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Cordyceps sinensis is an edible mushroom found in high quantities in the regions of the Himalayas and widely considered in traditional systems of medicine. It is a non-toxic remedy mushroom and has a high measure of clinical medical benefits including cancer restraint, high blood pressure, diabetes, asthma, depression, fatigue, immune disorder, and many infections of the upper respiratory tract. The cultivation of this kind of mushroom is limited to the region of the Sikkim and to cultivate in the other regions of the country, they are need of investigation and prediction of cordyceps sinensis mushroom lifecycle. From the studies, it is concluded that the precision-based agriculture techniques are limitedly explored for the prediction and growth of Cordyceps sinensis mushrooms. In this study, an internet of things (IoT) inspired framework is proposed to predict the lifecycle of Cordyceps sinensis mushrooms and also provide alternate substrate to cultivate Cordyceps sinensis mushrooms in other parts of the country. As a part of lifecycle prediction, a framework is proposed in this study. According to the findings, an IoT sensor-based system with the ideal moisture level of the mushroom rack is required for the growth of Cordyceps sinensis mushrooms. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA license.
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International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE)
Vol. 13, No. 1, February 2023, pp. 1142~1151
ISSN: 2088-8708, DOI: 10.11591/ijece.v13i1.pp1142-1151 1142
Journal homepage:
An internet of things enabled framework to monitor the
lifecycle of Cordyceps sinensis mushrooms
Minakshi Memoria1, Sanjeev Kumar Shah1, Harishchander Anandaram3, Anooja Ali4, Kapil Joshi1
Parag Verma1, Rajesh Singh2,5, Anita Gehlot2,5, Shaik Vaseem Akram2
1Uttaranchal Institute of Technology, Uttaranchal University, Dehradun, India
2Division of Research and Innovation, Uttaranchal Institute of Technology, Uttaranchal University, Dehradun, India
3Centre for Excellence in Computational Engineering and Networking, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Coimbatore, India
4Department of Computer Science and Engineering, REVA University, Bangalore, India
5Department of Project Management, Universidad Internacional Iberoamericana, Campeche, México
Article Info
Article history:
Received Mar 10, 2022
Revised Sep 4, 2022
Accepted Sep 22, 2022
Cordyceps sinensis is an edible mushroom found in high quantities in the
regions of the Himalayas and widely considered in traditional systems of
medicine. It is a non-toxic remedy mushroom and has a high measure of
clinical medical benefits including cancer restraint, high blood pressure,
diabetes, asthma, depression, fatigue, immune disorder, and many infections
of the upper respiratory tract. The cultivation of this kind of mushroom is
limited to the region of the Sikkim and to cultivate in the other regions of the
country, they are need of investigation and prediction of cordyceps sinensis
mushroom lifecycle. From the studies, it is concluded that the precision-
based agriculture techniques are limitedly explored for the prediction and
growth of Cordyceps sinensis mushrooms. In this study, an internet of things
(IoT) inspired framework is proposed to predict the lifecycle of Cordyceps
sinensis mushrooms and also provide alternate substrate to cultivate
Cordyceps sinensis mushrooms in other parts of the country. As a part of
lifecycle prediction, a framework is proposed in this study. According to the
findings, an IoT sensor-based system with the ideal moisture level of the
mushroom rack is required for the growth of Cordyceps sinensis mushrooms.
Cordyceps sinensis
Environment monitor
Internet of things
Mushroom cultivation
This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA license.
Corresponding Author:
Rajesh Singh
Division of Research and Innovation, Uttaranchal Institute of Technology, Uttaranchal University
Dehradun-248007, Uttarakhand, India
Traditionally, Chinese medical and Tibetan medicine prefer Cordyceps sinensis as a medication for
different diseases [1]. Cordyceps is a generic name derived from the Latin word kordyle meaning club and
ceps meaning head. Cordyceps sinensis is the mixture of a caterpillar and a fungus that can only be found
in Sikkim at altitudes above 4,500 meters [2]. Cordyceps sinensis is typically harvested from April to August
in cold, grassy, alpine meadows of the Himalayan mountains [3]. Traditional North Sikkim healers and
residents use Yarsagumba, Keerajhar (Cordyceps sinensis) alone or in combination with other herbs to
strengthen the immune system, improve renal function in patients with erythematosus, and retard aging [4].
In addition, it is also used to recover from anemia, immune deficiencies, fatigue, low back pain, impotence,
night sweats, and for recuperation from chronic disease. The annual ascomycete Cordyceps sinensis is
closely associated with the mushroom and is not technically a mushroom but is described in traditional
Chinese and Tibetan medicine as an exotic therapeutic fungus [5]. Cordyceps comprise distinct nutritional
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An Internet of things enabled framework to monitor the lifecycle of (Minakshi Memoria)
components like amino acids, carbohydrates such as oligosaccharides, monosaccharides, vitamins like K,
B12, B2, and B1.
Even though this plant has numerous medicinal benefits, it is only found in Sikkim. It is difficult for
people in other parts of the country to benefit from it because it grows at high altitudes and in cold climates
[6]. The study of the life cycle of Cordyceps sinensis mushrooms must be carried out in order to understand
the various parameters that are required to cultivate the same mushroom in a different region [7]. As a part of
it, a few studies have proposed frameworks to study the lifecycle of the Cordyceps sinensis mushrooms, but
those frameworks lack a graphical user interface and are not embedded with internet of things (IoT).
Currently IoT gained significant attention in the farming for its real-time sensing, monitoring and provide
valuable insights to the farm to cultivate more effectively [8]. In the mushroom gardening field, IoT is used
for control and observation, and a significant number of readily available structures, particularly for
mushroom development, have yet to be used for general climate screening and control. To overcome these
challenges, we have proposed a framework that is based on IoT, where the lifecycle of caterpillar is studied.
Based upon the study, we can identify those parameters that can be applied in other climate area of India, to
grow this kind of mushroom by studying the lifecycle of caterpillar. The contribution of the study is as a
system is proposed with the integration of big data and IoT framework, that IoT inspired framework is
proposed to study and predict the lifecycle of Cordyceps sinensis and developing dynamic web portal for the
real-time visualization of mushroom processing.
The structure of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2 discusses the literature review.
Section 3 covers the proposed system in detail. Section 4 covers IoT enabled framework and it is concluded
in the final section.
In these various species of medicinal mushrooms, Cordyceps species are highly considered in
various positive aspects specially in terms of safety or non-toxic group of medicine [9], to enhance the
immune system in terms of human clinical health concern [10], to control neuroprotection based activities
[11], [12] effecting medicine for anticancer [13], activities for antimicrobial system [14], and activates for
anti-inflammatory system as well [15], [16], and therefore, a significant literature review in concern about the
components of medical significances, activities about the pharmacological practices, are hereby covered in
Tables 1 and 2 respectively.
Table 1. Constitution for the medical imperative of Cordyceps sinensis
Hostility to tumors, inhibition of RNA/DNA association, concealment (anti-HIV) antimalarial
activities of viral replication, regulates homeostatic potential against leukemia action
Mitigation effect, control of bleeding of cardiovascular arrhythmias
Amino acids, zinc,
vitamins & trace elements
Struggles with sexual drowsiness
Inhibition of lipid peroxidation, pharmacological agitation, inhibition of hemolysis and tumor
restraint, anti-oxidation action, immunomodulatory, and antitumor property
Hostile to the tumor and immunomodulatory effects
Cordy glucans
Agitation against tumor
Table 2. Important pharmacological practice of Cordyceps sinensis
Pharmacological Activity
Hostility to the effects of asthma and against malignant growth specialist
Activities for possess hypotensive and vasorelaxant
Hostile to oxidation action
Fasting reduces hyperglycemia and immune-regulatory movement
Implementing hostile and invincible modalities for tumor action
This specific species of medicinal mushroom are parasites, essentially on creepy crawlies and other
arthropods. Some species from these are also in parasitic categories on other kind of fungi like additionally
subterranean, truffle-like Elaphomyces and spiders as well [28]. There is an incompatible Sacc., which means
entomophagous parasitic growth of the family of Clavicipitaceae. Caterpillar fungus Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.)
Sacc., is a very well alleged medicinal mushroom species [29]. Like the part, the cutting edge can be seen
jutting slightly above the insect like a tiny horn. This horn-like structure continues to be built even further [30].
The Cordyceps sinensis medicinal mushroom is seasonally produced in India with specific regions
like Sikkim or other high mountain regions, plus it can very well be filled in environmental-controlled crop
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Int J Elec & Comp Eng, Vol. 13, No. 1, February 2023: 1142-1151
produce houses [31]. As of late, Cordyceps species in brown rice were effectively compromised towards
developing and have been responsible for many examinations refined in brown rice using Cordyceps species
[32], [33]. By and large, the ecological conditions for the growth of Cordyceps sinensis mushrooms can be
expressed in terms of temperature, humidity, light intensity, fresh air and the soil moisture [34]. In the
mushroom growing/cultivation room, the airflow is an important part of mushroom development because it
legitimately affects the carbon dioxide (CO2) content of the room.
The growth pattern of Cordyceps sinensis mushrooms can be divided into two phases; the first phase
is vegetative phase, which includes mycelia expansion and development, and the second phase is the
regenerative phase [35]. To grow Cordyceps sinensis mushrooms, a mycelium culture is allowed to grow on
cleaned cereal grains, which bring forming spawn. The produce spawn is inoculated into a disinfected
substrate and allowed to uproot the substrate [36]. During brooding, mycelium develops all through the
substrate and uses supplements in it. This cycle is called the spawn or production run. During the production
run, the ideal temperature is about 25 °C and the high carbon dioxide concentrate is positive. From that point
on, the mycelium arrives at the regenerative stage and is fitted to deliver mushrooms. The main variables that
induce the formation of Cordyceps sinensis mushrooms are an unexpected decrease in temperature
(temperature of 5 to 10 °C) and a sudden decrease in carbon dioxide fixation [37]. After that, the ideal
temperature for growth is around 10 to 25 °C, 85% to 92% RH (relative humidity), 600 ppm (million per
million), and carbon dioxide fixation under 500 lux, 2,000 lux for 12 hours. Since dissimilar phases required
a specific senescence, temperature, carbon dioxide, and the concentration of carbon dioxide, a framework
with pre-determined conditions for different phases simplifies it to a Cordyceps sinensis mushroom farmers
[38]. All these referenced functions do not allow checking and control through the graphical user interface.
Similarly, IoT can be easily used for control and observation in the mushroom gardening field. Similarly, a
significant number of accessible structures in the market, especially for mushroom development, are not yet
employed for general climate screening and control.
The advancement in technology in the area of farming has transformed the monitoring of farming in
real-time environment from any location through internet connectivity. As limited real-time technology was
used, this encouraged the implementation of IoT to predict the growth of Cordyceps sinensis mushrooms in
this study. The proposed framework is based on the growth of Cordyceps sinensis mushrooms using the tail
of a caterpillar, and it will pave the way for the recommended substrate for Cordyceps sinensis mushrooms.
The proposed framework is illustrated in Figure 1, and it comprises of five components such as substrate
model, big data warehousing, cloud IoT module, IoT enabled framework, and mobile app. Despite the fact
that much work has been done on alternate substrate for yield of Cordyceps sinensis Mushrooms, there is
limited data on the alternate substrate for growth of Cordyceps sinensis mushrooms. An alternative substrate
for the cultivation of Cordyceps sinensis Mushrooms other than the lab variants is suggested with the
assistance of proposed framework.
Big Data
Warehousing IoT enabled
- Farmers
- Vendors
- Agro Marketing Agencies
Figure 1. Proposed framework on between big data and IoT framework
IoT enabled framework is portable IoT device with soil and environment sensors. Mobile app
module provides interface to the users, and it will also notify the users or farmers through text messages.
Storage, big-data mining, analysis, and knowledge building engines, as well as an application module to
Int J Elec & Comp Eng ISSN: 2088-8708
An Internet of things enabled framework to monitor the lifecycle of (Minakshi Memoria)
interface with users, make up the cloud IoT module. Big data warehousing is generally used to store and
mine the data which is relevant to the users and knowledge building module is used to take the decision
based on the prediction. Since the inherent benefits of cultivation of Cordyceps sinensis mushrooms are high,
the suggested module saves data collected on a regular basis from soil and environmental samples. The cloud
IoT model is sandwiched between the big data warehousing engine. This module is critical in making
decisions based on current weather conditions, crop yield predictions, best crop sequence analysis based on
data accumulated over time, best crop for corresponding soil attributes, and watering requirements based on
soil moisture level. This database makes recommendations to farmers for crops to plant on acreage with
unusual soil features based on prior mushroom stock and current market demand. Big data analysis can be
used to predict future output of each product based on existing knowledge.
The IoT-enabled framework is a critical component in the proposed system as it is in charge of soil
sampling at regular intervals to obtain soil property data. Figure 2 illustrates the proposed IoT framework in
which it comprises of multiple sensing nodes to sense and monitor the environmental parameters of structure
rack of mushroom. Temperature, humidity, and CO2 convergence are the environmental parameters that are
required to be continuously monitored through the sensing node. Based on these parameters, the water supply
through solenoid valve is controlled by sensing node through relay. The sensing node is connected to the
structure rack through wireless communication protocol.
Sensing node
Sensing node
Solenoid valve ‘1’
Sensing node
Sensing node
Solenoid valve ‘2’
Solenoid valve ‘3’
Solenoid valve ‘4’
Control the valve
Wi-Fi based
web portal
Figure 2. IoT enabled framework
The conveyer line framework is used to reduce human differences with the goal that it can
computerize to measure mushroom growth. The user interface connected to the fundamental regulator is the
dynamic site intended to automate the cycle. The system of conveyer line will be used for laying fertilizer;
these are the fraction or racks on which mushrooms have been developed. These fertilizers are coming from
purification rooms and should be kept in rooms where mushrooms should grow. On the off chance that the
wet matter of the bed is replaced by the ideal requirement, an intricate water system framework is used
flexibly for watering at that point. The information of sensing node is updated to the cloud server through
Wi-Fi based node that is based on internet connectivity. Information running in the cloud will be refreshed at
regular intervals. As indicated by continuous information, temperature activation, humidity, CO2 focus, and
bed moisture content (if necessary) are carried out, which suggests that it reports to the regulator about the
continuous information and orders. A dynamic web portal is designed using Django as our production tool to
automate the entire cycle. Additionally, a conveyer belt framework is planned to minimize human arbitrage
for this entire cycle.
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4.1. Sensing node with sub-controller
The sensing node is critical because it is the primary reason for the IoT-based framework to collect
soil samples at regular intervals in order to obtain soil property data. It is an IoT enabled device with memory
and computing capabilities, as well as a GPS sensor to detect positional data. The soil nutrient sensor devices
that are attached to it are the main components of this kit. The soil pH sensor, soil moisture sensor,
phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and nitrate (N) sensors are interfaced to the sub-controller. The sensing node
performs two different tasks such as monitoring and control. In the monitoring, the sensing of the information
begins with the distinct sensors like temperature and humidity sensor, CO2 sensor, light-dependent resistor
(light dependent resistors (LDR) sensor), and soil moisture sensor. This sensing node detects clock-like
information and updates the same as par with the cloud and sends similar information to the cloud regularly
and updates the information running at regular intervals as the signal cycle completes and automation is done
in similar manner. The electrical characteristics of the MG-811 gas sensor suggest that the more
predominantly predicted CO2 focus will create a more modest output voltage. Table 3 illustrates the
Environmental conditions in different operating modes
Table 3. Environmental conditions in different operating modes
Mode of Spawn-run
Initialization mode of Pin head
Mode of Cropping
25 °C
19 °C
20 to 25 °C
90.0% RH
95.0% RH
85.0% RH
Carbon dioxide
20,000 𝑝𝑝𝑚
600 𝑝𝑝𝑚
<600 𝑝𝑝𝑚
Soil Moisture
Light intensity
2,000 lux per 12 Hrs.
Above 500 lux per 12 Hrs.
4.2. Main controller
The fundamental controller is our Raspberry Pi 3B+ regulator module, with ESP8266 fitted to prod
all sensing nodes. The continuous information state of each dark room where mushrooms grow is brought to
the main controller, for example, the central processing unit or brain of morphology by the cloud. For
solenoid valves in each room, associations are made for dripline irrigation systems.
Dripline irrigation system structures are used on the basis that mushrooms require exceptionally low
amounts of water. The solenoid works so that the control relay to turn on the valve comes from the module.
The solenoid opens and water is given flexibly, similarly, it should be noted that bed moist matter is detected
at regular intervals and is reported to the regulator. Assuming the water required for the mushroom racks is
measurable, it should be noted that the solenoid is modified in this exploration to kill the solenoid when the
bedwetting material approximates Y-2 must be given so that no one is inauspicious. Mushroom beds are
being provided with a measurement of water that can damage yields.
4.3. Dynamic web portal
Figure 3 represents the dynamic web portal work employed in the research work. The dynamic web
portal intended for the framework will go as the user interface for the framework. Likewise, it will be the
official site for a mushroom processing plant or association that will have various interfaces, for example,
client interface, employee interface, and administrator interface.
This dynamic website page is planned to be used in the front end of web planning progress, for
example, HTML, CSS, and JS. In the backend, the database is planned to use My SQL innovation. The front
end and back end have been combined with the use of the Python web structure Django. The front-end
framework for user interface is designed through the use of HTML, CSS, and Java Script. All progress in the
framework will be finished by the interface on this page. A login option on the site page which that has three
major system whereas customer login, employee login, and administrator login user interface. Customer
login is for buyers to request this medicinal mushroom, if they need to enroll first in another customers
signature, they can play the activities they need. On the off chance that an old customer signs up, they can see
the status of their request, the history of the request, and so forth, similar to an e-business site. At this point
when a worker signs up, he can see the subtleties of his work, asking a representative of a business board to
enter a new request, income status, a number of new customers joined, account status, and after this, a similar
location when a person signs in from a particular office, they can see the status of ecological boundaries, for
example, temperature, viscosity, carbon dioxide determination, of every dim room. The moist material of the
bed develops independently and now feels that the moisture content of the bed is low, and it switches water
flexibly on the information.
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An Internet of things enabled framework to monitor the lifecycle of (Minakshi Memoria)
Figure 3. Dynamic web portal of the system
In this section, we discuss the hardware description of the sensing node. As discussed above, the
sensing node comprises of a controller unit, distinct sensors, wireless communication protocol, relay, and
battery power supply. In the sensing node as shown in Figure 4, ATmega 328P controller is selected for
processing the sensory data and based on sensory data, the components like solenoid valve are controlled
through relay. DHT11 sensor interfaced to the controller act as input, and it sense the temperature and
humidity of the structure racks of the mushroom. Soil moisture sensor and BH1750 light intensity sensor are
also interfaced to the controller to provide the soil moisture content and light intensity as input data. The
sensor data is communicated through the wireless communication protocol to Wi-Fi based node. The wireless
communication protocol is selected on the basis of the transmission range. In case if the data needs to be
transmitted to the short range, then the Zigbee and Wi-Fi module can be embedded in sensing node for data
transmission. In case if the data needs to be transmitted to the long-range, then LoRa communication protocol
can be embedded in sensing node for data transmission. In the power supply, there will be different voltage
converters to match the operating voltage of the components integrated in the sensing node for proper
Figure 5 illustrates the Wi-Fi based node enables the sensing node to transmit the data on the cloud
server through internet connectivity. Zigbee/LoRa connected to the sensing node act as transmitter and in the
same way, the Zigbee/LoRa will be embedded in Wi-Fi based node as receiver to receive the data. ESP 8266
Wi-Fi module embedded in this node enables the transmitting data on the cloud server through internet
connectivity. External power supply supplied to Wi-Fi based node is +12 V, but the operating voltage for the
Zigbee/LoRa and ESP8266 Wi-Fi module is +3.3 V, so there is requirement of two different +3.3 V voltage
converters for proper functioning of the communication module.
ATMega 328P
Controller Unit
DHT 11 sensor
+ humidity)
Soil moisture
BH 1750 Light
Solenoid Valve
Battery power
+5V Power
+3.3 V /5V
Power supply
Figure 4. Hardware description of sensing node
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Int J Elec & Comp Eng, Vol. 13, No. 1, February 2023: 1142-1151
ATMega 328P
Controller Unit
power supply
Figure 5. Hardware description of Wi-Fi based node
The sensing node and Wi-Fi based node of the proposed system comprises the ATmega 328P
controller. The ATmega 328P controller will be programmed through Arduino IDE that is based on the C++
language. FTDI port interfaced to the ATmega 328P controller in sensing node and Wi-Fi based node
enabled to program with necessary instructions based on application. Moreover, the node mapping feature
can be embedded in the sensing node to transmit the data if the previous value is more or less than present
value. Symmetric encryption enables encrypting the data and same encryption in Wi-Fi based node enables to
decrypt the data.
Mushrooms from the Cordyceps sinensis have been proven to improve immune function, reduce the
effects of ageing, promote longer life, and improve liver function in people. The cultivation and growth of
this kind of mushrooms are limited to Sikkim in India and it is difficult to many people to gets its medicinal
benefits. The investigation and prediction of Cordyceps sinensis life cycle is limitedly carried out in previous
studies with IoT enabled framework. To overcome these challenges, this study proposed to implement an IoT
framework to predict life cycle and provide alternate substrate to cultivate Cordyceps sinensis mushrooms in
other parts of the country. As part of predicting lifecycle, the framework is proposed. From the study it is
conclude with IoT sensor-based system with ideal moisture level in mushroom rack is required to grow this
kind of mushroom.
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Minakshi Memoria is currently working as HOD-CSE in Uttaranchal Institute
of Technology, Uttaranchal University, Dehradun. She has done her Ph.D. in Computer
Science and Engineering from Gyan Vihar Univeristy, Jaipur, Rajasthan. She has more than
16 years of teaching experience and also has various patents in international and national
government patents and published various papers in various national and international
journals and conferences. Her area of research includes grid computing, cloud computing,
automata, advanced algorithms, artificial intelligence, and distributed computing. She can be
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ISSN: 2088-8708
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Sanjeev Kumar Shah is currently working as a professor. His area of research
is microwave, artificial intelligence, and machine learning. He is also an associate member of
the Institution of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineers. He has published 25
scientific papers and 35 patents. He can be contacted at
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for Computational Engineering and Networking (CEN), Coimbatore Campus. His research
area is metabolic engineering, bioinformatics, functional genomics. He can be contacted at
Anooja Ali currently working as assistant professor at REVA University,
Bangalore with 14 years of experience in teaching. He has completed Ph.D. from REVA
University in algorithms for analysis of protein sequences in cervical cancer. To her credit,
she has 16 journal publications, 7 conference papers, 5 copyrights, and 3 Indian patent. Her
areas of interest include machine learning and bioinformatics. She can be contacted at
Kapil Joshi currently working as an assistant professor in the Department of
Computer Science & Engineering (CSE) at Uttaranchal Institute of Technology (UIT),
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different institutions/companies. His areas of interest include operating system, computer
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Parag Verma currently working as an assistant professor in the Department of
Computer Science & Engineering (CSE) at Uttaranchal Institute of Technology (UIT),
Uttaranchal University, Dehradun with more than nine years in the field of industry and
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Int J Elec & Comp Eng ISSN: 2088-8708
An Internet of things enabled framework to monitor the lifecycle of (Minakshi Memoria)
Rajesh Singh is currently associated with Uttaranchal University as a professor
and director of R&I and post doc fellow at Department of Project Management, Universidad
Internacional Iberoamericana, Campeche, C.P. 24560, México with more than seventeen
years of experience in academics. He has been featured among top ten inventors for ten years
2010-2020, by Clarivate Analytics in Indias Innovation Synopsis in March 2021 for filing
three hundred and fifty-eight patents. He has twelve patents grant (8 Australian and 4 Indian
patents), 5 PCT and published more than hundred research papers in SCI/Scopus journals. He
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a professor & head (R&D) with more than fifteen years of experience in academics. She has
been featured among top ten inventors for ten years 2010-2020, by Clarivate Analytics in
Indias Innovation Synopsis in March 2021 for filing two hundred and sixty-three patents.
She has published more than 80 research papers in SCI/Scopus journals. She has twelve
patents grant (8 Australian and 4 Indian patents), 5 PCT. She can be contacted at email:
Shaik Vaseem Akram is currently working as an assistant professor at
Uttaranchal University, Dehradun. He has published 26 articles in SCI/Scopus. He has
published more than 160 patents in which 5 technology transfer. He can be contacted at
... Machine Learning has developed alongside tremendous knowledge advances with the advent of science and technology, offering new opportunities to unwind, analyze, and comprehend information escalated RESEARCH ARTICLE types in rural operating conditions. ML is the logical area that allows machines to learn without being carefully customized, according to various definitions [2]. ...
... Be that as it may, manual checking and grouping offer ascent to a few potential human blunders. For a gathering to be fruitful, anyone preparing to inspect the objects must have accurate perception and investigation, it may be difficult or monotonous and repetitive [2]. This research aims to develop a software which can be used to identify if a fruit is unripe, ripe or spoilt. ...
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Agriculture is the most crucial division in the country by contributing to numerous domains. In underdeveloped countries, farmers and agriculture field have delimited access to advanced technology in comparison to developed countries. In productive companies irrespective of public or private sector, large or small scale, there is a need to increase profitability with reduced cost. Hence it is required to develop appropriate ways to achieve these goals. This agricultural field is obviously a challenging field to the digital world. This paper discuss Smart fruit ripening assertion technique by incorporating the deep learning techniques such as YoloV3 , a deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). The focus of this model is to design and deploy practical tasks, predicting the ripening stages of various kinds of fruits based on shape, texture, and color by using and comparing various Machine learning techniques, OpenCV and Internet of Things (IOT). The main intention of this model is to provide accurate prediction of ripening stages of the fruits by computer application which results in a lot of time saving and reduction of large-scale manpower.
... The object detection algorithms can be used to track the growth of the plants. Object detection can be done by training deep learning models to recognize the physical characteristics of the plants at different stages of their lifecycle by training the model to detect the colour, size, and shape of the plants and even for mushroom culture [5]. ...
... Edges represent a node's capacity for forming connections with other nodes or its proximity to other nodes in the network [11] [22]. We take into consideration a PPI network of N nodes and A, an adjacency matrix to make it easier to describe similarity measurements. ...
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Analysis of protein interaction is important for detailing the cell physiology and predicting disease conditions and drug optimizations. The detection of the crucial proteins in Protein Protein Interaction (PPI) networks is made easier by the accession of these interaction data. The revelation of essential protein nodes in PPI networks is possible using a variety of centrality methods. The hub nodes are decisive in a biological structure because these nodes adjoin profoundly and operate as regulatory hub. The majority of techniques, however, focus on the topological characteristics of PPI. For determining essential proteins, topology and gene annotation are rarely combined. Graph-theoretic methods are used to infer this biological framework in PPI networks. The protein, their interconnections, and the subnetworks are the main subjects of the topological study. In this study, we examine the standard centrality metrics. In order to identify the PPI's prominent nodes and the influence of topological features on centrality metrics, we carefully examined each node's centrality aspect. In this research, we consider Mammalian Protein Database (MIPS) and Biological General Repository for Interaction Networks (BioGRID) datasets and the empirical analysis of individual centrality measures are performed on PPI networks The experimental interpretation shows the behavior of centrality measures on the datasets.
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Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris both contain many bioactive compounds that confer potential therapeutic benefits. This review discusses the possible use of cultivated C. militaris as an effective substitute for native O. sinensis in the face of ever-increasing prices of O. sinensis because of its short supply. On the one hand, cultivated C. militaris contains higher levels of cordycepin when compared with that of wild-type O. sinensis and cultivation of C. militaris has been shown to be capable of reducing the risk of heavy metal contamination. On the other hand, there is a paucity of robust in vivo studies and randomized controlled tests comparing the pharmacology and use of C. militaris and O. sinensis. For extraction of cordycepin as western-style tablets, the use of cultivated C. militaris rather than O. sinensis represents the most appropriate future approach. For many other purposes, comparative pharmacology and clinical trials are in urgent needs. 冬虫夏草和蛹虫草(别称北冬虫夏草)是虫草属中研究最多的名贵真菌(蘑菇),二者均富含具有独特生物活性的化合物,因此具有潜在的药用价值。冬虫夏草源自藏医药。近二十年来,其市场需求飞涨,导致野生资源价格飙升,供不应求。冬虫夏草生长条件苛刻、周期长,虽然人工培养已取得了一些进展,但尚未取得完全成功。相对而言,蛹虫草人工培养简便,而且已经成功。本综述讨论人工培养蛹虫草在替代冬虫夏草、缓解供需矛盾中可能发挥的作用。一方面,与野生冬虫夏草相比,人工培养蛹虫草含有更丰富的虫草素(具有抗癌功效),而且可通过标准化培养避免野生资源的重金属污染;另一方面,蛹虫草和野生冬虫夏草的高质量动物实验和临床对照研究极度缺乏。 因此,作为虫草素提取的原料,适于用人工培养的蛹虫草代替野生或培养的冬虫夏草;而对于冬虫夏草其它用途的替代方案,则亟待高质量的比较药理学和临床研究。
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This review mainly focuses on the medicinal value of the Cordyceps sinensis. Interestingly, Cordyceps spp. contains different compounds with the ability to strengthen the response of the immune system and also to control its exacerbated response. Most of the information on the effect of Cordyceps on the immune system derives from studies in cancer. Upholding immunity and strong immune system are prime concern especially during microbial infections as in the case of current COVID-19 pandemic. This is a mushroom that is only found in cohabitation with the larvae of an insect, and it is this unique growth parameter that has made it challenging to produce Cordyceps spp. in artificial cultivation. Further complicating this cultivation issue is the rarefied atmosphere, mineral-rich soil, and low temperature in which Cordyceps naturally grows, resulting in a unique profile of secondary metabolites possessing interesting biological potential for medical exploitation, but which are not readily reproduced in normal laboratory cultivation. In this article, we attempt to unravel many of the mysteries of Cordyceps spp., with special attention to C. sinensis, the world's most costly medicinal mushroom. Keywords: Cordyceps sinensis, caterpillar mushroom, immuno-booster, medicinal properties, nutritional composition
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Cordyceps sinensis , a species of the genus Ascomycetes , is recognised as the most famous tonic herb and natural remedy in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. Various pharmacological actions of the chemical constituents of C. sinensis have been reported, including: antitumour effects, hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects, and antioxidant, nephroprotective and anti-apoptotic properties. In this study we tested the antioxidant activity of extracts of the fungus C. sinensis grown on two subspecies of rice, Oryza sativa var. Indica and Oryza sativa var. Japonica . The extracts were prepared with methanol by two different extraction procedures (reflux and ultrasound). The antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by the DPPH assay. Our investigations showed that the sample 1 (grown on Oryza sativa var. Japonica ) exhibited higher antioxidant activity than the sample 2 (grown on Oryza sativa var. Indica ). The higher antioxidant activity of the sample 1 was observed with both extraction procedures.
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In recent decades, interest in the Cordyceps genus has amplified due to its immunostimulatory potential. Cordyceps species, its extracts, and bioactive constituents have been related with cytokine production such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, phagocytosis stimulation of immune cells, nitric oxide production by increasing inducible nitric oxide synthase activity, and stimulation of inflammatory response via mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Other pharmacological activities like antioxidant, anti-cancer, antihyperlipidemic, anti-diabetic, anti-fatigue, anti-aging, hypocholesterolemic, hypotensive, vasorelaxation, anti-depressant, aphrodisiac, and kidney protection, has been reported in pre-clinical studies. These biological activities are correlated with the bioactive compounds present in Cordyceps including nucleosides, sterols, flavonoids, cyclic peptides, phenolic, bioxanthracenes, polyketides, and alkaloids, being the cyclic peptides compounds the most studied. An organized review of the existing literature was executed by surveying several databanks like PubMed, Scopus, etc. using keywords like Cordyceps , cordycepin, immune system, immunostimulation, immunomodulatory, pharmacology, anti-cancer, anti-viral, clinical trials, ethnomedicine, pharmacology, phytochemical analysis, and different species names. This review collects and analyzes state-of-the-art about the properties of Cordyceps species along with ethnopharmacological properties, application in food, chemical compounds, extraction of bioactive compounds, and various pharmacological properties with a special focus on the stimulatory properties of immunity.
Cordyceps sinensis (the new species name is Ophiocordyceps sinensis) is a precious Chinese medicinal material. The polysaccharides are one of the important biologically active components of C. sinensis and have attracted more and more attention from scholars. The purpose of the review is to systematically review relevant studies on the extraction, structure, and pharmacological effects of C. sinensis polysaccharides to support their further application as therapeutic agents and functional foods. The results show that these C. sinensis polysaccharides have different structure, which may be closely related to their pharmacological activities. C. sinensis polysaccharides have various pharmacological effects including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and prebiotics effect. Moreover, C. sinensis polysaccharides can produce anti-cancer, anti-diabetes and anti-atherosclerosis effects, and have protective effects on the liver, intestine and kidney. In short, C. sinensis polysaccharides show potential medicinal value, and are expected to be used in the treatment of many diseases.
The miraculous medicinal effect of secondary metabolite produced from Cordyceps Sp., known for traditional use to cure deadly diseases. Ophiocordyceps sinensis and their best alternate Cordyceps militaris is widely using for the medicinal purposes in pharmaceutical industries. In the present research both the entomopathogenic fungal metabolites with various solvent fractions were tested against six bacterial strains and three Candida Sps. using agar well diffusion method to examine the antibacterial and anticandidal activity. Extracted metabolites were also tested for free radical scavenging potentiality by using DPPH scavenging activity. Metabolites extracted from Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris showed maximum zone of inhibition against all six bacterial strains ranges from 09mm to 10mm and 12mm to 14mm respectively. The result of anticandidal activity of Cordyceps militaris were also leading than Ophiocordyceps sinensis by showing 18mm and 15mm clear zone of inhibition respectively. 5μl metabolite of Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris were vigorously scavenged the methanolic solution of DPPH up to 95% to 97% respectively. Positive controls were also maintained with every test and observed less or similar effects than metabolites extracted from test organisms. Natural and Ecofriendly drugs play extensive role. Therefore the extracted metabolites from Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris can be industrially produced and bioactive compounds can be purified to use as far ranging antimicrobial and anti-aging bioagents for health and pharmaceutical industries. Key Words: Ophiocordyceps sinensis, Cordyceps militaris, Antibacterial activity, Anticandidal activity, Free radical scavenging potentiality.
Sikkim is the second smallest state in India. It has a human population of approximately 619,000 and covers a mountain-locked area of 7,096 km2. Recognised as a biodiversity ‘Hot Spot’ of global significance, it is situated within the Eastern Himalaya Biodiversity Hotspot and is rich in affluent flora and fauna diversity. Eighty-three per cent of Sikkim’s land area is covered with forest distributed in five ecoregions: 1) Tropical, 2) Sub-Tropical, 3) Temperate, 4) Alpine Forest and Scrub, 5) and Trans-Himalayan ecoregions. Sikkim encompasses 8 protected areas covering 47% of the State’s total geographical area and 11 Important Bird Areas (IBA), declared by Birdlife International. It also has undocumented mountain peaks, glaciers, rivers/streams, high-altitude lakes and geothermal springs which are yet to be explored. Sikkim, with its high biodiversity, is situated in a fragile ecosystem of tropical mountains in the Eastern Himalaya. It is currently under threat of irreparable damage as a result of several factors, including the melting of glaciers due to global warming, floods, landslides, invasive hydrothermal projects, road construction, deforestation and the destruction of trees for fuel and domestic purposes, growth in tourism – and much more. All these issues must be properly addressed in order to protect and conserve the unique biodiversity of the Sikkim Himalaya.
The yield and efficacy of bioactive compounds from Cordyceps militaris fruiting bodies and its fermented grains usually vary with the strain used. In this study, we compared the antiproliferative, apoptotic, and antioxidative properties of ethanolic extracts of fruiting bodies and solid-stated fermented rice (FRE) from two wild-type strains of C. militaris applied to human breast cancer cell lines. We observed that FRE of the Zhangzhou strain (FRE-Z) produced a high level of cordycepin and exhibited comprehensive in vitro antioxidant activity against the oxidation of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals and low-density lipoprotein. Only FRE-Z exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation in MCF-7 (0.7 mg/mL) and MDA-MB-231 cells (1 mg/mL) after culturing for 24 h. The antiproliferative effects of FRE-Z were associated with an early stage of apoptosis induction at 4 h of treatment with 0.5 mg/mL FRE-Z in MCF-7 cells. The antiproliferative effect was determined to occur through p53 activation but not through the release of mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor or caspase-9 activation for an initial culture period of 16 h. In addition to a transient increase in cellular antioxidant enzyme, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase was identified in MCF-7 cells after 2 h of treatment with FRE-Z. Therefore, FRE-Z, which exhibits various dose- and exposure time-dependent activities, has potential application in breast cancer chemoprevention.
Chinese cordyceps, an entity of the Chinese caterpillar fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis, syn. Cordyceps sinensis) that parasitizes ghost moth larvae, is one of the best known traditional Chinese medicines and is found exclusively on the Tibetan Plateau with limited natural resources. Although the fungus O. sinensis can grow on artificial substrates and the ghost moth has been successfully reared, the large-scale artificial cultivation of Chinese cordyceps has only recently been accomplished after several decades of efforts and attempts. In this article, research progress related to this breakthrough from living habitats, the life history of the fungus, its host insect, fungal isolation and culture, host larvae rearing, infection cycle of the fungus to the host, primordium induction, and fruiting body development have been reviewed. An understanding of the basic biology of O. sinensis, its host insect and the simulation of the Tibetan alpine environment resulted in the success of artificial cultivation on a large scale. Practical workshop production has reached annual yields of 2.5, 5, and 10 tons in 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively. There was no difference in the chemical components detected between the cultivated and natural Chinese cordyceps. However, the artificial cultivation system can be controlled to avoid heavy metal contamination and results in high-quality products. Although omics studies, including genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic studies, have helped to understand the biology of the fungus, the success of the artificial cultivation of the Chinese cordyceps is clearly a milestone and provides the possibility for research on the in-depth mechanisms of the interaction between the fungus and host insects and their adaptation to the harsh habitats. This cultivation will not only result in a large industry to alleviate the pressure of human demand but also protect the limited natural resources for sustainable utilization.