CO2 emissions per capita in the period
1990-2020 [#4/4] [%/year]
-6.093%
-5.396%
-4.747%
-3.650%
-3.398%
-3.351%
-2.986%
-2.968%
-2.942%
-2.912%
-2.859%
-2.784%
-2.733%
-2.676%
-2.524%
-2.429%
-2.408%
-2.401%
-2.398%
-2.387%
-2.236%
-2.177%
-2.167%
-2.099%
-2.054%
-2.018%
-2.010%
-2.006%
-1.938%
-1.877%
-1.829%
-1.802%
-1.718%
-1.683%
-1.668%
-1.647%
-1.645%
-1.633%
-1.627%
-1.621%
-1.599%
-1.566%
-7% -6% -5% -4% -3% -2% -1% 0% 1%
Moldova
North Korea
Democratic Republic of Congo
Estonia
Ukraine
Somalia
Nauru
Kyrgyzstan
French Guiana
Yemen
Gabon
Luxembourg
Denmark
Tajikistan
United Kingdom
Venezuela
Latvia
Zimbabwe
North Macedonia
Slovakia
Romania
Lithuania
Czechia
Azerbaijan
Liechtenstein
Singapore
United Arab Emirates
Malta
Tuvalu
Switzerland
Sweden
Germany
Belarus
Syria
Belgium
Central African Republic
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Bonaire Sint Eustatius and Saba
Greece
France
Bulgaria
Finland
Table 7 - Countries above and below the world average annual change in
CpC
CO2/y CpC
Countries Population 2020 2020
MtCO2/y tCO2/y,cap
Countries > World 110 5,739,286,709 20,000 3.48
Countries < World 102 2,043,590,970 13,790 6.75
CO2 Emissions per Capita - Joseph Nowarski
15 / 26
Global Warming from CO2 Emissions above World CpC in the Period 1990-2020
Formula 3 - CO2 emissions above the world emissions per capita in the period
1991-2020 [tCO2]
)2( 2
2020
1991
n
n
nn PCpCWCOCO
ΔCO2 CO2 emissions of the country above the world emissions per
capita, in the period 1991-2020, tCO2
CO2n Actual CO2 emissions of the country in year n, tCO2/y
CpCWn World average of the CO2 emissions per capita in year n,
tCO2/y,cap
Pn Population of the country in year n
Table 8 - Global Warming from CO2 emissions above the world CpC in the
period 1990-2020
Global cumulative CO2 emissions in the period 861 GtCO2/30y
Countries 87
CO2 emissions above the world CpC 335 GtCO2/30y
% of global emissions in the period 39% %/30y
CO2GW [3] 0.0007454 °C/GtCO2
Global Warming caused by CO2 emissions
above the world CpC 0.25 °C
CO2 emissions above the world average in the period 1990-2020 were 335 GtCO2
by 87 countries, 39% of the global CO2 emissions in the same period.
These CO2 emissions above the world average increased Global Warming by
0.25°C, according to the correlation rate 0.000745°C/GtCO2 [3].
CO2 Emissions per Capita - Joseph Nowarski
16 / 26
Countries that Reduced CO2 Emissions in the Period 1990-2020
Chart 10 - Countries that reduced CO2 emissions in the period 1990-2020 [#1/2]
-29.407%
-29.800%
-33.597%
-34.783%
-35.263%
-35.533%
-36.408%
-36.869%
-37.812%
-37.880%
-38.571%
-38.891%
-38.921%
-39.536%
-39.896%
-40.299%
-40.524%
-41.385%
-42.238%
-42.879%
-43.769%
-45.047%
-45.692%
-46.171%
-46.271%
-46.511%
-47.558%
-47.621%
-48.265%
-48.929%
-51.338%
-51.580%
-51.720%
-52.049%
-52.470%
-53.796%
-56.600%
-56.685%
-57.829%
-59.119%
-59.716%
-59.990%
-60.177%
-60.252%
-64.338%
-65.050%
-67.244%
-77.471%
-81.149%
-84.795%
-100% -80% -60% -40% -20% 0% 20% 40% 60%
Eswatini
United States
Uzbekistan
Italy
Macao
Curacao
Cuba
Russia
Finland
Bulgaria
Greece
France
Saint Pierre Miquelon
Bonaire Sint
Belgium
Central African
Belarus
Syria
Germany
Sweden
Switzerland
Tuvalu
Malta
Singapore
United Arab Emirates
Liechtenstein
Azerbaijan
Lithuania
Czechia
Romania
Latvia
Slovakia
North Macedonia
Venezuela
Zimbabwe
United Kingdom
Denmark
Tajikistan
Luxembourg
Gabon
Yemen
Nauru
Kyrgyzstan
French Guiana
Ukraine
Somalia
Estonia
Congo Democratic
North Korea
Moldova
The blue range is the change in the world emissions per year between 1990 and 2020 = +53%
CO2 Emissions per Capita - Joseph Nowarski
17 / 26
Chart 11 - Countries that reduced CO2 emissions in the period 1990-2020 [#2/2]
-1.512%
-2.923%
-4.793%
-4.897%
-5.867%
-6.697%
-6.913%
-7.325%
-7.648%
-7.757%
-7.849%
-8.030%
-8.139%
-9.682%
-9.991%
-10.309%
-10.396%
-11.318%
-11.336%
-11.569%
-11.577%
-12.083%
-12.177%
-12.374%
-13.543%
-14.013%
-14.630%
-14.973%
-15.213%
-16.316%
-16.760%
-17.310%
-17.870%
-19.159%
-19.226%
-19.343%
-19.452%
-19.613%
-20.253%
-21.527%
-22.079%
-23.729%
-24.164%
-24.233%
-24.698%
-25.457%
-26.695%
-28.024%
-29.182%
-100% -80% -60% -40% -20% 0% 20% 40% 60%
Iceland
Brunei
Cote d'Ivoire
Albania
Faeroe Islands
Australia
Niger
Malawi
Solomon Islands
Barbados
Norway
New Zealand
Sierra Leone
Kazakhstan
Aruba
Libya
South Africa
Liberia
Cyprus
Suriname
Belize
Hong Kong
Chad
Japan
Portugal
Croatia
Canada
Jordan
Georgia
Austria
Serbia
Guinea-Bissau
Bahrain
Israel
Andorra
Jamaica
Greenland
Slovenia
Poland
Armenia
Palau
Djibouti
Sint Maarten (Dutch)
Spain
Bahamas
Netherlands
Mexico
Ireland
Hungary
The blue range is the change in the world emissions per year between 1990 and 2020 = +53%
Table 9 - Countries that reduced CO2 emissions per capita between 1990 and
2020 [1] [2] [Mt CO2/y]
1990 2020 2020/1990
Number of countries 100
Group population 1,528,337,151 1,947,512,309 1.27
Group CO2 emissions MtCO2/y 16,752 13,544 0.81
Group CpC tCO2/cap 10.96 6.95 0.63
World CpC tCO2/cap 4.17 4.34 1.04
Mitigation of cumulative CO2 by countries MtCO2 48,119
CO2GW [3] °C/GtCO2 0.000745443
Mitigation of Global Warming by countries °C 0.04
CO2 Emissions per Capita - Joseph Nowarski
18 / 26
OECD and Annex I Countries
In this work “Group1990” is a group of countries that were OECD members in 1990
or are Annex I countries that signed or ratified the Kyoto Protocol.
“Group2022” is a group of countries that were OECD members in 2022 or are
Annex I countries that signed or ratified the Paris Agreement.
CO2 Emissions per Capita - Joseph Nowarski
19 / 26
Group1990 – OECD(1990) + Annex I (Kyoto)
Table 10 - Group1990 countries [4] [5]
Countries OECD(1990) Annex I (Kyoto)
41 24 39
Australia  
Austria  
Belarus 
Belgium  
Bulgaria 
Canada 
Croatia 
Cyprus 
Czechia 
Denmark  
Estonia 
Finland  
France  
Germany  
Greece  
Hungary 
Iceland  
Ireland  
Italy  
Japan  
Latvia
Liechtenstein 
Lithuania 
Luxembourg  
Malta 
Netherlands  
New Zealand  
Norway  
Poland 
Portugal  
Romania 
Russia 
Slovakia 
Slovenia 
Spain  
Sweden  
Switzerland  
Turkey  
Ukraine 
United Kingdom  
USA 
CO2 Emissions per Capita - Joseph Nowarski
20 / 26
Chart 12 - Group1990 Countries which reduced CO2 emissions between 1990
and 2020 [% tCO2/year]
-72.2%
-69.7%
-65.6%
-61.4%
-58.2%
-51.2%
-51.1%
-50.0%
-46.4%
-45.1%
-44.6%
-38.8%
-37.6%
-37.4%
-34.1%
-33.8%
-32.7%
-31.0%
-30.9%
-30.9%
-30.4%
-29.6%
-29.1%
-26.8%
-26.1%
-20.5%
-16.7%
-14.7%
-11.0%
-10.9%
-9.6%
-7.8%
-2.4%
-100% -90% -80% -70% -60% -50% -40% -30% -20% -10% 0%
Estonia
Ukraine
Latvia
Lithuania
Romania
Bulgaria
Denmark
Slovakia
Czechia
UK
Belarus
Germany
Russia
Greece
Hungary
Malta
Sweden
Finland
Italy
Luxembourg
Belgium
France
Liechtenstein
Switzerland
Croatia
Poland
Slovenia
Netherlands
Japan
Portugal
Spain
USA
Austria
CO2 Emissions per Capita - Joseph Nowarski
21 / 26
Chart 13 - Group1990 countries which increased CO2 emissions in the period
1990-2020 [% tCO2/year]
1%
17%
18%
31%
32%
40%
40%
159%
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% 140% 160% 180%
Ireland
Canada
Norway
New Zealand
Iceland
Cyprus
Australia
Turkey *
* CpC for Turkey was in 1990 the lowest in the Group, 2.8 tCO2/y,cap, compared to 12.8
tCO2/y,cap Group average. In 2020 the CpC for Turkey was 4.7 tCO2/y,cap, still lower than the
majority of the Group’s members and the Group average 8.9 tCO2/y,cap.
Table 11 - Group1990 [OECD(1990) and Annex I (Kyoto)]
1990 2020 Change % to 1990
CO2 emissions per year Mt CO2/y 15,067
11,951
-3,116 -20.7%
average annual change Mt CO2/y2 -104 -0.77%
Years to Zero Emissions from 2020 years 115
Zero Emissions Year 2135
Cumulative CO2 emissions 1990-2020 Mt CO2 0 4
23,509
423,509
Population 1,175,432,261
1,336,591,755
161,159,494 13.7%
CO2 per capita tCO2/y,cap 12.8
8.9
-30.2%
average annual change %/y -1.19%
CO2 Emissions per Capita - Joseph Nowarski
22 / 26
Table 12 - Group1990 and the world between 1990 and 2020
Group1990 Rest of the
world World
Countries in this work 41 171 212
to world 19% 81%
Population 1990 1,175,432,261 4,152,096,817 5,327,529,078
to world 22% 78%
Population 2020 1,336,591,755 6,458,206,970 7,794,798,725
to world 17% 83%
Population average annual change %/y 0.43% 1.48% 1.28%
CO2 emissions in 1990 MtCO2/y 15,067 7,125 22,192
to world 68% 32%
CO2 emissions in 2020 MtCO2/y 11,951 21,852 33,803
to world 35% 65%
Change in CO2 emissions per year
between 1990 and 2020 MtCO2/y -3,116 +14,727 +11,611
Change in CO2 emissions per year %/30 years -21% +207% +52%
CO2 average annual change %/y -0.77% +3.81% +1.41%
Cumulative CO2 emissions 1990-2020 MtCO2 423,509 437,752 861,262
to world 49% 51%
Global Warming caused by CO2 1990-
2020 °C +0.316 +0.326 +0.642
CO2 per capita 1990 tCO2/y,cap 12.82 1.72 4.17
to world 308% 41%
CO2 per capita 2020 tCO2/y,cap 8.94 3.38 4.34
to world 206% 78%
CpC change 1990-2020 %/30 years -30.2% +97.2% +4.1%
CpC average annual change %/y -1.19% +2.29% +0.13%
Group1990 Years to Zero Emissions per Year
Group1990 decreased the CO2 emissions per year by 3,116 Mt CO2/y from 1990 to
2020, 104 Mt CO2/y2 on average. If this 104 Mt CO2/y2 annual CO2 mitigation will
continue also in the future, Group1990 countries will reach the Zero Emissions target
in 2135.
Table 13 - Group1990 years to Zero CO2 Emissions
CO2 emissions in 1990 MtCO2/y 15,067
CO2 emissions in 2020 MtCO2/y 11,951
Change 1990-2020 MtCO2/y -3,116
average annual change MtCO2/y2 -104
Year to Zero Emissions from 2020 years 115
Zero Emissions Year year 2135
CO2 Emissions per Capita - Joseph Nowarski
23 / 26
Group2020 – OECD(2020) + Annex I (Paris)
Table 14 - Group2022 countries [4] [5]
Countries OECD(2022) Annex I (Paris) in Dataset
48 38 42 47
Australia 07/06/71  
Austria 29/09/61  
Belarus  
Belgium 13/09/61  
Bulgaria  
Canada 10/04/61  
Chile 07/05/10 
Colombia 28/04/20 
Costa Rica 25/05/21 
Croatia  
Cyprus  
Czechia 21/12/95  
Denmark 30/05/61  
Estonia 09/12/10  
Finland 28/01/69  
France 07/08/61  
Germany 27/09/61  
Greece 27/09/61  
Hungary 07/05/96  
Iceland 05/06/61  
Ireland 17/08/61  
Israel 07/09/10
Italy 29/03/62  
Japan 28/04/64  
Korea 12/12/96 
Latvia 01/07/16  
Liechtenstein  
Lithuania 05/07/18  
Luxembourg 07/12/61  
Malta  
Mexico 18/05/94 
Monaco 
Netherlands 13/11/61  
New Zealand 29/05/73  
Norway 04/07/61  
Poland 22/11/96  
Portugal 04/08/61  
Romania  
Russia  
Slovakia 14/12/00  
Slovenia 21/07/10  
Spain 03/08/61  
Sweden 28/09/61  
Switzerland 28/09/61  
Turkey 02/08/61  
UK 02/05/61  
Ukraine  
USA 12/04/61  
CO2 Emissions per Capita - Joseph Nowarski
24 / 26
Table 15 - Group2020 [OECD(2020) and Annex I (Paris)]
1990 2020 Change % to
1990
CO2 emissions per year MtCO2/y 15,763 13,140 -2,623 -16.6%
CO2 emissions average annual change MtCO2/y2 -87 -0.60%
Year to Zero Emissions from 2020 years 150
Zero Emissions Year 2170
Cumulative CO2 emissions 1990-2020 MtCO2/30y 0 457,416 457,416
Population 1,356,238,782 1,600,542,439 244,303,657 18.0%
Population average annual change 0.55%
CO2 per capita (CpC) tCO2/y,cap 11.6 8.2 -29.4%
CpC average annual change %/y -1.15%
Highest Change in CO2 Emissions between 1990 and 2020
There are 80 countries above the world average of CO2 emissions per capita
(2020). Among them 10 countries were selected with the highest cumulative CO2
emissions between 1990 and 2020, “Group+10P”.
Table 16 - Group+10P, 10 countries above the world average of CO2 emissions
per capita (2020) with the highest change in cumulative CO2
emissions between 1990 and 2020 [Mt CO2]
Country CCO2 Global Warming
1990-2020 1990-2020
MtCO2/30y °C
China 192,560 +0.144
USA 167,527 +0.125
Russia 48,961 +0.036
Japan 36,811 +0.027
Germany 25,844 +0.019
Canada 16,411 +0.012
UK 15,458 +0.012
South Korea 15,216 +0.011
Iran 14,206 +0.011
Italy 12,866 +0.010
Group+10 545,860 +0.407
to World 63%
CO2 Emissions per Capita - Joseph Nowarski
25 / 26
Table 17 - Group+10P CO2 emissions per capita [tCO2/y,cap]
Country MtCO2/y MtCO2/y Population Population CpC CpC
1990 2020 1990 2020 1990 2020
China 2,485 10,668 1,176,883,681 1,439,323,774 2.11 7.41
USA 5,113 4,713 252,120,309 331,002,647 20.28 14.24
Russia 2,526 1,577 147,531,562 145,934,460 17.12 10.81
Japan 1,158 1,031 124,505,243 126,476,458 9.30 8.15
Germany 1,052 644 79,053,984 83,783,945 13.31 7.69
Canada 458 536 27,541,323 37,742,157 16.63 14.20
UK 600 330 57,134,377 67,886,004 10.51 4.85
South Korea 250 598 42,918,416 51,269,183 5.84 11.66
Iran 210 745 56,366,212 83,992,953 3.72 8.87
Italy 440 304 57,048,237 60,461,828 7.70 5.02
Group+10P 14,293 21,145 2,021,103,344 2,427,873,409 7.07 8.71
Table 18 - Group+10P and the world between 1990 and 2020
Group+10P Rest of the
world World
Countries 10 202 212
to world 5% 95%
Population 1990 2,021,103,344 3,306,425,734 5,327,529,078
to world 38% 62%
Population 2020 2,427,873,409 5,366,925,316 7,794,798,725
to world 31% 69%
change per year 13,559,002 68,683,319 82,242,322
average annual change %/y 0.61% 1.63% 1.28%
CO2 emissions in 1990 MtCO2/y 14,293 7,899 22,192
to world 64% 36%
CO2 emissions in 2020 MtCO2/y 21,145 12,658 33,803
to world 63% 37%
change 1990-2020 MtCO2/y +6,852 +4,759 +11,611
change 1990-2020 %/30 years +48% +60% +52%
average annual change %/y +1.31% +1.58% +1.41%
Cumulative CO2 emissions 1990-2020 MtCO2 545,860 315,402 861,262
to world 63% 37%
Global Warming caused by the group 1990-2020 °C +0.407 +0.235 +0.642
to world 63% 37%
CO2 per capita 1990 tCO2/y,cap 7.07 2.39 4.17
to world 170%
CO2 per capita 2020 tCO2/y,cap 8.71 2.36 4.34
to world 201% 54%
change 1990-2020 %/30 years +23.2% -1.3% +4.1%
average annual change %/y +0.70% -0.04% +0.13%
Table 19 - CO2 emissions above Group+10P average CpC in 2020 [MtCO2/y]
Country Population CO2/y Group Above Group Above
2020 2020 Ave CpC Ave CpC
5 MtCO2/y MtCO2/y MtCO2/y %
USA 331,002,647 4,713 2,883 1,830 39%
Russia 145,934,460 1,577 1,271 306 19%
Canada 37,742,157 536 329 207 39%
South Korea 51,269,183 598 447 151 25%
Iran 83,992,953 745 732 14 2%
Group+10P 649,941,400 8,168 5,660 2,508 31%
CO2 Emissions per Capita - Joseph Nowarski
26 / 26
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ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Bobbie Macdonald and Pablo Rosado -Data on CO₂ and Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Our World in Data
  • Hannah Ritchie
  • Max Roser
  • Edouard Mathieu
Hannah Ritchie, Max Roser, Edouard Mathieu, Bobbie Macdonald and Pablo Rosado -Data on CO₂ and Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Our World in Data https://github.com/owid/co2-data#data-on-co2-and-greenhouse-gasemissions-by-our-world-in-data