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How to Design Greenway on Urban Land Utilization: Linking Place Preference, Perceived Health Benefit, and Environmental Perception

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The rapid urbanization and over-crowded urban environment have caused a serious public health crisis. Numerous studies have found that public green spaces can benefit human health and well-being. Therefore, a short supply or an inappropriate planning of public green spaces would exaggerate the health crisis. For all these reasons, how to create health-promoting greenways in urban areas becomes a critical and pressing challenge for urban sustainability. To address this challenge, we conducted a photograph-survey study of a greenway to examine the relationship between place preference, perceived health benefit, and environmental perception. Through a set of linear regression analysis, we found that: place preference is significantly and positively associated with six specific perceptions, including relaxation when walking alone, cheering of one’s mood, being away from daily life, traffic safety, recovery from stress, and mental fascination. Furthermore, we identified the important environmental perception elements that have significant positive or negative associations with each identified perception; these were carefully planned. This study is an initial effort to examine a critical urban land-use issue: appropriate planning of greenways in the city to promote public health and well-being. The research findings provide strong and clear guidance on planning strategies for urban greenways and shed light on future studies.
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Int.J.Environ.Res.PublicHealth2022,19,13640.https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192013640www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph
Article
HowtoDesignGreenwayonUrbanLandUtilization:Linking
PlacePreference,PerceivedHealthBenefit,andEnvironmental
Perception
WeitingShan*,ChunliangXiuandYiningMeng
NortheasternUniversity,Shenyang110167,China
*Correspondence:danwt@mail.neu.edu.cn
Abstract:Therapidurbanizationandovercrowdedurbanenvironmenthavecausedaserious
publichealthcrisis.Numerousstudieshavefoundthatpublicgreenspacescanbenefithuman
healthandwellbeing.Therefore,ashortsupplyoraninappropriateplanningofpublicgreenspaces
wouldexaggeratethehealthcrisis.Forallthesereasons,howtocreatehealthpromotinggreenways
inurbanareasbecomesacriticalandpressingchallengeforurbansustainability.Toaddressthis
challenge,weconductedaphotographsurveystudyofagreenwaytoexaminetherelationship
betweenplacepreference,perceivedhealthbenefit,andenvironmentalperception.Throughasetof
linearregressionanalysis,wefoundthat:placepreferenceissignificantlyandpositivelyassociated
withsixspecificperceptions,includingrelaxationwhenwalkingalone,cheeringofone’smood,
beingawayfromdailylife,trafficsafety,recoveryfromstress,andmentalfascination.Furthermore,
weidentifiedtheimportantenvironmentalperceptionelementsthathavesignificantpositiveor
negativeassociationswitheachidentifiedperception;thesewerecarefullyplanned.Thisstudyis
aninitialefforttoexamineacriticalurbanlanduseissue:appropriateplanningofgreenwaysinthe
citytopromotepublichealthandwellbeing.Theresearchfindingsprovidestrongandclear
guidanceonplanningstrategiesforurbangreenwaysandshedlightonfuturestudies.
Keywords:landutilization;greenspaceplanning;placepreference;multilevelmappingmodel;
healthycity;greenway
1.Introduction
Rationallanduseandsustainabledevelopmentarethemeanstosolvetheproblem
ofurbanization;therationalityoflanduseplaysarestrictiveroleinurbanplanning.To
solvetheproblemoflanduse,improvingurbanlanduseefficiencyandoptimizingurban
greenspaceplanningareunified.Itisnecessarytoconductacomprehensivestudyof
landuse,duetothemultiplecausesoflandusechangeandthecomplexityofits
problematicstructure.ThespreadofCOVID19madealargenumberofindoorpublic
spacesnolongersafeandhealthy.Hence,thegreenwaysintheirlivingcitybecamethe
mainplacesforleisureandrelaxation.
Improvinglandutilizationefficiencycanpromotethesustainabledevelopmentof
cities.Forurbanresidents,landutilizationefficiencyisaffectedbythedegreeof
preference.Urbanhealthincludepsycho–physicalhealthandsocialhealthimpactswere
consideredwhenassessingtheimpactonurbansocialstatus.Theconstructionofurban
greenwaysshouldfocuson“green”and“health”.Informationabouttheperceptionsand
attitudesofpeople,fromlandscapeevaluationandpreferencestudies,servesasan
importantscientificbasisfortheplanningandmanagementofanurbangreenspace[1].
Intheprocessofusinggreenspace,allactivitieswillbelinkedtoeachother,thus
formingabroaderandricherrangeofactivitiesoverall.Whenagreenspaceispreferred
Citation:Shan,W.;Xiu,C.;Meng,Y.
HowtoDesignGreenwayonUrban
LandUtilization:LinkingPlace
Preference,PerceivedHealthBenefit,
andEnvironmentalPerception.Int.J.
Environ.Res.PublicHealth2022,19,
13640.https://doi.org/10.3390/
ijerph192013640
AcademicEditors:PaulB.
TchounwouandTeodoroGeorgiadis
Received:24August2022
Accepted:15October2022
Published:20October2022
Publisher’sNote:MDPIstays
neutralwithregardtojurisdictional
claimsinpublishedmapsand
institutionalaffiliations.
Copyright:©2022bytheauthors.
LicenseeMDPI,Basel,Switzerland.
Thisarticleisanopenaccessarticle
distributedunderthetermsand
conditionsoftheCreativeCommons
Attribution(CCBY)license
(https://creativecommons.org/license
s/by/4.0/).
Int.J.Environ.Res.PublicHealth2022,19,136402of20
bypeople,itisusedforalongertime;so,thenitcausestheactivitytobearicher
experience,andthelandutilizationefficiencyishigher.Inthebackgroundof
urbanization,tosolvetheurbanenvironmentalproblemsfromtheperspectiveofurban
greenspaceplanning,weshouldimprovethelandutilizationefficiency,andimprovethe
degreeofpeople’splacepreference.
1.1.PlacePreference
Weneedtounderstandpeople’splacepreferenceinrelationtogreenspace.Urban
residents’choiceofgreenspaceismainlybasedonsubjectivefeelings,andtheevaluation
ofthespaceisintuitiveandperceptual;theirbrainsandbodiesrespondpositivelytothe
landscapesthattheyprefer[2,3].Studieshavesuggestedthatpreferredlandscapesare
oftenrestorativelandscapes.TreelinedstreetsandSavannahlikelandscapesarehighly
preferredcomparedtoothertypesofenvironments[4–6],andtheselandscapesalsoaid
stressrecovery[7–9]andproviderestorationofone’sattention[10,11].Throughthespatial
analysisofhighdensityurbangreenways,thisstudylooksforawaytooptimizethe
spatialplanningofurbangreenways.
1.2.PerceivedHealthBenefitsandLandUse
Bycreatingsubtlepoints,thegreenspacecanbeextendedtothegreatestextentin
termsofitsuse.Consideringtheincreaseintheexistingurbanpopulationdensityandthe
abundanceofindoorentertainmentandleisureplaces,theutilizationefficiencyof
greenwaysisanimportantindicatoroftheirrole.Theutilizationefficiencyofgreenways
isrelatedtothespatialplanning,geographicallocation,andcoverageareaofthe
greenway[12,13],butitisalsoinfluencedbypeople’ssubjectivepreferenceforit.This
studyexploredthesignificantcorrelationbetweenresidents’preferencesand
environmentalperceptionfactorswithhealthrecovery,aimedatimprovingurbanland
utilizationefficiencyandpromotingresidents’healthandurbanhealth.
InChina,thegreenwaytypicallyadjoinsaparkortheurbanoutskirtsclosetoa
naturalconservationareaduetotwomajorreasons.Firstandforemost,therehavebeen
verylimitedareasavailableforgreenwayswiththeurbanizationinChina.Second,the
usersofgreenwayspreferamoreauthenticgreenwaylocatedinrealnature.Quantifying
andcharacterizingurbanleisurespaceandleisureactivitypatternsrevealthespatial
distributionofleisureresourcesandpeople’sbehaviorpreferences.Itcanprovidetailor
madeguidanceforreasonableurbanresourceallocation,spaceformdesign,andgreen
sustainabledevelopment[14].Becausepublicurbangreenspaceshavedifferent
characteristicsandsocialuseswithincities,itisfurthermoreimportanttoassesspeople’s
preferencesaboutpublicurbangreenspaces.Infact,abetterunderstandingofthe
preferencesofagivencity’sresidentsfortheirpublicgreenspacesmayinformpolicy
makersandcityplannerstoeffectivelyprovideandmanageurbangreenspacestomeet
users’needs[15].Theresearchonthedegreeofinfluenceofurbanparksonpreferences
willhelpthefutureconstructionofurbanparkstobettermeettheneedsofthepublic,
enhancetheparkecosystemservices,andpromotesustainableurbandevelopment[16].
1.3.UrbanGreenwaysConstruction
Theecologybenefitsofurbangreenwayshavebeenthetopconcernfordecades,
whichisoftendefinedasacriticalstrategicecologicalinfrastructure[17].Intherapid
developingcities,suchasthoseinChina,greenwayplanningonaregionalscalehas
largelyneglectedlocalcitizens’,especiallydeprivedcitizens,basicneedsforgaining
healththroughtheusageofnearbynature[18].Thegreenwayisalsorequiredtobesafe
andcomfortablebymaintainingusers’“socialdistance”[19].
Amongtheexaminationoftheimpactsofgreenwaysatahumandimension,much
attentionhasbeengiventophysicalactivity,recreation[20],airpollution[21],etc.The
mentalhealthbenefitsofurbangreenspaceshavegainedmoreandmoreattentionfrom
Int.J.Environ.Res.PublicHealth2022,19,136403of20
scholarsbecauseofitsrisingimportanceinthefieldofpublichealth,urbanplanning,and
landscapearchitecture[22–24].Thementalhealthbenefitsfromcontactwithnature
mainlyincludementalfatiguerecovery[8,25,26],mentalstressreduction[7,27],increase
insocialcohesion[28],andpromotionofmood[29,30].However,scientificevidence
directlyfoundinthecontextofgreenwaysinthehighlydenseurbanareasisstillsparse.
Inrecentyears,thefunctionsofgreenwaysinChinesedailylifearebecomingmoreand
moreabundant.Atthesametime,thereisamorecomplexplanningtrendinthe
constructionofgreenways[17].Theexistingplanninglacksconsiderationofusers’
feelings.Someresearcherssuggestthatmoreconsiderationshouldbegiventopathwidth,
location,infrastructure,greenwaypavements,andhumanisticcareingreenways’
planning[31].Therefore,thisstudyaimstoexploretheinfluencingfactorsofusers’mental
healthandgreenwaysenvironmentinShenzhen,China;thus,discoveringthe
fundamentalfactorstoimprovetheutilizationefficiencyofurbangreenspace.
1.4.StrategiesforImprovingPlacePreference:MultilevelMappingModel
Argumentsarecommonlymadethatsustainabilitychallengescannotbeaddressed
effectivelyusingconventionalapproachestopolicyandplanning.However,theexisting
preferencepromotionmethodsareimitationresearchbasedonthegreenway
characteristicsoftheoneswithbetterindicators,orrepetitivemodelingandevaluation
research.Theyhavethedisadvantagesofpooruniversalityandlowsolutionefficiency
afterthelocationchange,andhavenotformedasystematicoptimizationandspecification
process.Themainreasonisthattheyhavenotconductedfundamentaltraceability
researchfromtheformationmechanismofpreference.
Inordertorealizethequantitativerepresentationofpeople’ssubjectivefeelingsand
ideas,andtocharacterizeandcalculatetheirrelationshipwiththecharacteristicsofthe
greenwayenvironment,itisnecessarytoestablishamappingrelationshipmodelfor
numericalsimulation.Thepurposeofestablishingtheframeworkoftheinteractionmodel
istocarryoutthenumericalsimulationofpreference.Thepurposeofthenumerical
simulationistwofold.Oneistopredictthepreferenceunderdifferentinputconditionsof
environmentalcharacteristics,soastoverifytheadvantagesanddisadvantagesofthe
existinggreenways.Theotheristoobtainthemaximumpreference,soastorealizethe
reversedesignofgreenwayconditionsthroughmultiplegroupsofnumericalsimulations
andcomparisons,soastoobtaintheoptimaldesignparameters.Alargequantityof
sampledataareobtainedfromfieldsurveystosolvetheestablishedimpactmodel
frameworkandestablishagreenwaysevaluationsystemwithhighrealismbasedonthe
model.SPSSistheresearchtoolandspecificexecutionplatformformodelinput,
calculation,output,andanalysis.However,therearemanyinfluencingfactorson
greenwaypreferenceandthereiscorrelationandinteractionbetweenthefactors.Ifthe
interactionrelationshipbetweenthefactorsisignoredandonlythecrossleveldirect
transfermodelbetweengreenwayenvironmentalperceptionandplacepreferenceis
established,thesimulationdeviationislarge.Therefore,itisnecessarytoestablisha
multilevelmappingmodel.Inthisstudy,amultilevelmappingmodelofplacepreference,
perceivedhealthbenefit,andenvironmentalperceptionisestablishedtoimprovethe
fittingaccuracyoftheactualcompleximpactrelationship.
2.Methodology
Thisresearchbuiltanevaluationsystemaimingatthegreenwaypreference.The
constructedsystemwastoconsiderperceivedhealthbenefitsandenvironmental
perceptionsasthetwomaincategoriesofinfluencingfactors.Hence,twomajorresearch
questionswereintroduced.Questionone:whetherandtowhatextentpeople’spreference
ofgreenwaysettingswereassociatedwithspecificperceptionsofthesettings?Question
two:Whetherandtowhatextentthosespecificperceptionswereassociatedwithspecific
landscapespacecharacteristics?
Int.J.Environ.Res.PublicHealth2022,19,136404of20
Duetothenumerousinfluencingfactorsandtheircomplexinteractions,itwas
difficulttoobtainthesignificanceofthesefactorsthroughrepetitiveexperimentsand
analyticalalgorithms.Numericalsimulationisabettermethodforestablishingthe
greenwaysevaluationsystem.However,itisdifficulttoensuretheaccuracyoftheresults
bysimplyusingthesinglelevelmappingrelationshipasthebasicframeworkofthe
evaluationsystem[32,33].Therefore,amultilevelmappingmodelofperceivedhealth
benefits,environmentalperceptions,andgreenwaypreferencesshouldbeconstructed,
whichcansimulatetheactualinfluencingmechanismwithhighaccuracy[34].The
sampledandtransformedquantitativedatarepresentingenvironmentalperception
factorsandperceivedhealthbenefitswereinputandcalculatedinthegreenways
evaluationsystem.Then,theoutputresultscouldbeanalyzedandusedasaguidefor
inputoptimization.Inthisstudy,professionalstatisticalanalysissoftwareandaproposed
predictionalgorithmwereusedtocalculateandsimulateamultilevelmapping
relationship.Bythismeans,theweightofeachinfluencingfactorwasobtainedthrough
changingtheinitialsettingsofspecificvariables.Theresearchframeworkisshownin
Figure1.
Figure1.Theresearchframework.
2.1.ResearchDesign
Basedontheneedsofcitizens,thefrequencyofuse,spacetype,accessibility,
attractiveness,restoration,recoveryability,vegetationcoverage,biodiversity,andother
aspects,thispapercomprehensivelydiscussesthespatialevaluationframeworkofurban
greenways,andputsforwardtheindexsystemofurbangreenwaysspatialevaluationin
combinationwiththetheoryofurbansustainabledevelopment.
Inthisstudy,weanalyzedthecorrelationof24influencefactorsinthesurvey.Atotal
of60photoswereselectedfrom200originalphotosforresearchusingtheDelphimethod
[35],andwereusedforcorrelationanalysis.Finally,24questionsand60photoswere
randomlycombinedintoaquestionnairetocollectthepsychologicalandphysical
feedbackofgreenwayusersinShenzhen.Thecollectedquestionnairedatawereanalyzed,
Int.J.Environ.Res.PublicHealth2022,19,136405of20
andtheanalysisresultsprovidedoptimizationguidanceforhowcurrentgreenway
planningaffectstheusepreferencesofgreenwaysinShenzhen.
Intheonlineinvestigation,therewere35questionsinanonlineresearch
questionnaire.Atotalof24questionsdealtwiththerandommixingofgreenway
optimizationinfluencingfactors.The24questionsineachquestionnairewererandomly
combinedwith60photos.The60photos,andtheother11questionsdealtwiththe
interviewers’personalinformationandsuggestionsonthecurrentsituationofShenzhen
greenways.Theanswerstothequestionnairesweredividedintosevencategories.The
scaleoflevelonetosevenisusedtorepresentthesevenoptions,thatinclude“extreme”,
“moderate”,“slight”,“neutral”,“slight”,“moderate”,and“extreme”foreachstatement.
The1stto3rdanswersarenegativeoptions,andthe4thisanintermediatevalueoption,
andtheothersarepositiveoptions.Theclassificationoftheinfluencingfactorsof
greenwayplacepreferenceisshowninFigure2.
Figure2.Theclassificationoftheinfluencingfactorsofgreenwayplacepreference.
2.2.LocationoftheCaseStudy
Shenzhenisoneofthefirstcitiesequippedwithurbangreenways.Shenzhenisthe
mostcrowdedcityinChina,andrankingfifthintheworld’shighestdensitycities[36].
TheexploitablelandandlivingspacesinShenzhenarebecomingincreasinglylimited.
Thereforegreenways,aspartsofthemaingreenland,havehighresearchvalue[37].
WhenchoosingrepresentativegreenwayslandinShenzhen,threefactorswere
considered:populationdensity;residentialactivity;andthesurroundingenvironment
[38].TheQiaochengEastRoadandXiangmeiRoadwereselectedinthisstudy.The
QiaochengEastRoad,locatedintheNanshanDistrict,isonthefirststageoftheShenzhen
GreenwayDevelopmentProjectin2009.ThesurroundingareaoftheQiaochengEast
Roadhasahighpopulationdensityandahighfrequencyofresidentialactivities.This
roadrepresentsthehistoryanddevelopmentofShenzhen’sgreenways.XiangmeiRoad
islocatedinthecenteroftheFutianDistrict,withresidential,commercial,and
comprehensivelandasitsprimaryfunctionsandconsistentlyhighactivity.Qiaocheng
EastRoadandXiangmeiRoadareclosetodenselypopulatedareas.Theselectionsofthe
tworoadsarebasedontheirheavyusage,longdistance,andlargeradiation.Theselected
twomaingreenwayplanningguidingrolesinoptimizingthegreenwaysinShenzhen.
2.3.Photographs
Inthefieldinvestigationstageofthestudy,atotalof6heachdayfor30days,
MondaythroughFriday,wasspentphotographingthesubjectareainclear,sunny
conditions.A130degreelenswasselectedtotaketheShenzhengreenwayphotographs,
andthesameaperturewasmaintainedforconsistency.Attheprocessoftakingthe
photographs,signposts,roadsigns,directionalsigns,people,bicycles,andpassing
Int.J.Environ.Res.PublicHealth2022,19,136406of20
animalswereavoidedwheneverpossible.Thephotographsweretakenevery50–100m
passingthroughthegreenwayandkeepingthegreenwayatthecenterofthephotographs
withoutanyplantsobscuringtheview.Intheprocessoftakingphotos,pedestrians,
bicycles,andpassinganimalswereavoidedbyblockingthesurroundingphysical
environmentasmuchaspossible.
Theimpactofplantsonlanduseisbasedonfieldmeasurementsofthedistanceand
directionbetweentreesandresidentialbuildings[39].Basedonthreeenvironmental
elements(spacescale,structure,andplantlevel),60greenwaysitephotosweredivided
into12spatialtypes.Thespatialscalewasdistinguishedbyfrontorbackstreets,
landscapeelementsweredistinguishedbythedifferenttypesofstructures,andplantlevel
wasdistinguishedbytree,shrub,andgrasslevels.TheShenzhengreenwayspace
categorydiagramisshowninTable1.
Table1.SZgreenwayspacecategories.
GreenwaySpaceCategory

1BS:tree2BS:shrub/grass3FS:tree/shrub/grass
BS:tree/shrub/grass
4FS:tree
BS:tree

5FS:tree
BS:tree/builtstructure
6FS:tree/shrub/grass
BS:tree
7FS:tree/builtstructure
BS:tree/builtstructure
8FS:tree
BS:tree/shrub/grass

9FS:tree
BS:builtstructure
10FS:tree/shrub/grass
BS:builtstructure
11FS:shrub/grass
BS:builtstructure
12FS:builtstructure
BS:shrub/grass
FSrepresentsfrontagestreet;BSrepresentsbackstreet.The12categories:backstreetwithtrees
(Category1);backstreetwithshrubsandgrasses(Category2);frontageandbackstreetwithtrees,
shrubs,andgrasses(Category3);frontageandbackstreetwithtrees(Category4);frontageandback
streetwithtrees,andbackstreetwithbuiltstructure(Category5);frontagestreetwithtrees,shrubs,
andgrasses,andbackstreetwithtrees(Category6);frontageandbackstreetwithtreesandbuilt
structure(Category7);frontagestreetwithtrees,shrubs,andgrassesatthebackstreet(Category8);
frontagestreetwithtrees,andbuiltstructureatthebackstreet(Category9);frontagestreetwith
trees,shrubs,andgrasses,andbuiltstructureatthebackstreet(Category10);frontagestreetwith
shrubsandgrasses,andbuiltstructureatthebackstreet(Category11);frontagestreetbuilt
structure,andbackstreetwithshrubsandgrasses(Category12).Eachcategoryisrepresentedinthe
followingphotographs.
Int.J.Environ.Res.PublicHealth2022,19,136407of20
2.4.EnvironmentalPerceptions
StudyingpriorworkbyBlumentrathandTveit,alandscapeevaluationmodelwas
created,withinfluencefactorsincludingcoherence,visibility,highqualityand
maintainability,naturalness,diversity,andaccessibility[40].Kaplanpointedoutthat
therearetwotypesoffactorsaffectingplacepreferences,oneisobviousandtheotheris
inferredorpredicted.Obviousfactorsincludecoherenceandcomplexity,whileinferred
orpredictedfactorsincludereadabilityandmystery[41].Somestudieshaveconsidered
thelikeabilityofurbanlandscapesasthebasisfortheoptimizationofurbanimageand
emphasizedthattheinternalsignificanceofshapingurbanimageandimaginationhasa
guidingimpactonhumanbehavior.Internalmeaningaffectstheirbehavior,whether
usersgotoaplace,andhowtogotoaplace[42,43].Basedontheanalysisoftheabove
scholars’theoreticalelements,thisstudyselectsthefollowingelementsastheperceived
healthbenefitfactorsandenvironmentalperceptionfactorsinthehighdensityurban
greenwaysspatialevaluationsystem:“coherenceofenvironmentelements”(CEE);
“moodcheering”(MC);“prediction”(Pred);“mystery”(M);“fascinationattraction”(FA);
“richnessofenvironmentalelements”(REE);and“preference”(Pref).
TheresultsofalandscaperestorationresearchbyKaplanshowedseveralkey
elementsofrestorativelandscapes:distance;charm;continuity;andcompatibility.The
environmentelementscorrespondingtothesefactorsincludeenvironmentbrightness
[44];crownshape[45];naturalstyle;andenvironmentalcompatibility[46,47].Inaddition,
thetreedistance,directiontobuilding,climateregion,leaftype,andpercentagecoverof
buildingsandtreesontheplotcanaffectthecarbonemissionsofsurroundingbuildings,
thusaffectingtheecologicaleffectoftheland[48].Thewellconnectedandpleasantopen
spacescanbringrelieftopeoplelivinginhighrisebuildingsincongestedneighborhoods
besetbymeagergreenspacesandstressfulurbanliving[49].Theseinfluencingfactors
includephysicalenvironmentperceptionandpersonalperception.Theinfluencing
factorsaredividedaccordingtothecomponentsofgreenenvironmentspace,space
openness,spacestyle,bearingcapacityofdiversityfunction,andtheimpactofspace
environmentonperception.Accordingtotheseelements,thisstudytakes“viewblocking
general”(VBG),“viewblockingwithshrubsandgrass”(VBSG),“brightness”(B),“tree
canopypercent”(TCP),“compatibilityforexercise”(CE),“awayfromurban
environment”(AUE),“awayfromdailylife”(ADL),and“naturalness”(N)asthe
environmentalperceptionelementsintheurbangreenwayspatialevaluationsystem.
Inthecasestudyofestablishedsuburbancommunities,Linproposedresidents’
emotionalevaluationandneighborhoodvisualelements;thesignificantimpactsonthe
emotionalevaluationelementsarepavementshape,streetfacilities,andpavementtexture
[50].Basedontheseresearchelements,thispaperselectsfourenvironmentalperception
elements:“pavementquality”(PQ);“complexityofpavingpattern”(CPP);“overall
quality”(OQ);and“management”(Mana).Previousresearchontheimpactoflandscape
variablesonpedestriansafetyhaspointedoutthatoverallsafetyandtrafficsafetyarevery
importantforcityspaceplanning[51,52].Inthisstudy,“generalsafety”(GS)and“traffic
safety”(TS)wereselectedinthespatialoptimizationevaluationsystemofurban
greenway.
Anobservationalstudywasconductedonstudentswhofeltslightpressuresaftera
finalexam.Theresearchresultsshowedthatthegroupwatchingdailynaturalcolorslides
hadabetterrecoveryeffectthanthegroupwatchingurbanscenerywithoutplants[23,53].
Inthelate1990s,anotherscholarrepeatedthestudyandfoundthatthegroupwatching
urbansceneswithoutvegetationexperiencedanincreaseinpressureandalesspositive
impact.Directingpeople’sattentioncantraintheirthinking,setgoalsforrapidproblem
solving,initiateandexecutetasks,selfmonitoring,andregulation[53–55].Accordingto
theresearch,thisstudyconsidersthreefactorsasthespatialoptimizationevaluation
systemforhighdensityurbangreenways.Theyare“stressrecovery”(SR),“attention
restoration”(AR),and“relaxedoranxiousifalone”(RAA).Alloftheimpactfactorsare
listedinTable2.
Int.J.Environ.Res.PublicHealth2022,19,136408of20
Table2.InfluencingFactors.
ResearcherTheoryAttributeInfluenceFactor
C.Blumentrathand
M.S.Tveit
StephenKaplan
Amodeloflandscape
elements
Preferencematrixtheory
Coherence
Legibility
Mystery
Coherenceofenvironmentelement(CEE)
Moodcheering(MC)
Prediction(Pred)
Mystery(M)
Fascinationattracted(FA)
Richnessofenvironmentelements(REE)
Preference(Pref)
StephenKaplanRestorationoflandscape
Fascination
Extent(Coherence)
Compatibility
Beingaway
Viewblockinggeneral(VBG)
Viewblockingofshrubsandgrass(VBSG)
Brightness(B)
Treecanopypercent(TCP)
Compatibilityforexercise(CE)
Awayfromurbanenvironment(AUE)
Awayfromdailylife(ADL)
Naturalness(N)
ShihHsienLin
Affectiveappraisalof
residentsandvisual
elementsinthe
neighborhood
Thepavementpattern
Thestreetfurniture
Thepavementtexture
Qualityofpaving(QP)
Complexityofpavingpattern(CPP)
Overallquality(OQ)
Management(Mana)
RosenblattNaderi
Theeffectoflandscape
variablesonpedestrian
healthandsafety
LandscapegeneralsafetyGeneralsafety(GS)
Trafficsafety(TS)
UlrichandParsons
Naturalenvironmentisthe
keycomponenttohuman
response
Stressreduction
Stressrecovery(SR)
Attentionrestoration(AR)
Relaxedoranxiousifalone(RAA)
2.5.Procedure
Toidentifytheinfluencingfactors,thatis,theprominenceofthecomponentsof
greenwayspace,thisstudyestablishedtwoautomaticlinearmodels:onedealtwiththe
relationshipbetweenplacepreferenceandperceivedhealthbenefits,andtheotherdealt
withtherelationshipbetweenperceivedhealthbenefitsandenvironmentalperception.
Themainproblemwefacedwasextractingthedesiredcorrelationsbetweenthe
indicators.Inordertominimizepossibleattenuationandfatigueduetoprolonged
exposuretoasinglepicture,theparticipantswereaskedtoanswerthe24questionsusing
alikabilityscaleratingbasedondifferentpictures.Therefore,foreachparticipant,hisor
herratingtoeachindicatorwasalsoinfluencedbythepicturehe/shewasexposedto.To
solvethisproblem,wecollapsedallratingsbyaveragingthescorestoamatrixof24
indicatorsover60picturesamples.Therefore,wewereabletoseparatetheinfluencefrom
thepicturesandweanalyzedtheinteractionsbetweenpicturestimuliandindicators
whennecessary.
Afterindividualregressionanalysisforeachgroup,thecoefficientofthefirstlayer
wasexplainedbyhighlevelvariables,andtheregressioncoefficientofeachgroupofthe
firstlayerwasanalyzedastheresultvariableofthesecondlayer.Inthefirstlayerofthe
multilevelmappingmodel,qualifiedhealthbenefitistheindependentvariableandplace
preferenceisthedependentvariable.Inthesecondlayer,environmentalperceptionisthe
independentvariableandperceivedhealthbenefitisthedependentvariable.The
respondents’gender,age,income,frequencyofgreenwayuse,walkingdistanceto
greenway,andhealthyeffectsweretakenascontrolvariables.Themultilevelmapping
modelisshowninFigure3.
Int.J.Environ.Res.PublicHealth2022,19,136409of20
Figure3.Themultilevelmappingmodel.
2.6.StatisticalAnalysis
Aftercorrelationanalysisandmultivariatelinearregressionanalysis,therationality
ofthetheoryandquestionnairefactorsinthisstudywereverified.Usingagenerallinear
modelanalysis,thisstudydeterminedtheevaluationsystembasedon24factors.The
relationshipamongallofthefactorswasalsoclarified.Thisstudyusedanautomatic
linearmodelanalysistoestablishanewlikabilityresultmodel,andcombineditwiththe
bestsubsetfromautomaticlinearmodelanalysistoconstructabetterhighdensityurban
greenwayplanningprinciple.
3.Results
Accordingtothedetailedanalysisoftheresults,greenways’qualitymanagementhas
astrongimpactonrespondents’psychology.Thequalityandmanagementdegreeofthe
greenways’pavingpatternalsoaffectstheguaranteeofthegreenways’fitnessfunction.
Thesightlineandplantshaveagreaterimpactontherespondents’senseofdistance.Sight
lines,plants,andqualitycontrolhaveasignificantimpactonrelievingusers’pressureand
restoringusers’attentionandemotion.
Atotalof1212intervieweescompletedthisresearchquestionnairesurvey,ofwhich
87%contributedvaliddata.Mostoftheintervieweeswereyoungpeople,withthe
majorityagedbetween18and40,thatcanbestrepresentmostoftheShenzhencitizens.
MorethanhalfoftheintervieweeshavelivedinShenzhenforlessthanoneyear,andthe
vastmajoritywerepopulationthatoriginatedfromoutsideShenzhen,whoincluded
businessmen,studentteachers,companystaff,labor,retirees,theunemployed,civil
servants,serviceproviders,generalserviceproviders,andotherprofessionals.Regarding
monthlyincome,asthereweremanystudentsamongtheinterviewers,manyofthe
intervieweesearnedlessthanCNY4000,andmorethanhalfofthemearnedlessthan
CNY8000.Mostoftheintervieweeslivedincommunitiesnotfarfromthecitygreenways;
onlyasmallnumberofintervieweeswerelivingincommunitiesover1500mtothe
nearestgreenway.Mostpeopleusedthegreenway,althoughnotveryoften.Accordingto
basicdataanalyses,theinterviewees’mainreasonsforusingthegreenwaywerewalking,
Int.J.Environ.Res.PublicHealth2022,19,1364010of20
passingthrough,resting,andrunning,andthemainfunctionofridingalongthe
greenwaywasnotveryprominent.Mostoftheintervieweeshavenorelevantprofessional
background,anditimpliesthatthisresearchquestionnairesurveywasnotdirected
towardsanyintervieweewithaparticularprofessionalbackground,butratherallcitizens.
OnlyasmallnumberofintervieweesagreedthattheShenzhencitygreenwayshavea
negativeinfluenceontheirhealth,whichimpliesthattheShenzhencitygreenwayshave
anoverallpositiveinfluenceonpublichealth.
3.1.Questionnaire
Aftersortingoutalloftherespondents’suggestions,itcanbeseenthatsome
respondentsthoughtthatsomeofthegreenwayspaceweretooenclosed,whileothers
thoughtthatsomegreenwayspacesweretooopen.Somerespondentsbelievedthat
allowingcyclistsandpedestrianstousethesamegreenwayincreasedtheriskofaccidents,
sotheysuggestedthatsaferdesignsshouldbeimplemented,suchaswideningthe
greenway.Aspointedoutinthe“EuropeanGreenwayAssociation”[56],theinternational
scaleofbicyclelanesrangedfrom1to1.5m.However,thewidestbicyclelanespanofthe
Shenzhengreenwaysis0.6to0.9m,andonlyafewpartsreach0.9to1.1m.Inotherwords,
itisveryimportanttowidentheShenzhengreenways.
Byanalyzingthequestionnairedata,thefollowingresultswereobtained:themain
functionoftherespondentsusingthegreenwaywaswalkingandpassing;thesecondary
functionwasrestingandrunning;andthelackofridingonthegreenwaywasnot
significant.Generallyspeaking,thefunctionofpeopleusingthegreenwayhaschanged
fromridingandwalking,toleisure,fitness,andrest.Withregardtotheimpactof
greenwaysonresidents’health,84.2%oftherespondentsbelievedthatShenzhen
greenwayscouldalleviatelifepressuresandhavepositiveimpactsontheirphysicaland
mentalhealth,against12.1%whowereneutralaboutit,and3.7%whoopposedit.In
general,Shenzhengreenwayshaveapositiveimpactonurbanhealth.Thecompositionof
theintervieweesisshowninFigure4.Greenwayusagefrequencyandeffectsonhealth
degreeareshowninFigure5a,bfordetails,respectively.
(a)(b)
Figure4.Compositionoftheinterviewees:(a)Intervieweeagecomposition;(b)Livingtimeofthe
intervieweesinShenzhen.
Int.J.Environ.Res.PublicHealth2022,19,1364011of20
(a)(b)
Figure5.Backgroundresults:(a)Intervieweeusagefrequency;(b)Greenwayeffectsonhealth.
Therespondents’gender,age,monthlyincome,walkingdistancefromresidential
areatonearestgreenway,thefrequencyofusingthegreenwayeverymonth,andthe
impactonhealthweretakenasthecontrolvariablesforthecorrelationofinfluencing
factors.ThemultivariatelinearregressionanalysisreportisshowninAppendixA.
3.2.MainFinding
Themainfindingsofthisstudyareasfollows:
1. Therearesixmostsignificantinfluencingfactors(bestsubset)of“perceivedhealth
benefits”on“placepreference”.Theyare“relaxedoranxiousifalone”,“mood
cheering”,“awayfromdailylife”,“trafficsafety”,“stressrecovery”,and“fascination
attracted”,rankedfromthemostsignificanttolesssignificant;
2. Therearenineenvironmentalfactorsthataffecttheabovesixperceivedhealth
benefits.Accordingtocorrelationarrangedasfollows,“overallquality”,“richnessof
environmentalelements”,“viewblockinggeneral”,“qualityofpaving”,
“management”,“coherenceofenvironmentelement”,“naturalness”,“treecanopy
percent”,and“viewblockingwithshrubsandgrass”.
Asummaryofthepositiveornegativecorrelationsbetweeneachimpactfactoris
presentedinTable3.Thesortedresultsarelistedontherightsideofthetable.
Table3.Automaticlinearmodelsresult(*,**,***representsignificancewith0.05,0.01,and0.001,
respectively;+,−representpositiveandnegativecorrelation,respectively).
Likability
PerceivedHealth
BenefitsEnvironmentalPerceptionResult
SignificantBestSubsetFactorsSignificantBestSubsetFactors
Pref
RAA(+)***
QP(+)***
OQ(+)*
VBG()*
Mana(+)*
CEE(+)*
Overallquality+
Richnessofenvironmentelements+
Viewblockinggeneral−
Qualityofpaving+
Management+
Coherenceofenvironmentelement+
Naturalness+
Treecanopypercent+
Viewblockingwithshrubsandgrass−
MC(+)**
OQ(+)***
CEE(+)***
Mana(+)**
QP(+)**
TCP(+)*
ADL(+)**
REE(+)***
VBG()***
N(+)***
OQ(+)**
Int.J.Environ.Res.PublicHealth2022,19,1364012of20
TCP(+)*
TS(+)**
Mana(+)***
OQ(+)**
VBSG()*
CEE(+)*
SR(+)**
QP(+)***
REE(+)***
VBG()**
CEE(+)*
FA(+)*REE(+)***
VBG()**
3.2.1.BestSignificantInfluenceSubset
Therearesixmostsignificantinfluencingfactorsof“perceivedhealthbenefits”on
“placepreference”.Itcanbeseenthat“relaxedoranxiousifalone”hasthemost
significanteffecton“placepreference”,thatis,peopleinthegreenwayaremostconcerned
abouttheirfeelingofrelaxationonthegreenway.Meanwhile,“moodcheering”,“away
fromdailylife”,“trafficsafety”,and“stressrecovery”affect“placepreference”toacertain
degreeforsig.valuesvaryingfrom0.001to0.009.Thediagnosticresultsareshownin
Table4.
Table4.Themultilevelmappingmodelresults(+,−representpositiveandnegativecorrelation,
respectively).
Effecton
Place
Preference
Perceived
Health
Benefits
RAAMCADLTSSRFA
βsigβsigβsigβsigβsigβsig
0.1530.0000.1190.0010.1060.0030.1130.0010.0940.0090.0730.039
Corresponding
Environmental
Perceptions
βsigβsigβsigβsigβsigβsig
QP0.1380.000OQ0.1710.000REE0.1460.000Mana0.1480.000QP0.1450.000REE0.1940.000
OQ0.0950.013CEE0.1480.000VBG0.1440.000OQ0.1240.001REE0.1340.000
VBG0.0890.012Mana0.1070.003N0.1250.000VBSG0.0860.014VBG0.1200.001VBG0.1150.001
Mana0.0800.032QP0.1060.003OQ0.1150.001OQ0.0890.015OQ0.0850.019
CEE0.0750.041TCP0.0780.021TCP0.0460.021
Subsequently,therelationshipsbetweentheabovesixperceivedhealthbenefitsand
thecorrespondingenvironmentalperceptionswerealsoanalyzed.First,withrespectto
“relaxedoranxiousifalone”,thestatisticalresultsofthesignificancetestoneachfactor
arequalityofpaving,overallquality,viewblockinggeneral,management,andcoherence
ofenvironmentalelement.“Qualityofpaving”makepeoplefeelmorerelaxedinthe
greenway.Second,withrespectto“moodcheering”,thestatisticalresultsofthe
significancetestoneachfactorareoverallquality,coherenceofenvironmentelement,
management,qualityofpaving,andtreecanopypercent.“Overallquality”and
“coherenceofenvironmentelement”couldgreatlycheerpeople’smoodinrelationtothe
greenway.Third,withrespectto“awayfromdailylife”,thestatisticalresultsofthe
significancetestoneachfactorarerichnessofenvironmentalelements,viewblocking
general,naturalness,overallquality,andtreecanopypercent.Fourth,withrespectto
“trafficsafety”,thestatisticalresultsofthesignificancetestoneachfactorare
management,overallquality,viewblockingofshrubsandgrass,overallquality.Good
greenwaymanagementcouldmakepeoplefeellowriskofthegreenwaytrafficsafetyto
thegreatestextent.“overallquality”havethesameeffect,buttoalesserextent.Fifth,with
respectto“stressrecovery”,thestatisticalresultsofthesignificancetestoneachfactorare
qualityofpaving,richnessofenvironmentalelements,viewblockinggeneral,andoverall
quality.Sixth,withrespectto“fascinationattracted”,thestatisticalresultsofthe
significancetestoneachfactorarerichnessofenvironmentelementsandviewblocking
general.Therichnessofenvironmentalelementsinrelationtothegreenwaycouldattract
Int.J.Environ.Res.PublicHealth2022,19,1364013of20
people’sfascination.Viewopenhasthesameeffect,buttoalesserextent.Thestatistical
resultsofthesignificanceforeachfactorareshowninFigure6.
Figure6.Directcorrelationofplacepreference,perceivedhealthbenefits,andenvironment
characteristic.
3.2.2.SignificantSpatialCategory
Combinedwiththeabovesixperceivedhealthbenefitfactorsandmeasures,the
influencingfactorsofdifferenttypesofgreenwayspacesandratingsystemsareregressed
tofindtheoptimalspacecategoryofhighdensityurbangreenwayspaces.Theresultsof
thisspatialcategorycanbeusedastheoptimizationprincipleforhighdensityurban
greenwaysspatialplanning.Theanalysisprocesswasdividedintotwosteps.
Thefirststepwastodeterminethemostprominentspatialcategorycorresponding
tothesixbestsubsets.Greenwayspacesofaspatialcategory6and8haveapositive
impactonpeople’sperceivedhealthbenefits,whilespatialcategory7and12havea
negativeimpactonpeople.Theresultsshowthatpeopledonotlikestructuresaroundthe
greenways,especiallyinthefrontagestreet,suchasrailings,stairs,overpasses,and
viaducts.Thesecondstepwastofindthecontroversialspacecategory.Theresultsshow
thatspatialcategory3,10,and11werecontroversialpositivespaces.Thegreenwayspace
withplantedtrees,shrubs,shortgrassinfrontagestreetsandbuiltstructuresinback
streetsmadepeoplefeelnervousandunhappy.Whenpeoplewalkaloneinspatial
category1and2,theyfeelrelaxed,moodcheering,andrelievesomeoftheiranxiety.The
spacecategorysignificanceandmainfindingsarelistedinTable5.

Int.J.Environ.Res.PublicHealth2022,19,1364014of20
Table5.Spacecategorysignificationandmainfinding.
RelationshipFactorCategoryMostProminent
Category
Controversial
Category
PreferredcategoryRelaxoranxiousifalone468
6,83,10
Moodcheering468
Awayfromdailylife31011
Trafficsafety611
Stressrecovery6810
Fascinationattracted36
DislikecategoryRelaxoranxiousifalone127
7,121
Moodcheering712
Awayfromdailylife1127
Trafficsafety721
Stressrecovery127
Fascinationattracted127
Thecomparisonbetweenthebestsubsetresultandtheplacepreferenceresultshows
thatthedataoffsetrateofspatialcategory7and8isbetween0.6–8.9%,whichis
significantlysmallerthanthatofotherelementsby0.9–24.7%.Hence,theevaluationof
thepositiveandnegativeeffectsofspatialcategory8and7istheleastcontroversial.It
alsoprovesthatpeoplepreferthespacewithtreesinthefrontagestreetandplantedtrees,
shrubsandshortgrassinthebackstreet,whiletheydonotliketreesandstructuresmixed
inthefrontageandbackstreetsofthegreenways.Thecorrelationvaluesbetweenthebest
subsetandplacepreferenceareshowninFigure7.
Figure7.Thedataoffsetrateofestimatedmarginalmeansofspatialcategory.
Int.J.Environ.Res.PublicHealth2022,19,1364015of20
4.Discussion
Oneofthemainfindingsisthatpeoplepreferthegreenwayspacewithahigh
proportionoftreecanopycoverageandtheyalsopreferrichplantelementsoftrees,
shrubs,andshortgrassonthebackstreet.Meanwhile,peopledoesn’tlikerailings,
overpasses,walls,andstructuresintheirview.ForShenzhen,withasubtropical
climate,theShenzhengreenways’designneededincreasedshelterspace.Italso
requiredadesignofthetreestocreatea“halfprivatehalfpublic”spaceenvironment,
buttokeeptheusers’viewsopen,andcanviewthroughtheloweredgeoftreecanopy.
Italsorequiredaminimaluseofshrubs,ortheuseofshortershrubs,increaseduseof
mixedgroundcoverplantsandshortgrasstocreatearichplantwildernesshillside
inthehighdensitycitycenterarea.Thiswildernesshillsidelookslikeawilderness,
buteachplant,road,andfacilityhaveallbeendesignedandwellmanaged.
Basedondifferentcategoriesofuser,thephysicalcharacteristicsofdifferent
usersaredifferent,soeachappropriatedistancelandscapepointshouldbesetupto
providesomerestareas,pavilions,andrainshelterswhichhavethefunctionof
blockingrain.Thismeansthattheusercanrestmorecomfortablyandspendthe
waitingtime.Onanalysisoftheinterviewers’Shenzhengreenwayadvice,theresults
showthatmanagementisveryimportant,becauseroadsigndeletion,inadequate
emergencyservices,severedamagetothepavingpatternwillgreatlyincreasethe
greenwaysafetyrisk.Onetheonehand,thegreenwaysneedacompletegreenway
identificationsystem;ontheotherhand,thereisalsoaneedtostandardizeand
correctthegreenwayexpressionidentificationsystem,toguaranteethatthe
informationprovidedonthegreenwayisadequateandaccurate,inordertoavoid
theuserencounteringunknownsafetyriskswhenwalkingthewrongway.
4.1.ContributionsandImplications
UndertheinfluenceofCOVID19,theroleofgroundurbangreenwayhasbecome
increasinglyprominent.Therefore,toincreasepeople’suseofurbangreenways,which
dependsonpeople’spreferenceforgreenways,itisnecessarytoexploretheperspective
ofthemostfundamentalinfluencemechanismtofindouttheinfluencingfactorsand
interactionrelationshipsofpeople’slikingforgreenways,thus,thereversedesignofthe
greenwayiscarriedouttomakethegreenwaysmorepopularundertheconditionthat
theeffectofthegreenwaysonpeople’shealthisnotreduced.Afteranalysis,thegreenway
impactfactorsarenotsimpledirectmappingrelationships,buthavemultilevel
progressiveimpactrelationships.Therefore,itisnecessarytosimulatethisrelationship
byestablishingamultisubsetmappingmodel,andimplementthealgorithmflow
throughprofessionalanalysissoftware.Inthispaper,theindependentvariableset
describedinthispaperincludesthepersistenthealthbenefitofthegreenways,andfinally
achievesthegoaloftraceabilityreversedesigntoincreasethepopularityofthe
greenwaysbyoptimizingtheenvironmentalcharacteristicsofthegreenways.
Thehugeoverpassattheintersectionofurbantrunkroadsmakespeoplefeel
extremelyunfavorabletothepassageofgroundgreenway.Thetransitionbetweenthe
greenwayandthesurroundingenvironmentisimportant.Thatisconsistentwiththe
researchresults;thegreenwayspacewithopenlinesofsightismorepopular.According
tothesurvey,itwasfoundthatthestructuresdonotappearintheusers’favoritespaces,
whichisconsistentwiththefeedbackofthequestionnaire.Idealizedspatiallayoutmodels
forgroundgreenwaysareshowninFigure8.
Int.J.Environ.Res.PublicHealth2022,19,1364016of20
Figure8.Idealizedspatiallayoutmodelforgreenway.(A)Addtreecanopy;(B)Naturestyle;(C)
Richnessofplantsandincreaseinfrastructure;(D)Wellmanaged;(E)Highqualityspace;and(F)
Viewopen.
Thisresearchstudiedthefactorsthatinfluenceurbangreenwayenvironments;these
factorsinfluencetheusers’personalsafety,mentalhealth,andphysicalhealthintheurban
area.Thestudyalsofoundthegreenwaydesignmethodpromotedusers’personalsafety,
mentalhealth,andphysicalhealthinurbanareas.Thetypesofgreenwayswithoverall
goodquality,especiallythequalityofgreenwaypaving,includingthemanagementand
maintenanceofthegreenways,theseinfluencingfactorsarethegreatdiscoveriesofurban
planning.Thepeople’spreferencefordensetreecanopycover,butalsoanopenview,in
particular,noviewblockagecausedbyshrubsandshortgrassaretheimportantfindings
ofthisresearch.
Regardingtheanalysisofthespacecategory,trees,shrubs,andgrassesatthe
frontagestreet,withtreesatthebackstreet(category6);treesatthefrontagestreetand
trees,shrubs,andgrassesatthebackstreet(category8),arecategoriesmoresuitablefor
urbangreenwayspaceplanning.Predictionandabilitytoviewopenspacewithout
structuresweremostvaluedbyusers.Asresearch,thebesthighdensitycitygreenway
spaceisonewithamoreopenspace,withtheuser’sviewmoreopen,andwiththemost
treecanopycoverage,sothatthewholelandscapeenvironmentismorenaturalandis
wellmanagedwithagoodpavingpattern.Openspacecouldlettheuserfeelsafe;
increasingthetreecanopycouldlettheuserhaveacoolerenvironmentinsummer;
reducingtheshrubcoveragecouldlettheuserhaveanopenviewandalsofeelsafe.
Designingamorenaturalgreenwayenvironmentcouldlettheuserfeelthattheyare
away,andbothbeingwellmanagedandasimplepavingpatterncouldreducetherisks
ofgreenwaytrafficaccidents.
4.2.LimitationsandOpportunitiesforFutureResearch
Thisstudyconstructsaneweffectivenessframeworkforfuturerelatedresearch.
Thesefindingsareveryimportantandcouldpotentiallyfillthelandscaperesearchgap.
Thisstudyproposedagreenwayspaceoptimizationmethod.Thenewmethodisnotonly
applicabletotheoptimizationofthegreenway,greenwayoptimizationisjustthe
particularfocusofthispaper.Theproposedmethodwithhighuniversalityisalso
applicabletothetraceabilityreverseoptimizationdesignofparks,publicfitnessplaces,
Int.J.Environ.Res.PublicHealth2022,19,1364017of20
andchildren’splaygrounds.Itfillsapartofthegapingreenwayspacedesignand
research,andimprovesthespaceevaluationsystem.
Thestudyfocusesontheanalysisofcityspaces,plants,andpeople’smentalhealth.
Trafficsafety,suchasthecontradictionsbetweenthetrafficandpedestrians;traffic
conflictsbetweenmotorvehiclesandbicycles;conflictsbetweenpedestriansandmotor
vehicles,allneedtobediscussedfurther.Theimpactoftheenvironmentalvoice,likethe
motorvehiclevoice,onpedestrianhealthalsoneedstobediscussedfurther.The
optimizationofurbanspatialplanninghasapositiveimpactonthehealthydevelopment
ofresidents,andacceleratestheecologicalconstructionofcities.
5.Conclusions
Urbangreenwaysbringconsiderablebenefitstourbanland,butaretheya
preferredplacetorelieveusers’psychologicalpressure?Thisresearchisanew
discoveryinurbangreenways,andfilledaresearchgapinurbanplanningand
research.Thisresearchconclusioncanpositivelyaffectthelanduseefficiency,reduce
thepressureonurbanlanddevelopment,andenablethecitytoenterastableperiod
ofsustainabledevelopmentinthefuture.
Weusedmultilevelmappingresearchmethodtocompleteabasictraceability
researchfromtheformationmechanismofpreference.Thisstudyestablisheda
multilevelmappingmodelofplacepreference,perceivedhealthbenefits,and
environmentalperception.Wefoundthattherearemanyfactorsaffectinggreenway
preference,andtherewerecorrelationsandinteractionsamongthethreelevelsof
factors.Thismodelimprovedthefittingaccuracyoftheactualcompleximpact
relationshipanditwaseffective.
Further,thegreenway’seffectsneedrichnessofplantsandharmonious
environmentalelementswithnaturalstyle.Researchersshouldfurtherexplorethe
relationshipamongplacepreference,environmentelements,andhumanmentalhealth.
Moreopenviews,moreopenpavingpatterns,andincreasedsimplicityoverallalso
contributedtoabettergreenway.Thisconclusioncouldresolveproblemsthatariseinthe
midstofhighdensityresidentialareasandlimitedlivingland.
Thispaperbroughtanewresearchperspectiveandprovidesanewurban
planningoptimizationstrategyforimprovingurbanlandutilizationefficiency.The
researchresultswereinlinewiththeresearchtheme,thatwas,topromoteresidents’
preferredplace,andtocoordinatewiththehealthydevelopmentofthecityatthe
sametime.Thispaperstudiedthespatialelementsofurbangreenspace,solvedthe
contradictionoflanddevelopmentandutilizationwith“lesslandandmorepeople”,
andfullyandreasonablyoptimizedallofthelandresourcesthatcanbedeveloped
andutilized,soastoimprovethelandutilizationefficiencyofurbangreenspace.
AuthorContributions:Datacuration,Y.M.;Formalanalysis,W.S.;Fundingacquisition,C.X.;
Methodology,W.S.;Resources,W.S.;Software,W.S.;Writing—originaldraft,W.S.;Writing—
review&editing,W.S.Allauthorshavereadandagreedtothepublishedversionofthemanuscript.
Funding:ThisresearchissupportedbytheNationalNaturalScienceFoundationofChina(grant
number41871162).
InformedConsentStatement:Informedconsentwasobtainedfromallsubjectsinvolvedinthe
study.
ConflictsofInterest:Theauthorsdeclarenoconflictofinterest.
Int.J.Environ.Res.PublicHealth2022,19,1364018of20
AppendixA
TableA1.Multivariatelinearregressionanalysisreport(*and**representthecorrelationwhicharesignificantatthe0.05leveland0.01level(2
tailed),respectively).
RAAPredMFAPQVBGNADLREETSManaCEEAUEOQMCPrefCPPCEARGSBSRTCPVBSG
RAA1
Pred0.396**1
M0.303*−0.649**1
FA0.233−0.1300.261*1
PQ0.334**0.464**−0.320*0.1871
VBG0.417**0.679**−0.687**−0.0420.507**1
N0.143−0.485**0.653**0.368**−0.230−0.502**1
ADL0.118−0.321*0.422**0.376**−0.159−0.2250.436**1 
REE0.1510.0570.1180.451**0.050−0.1270.2360.256*1
TS0.1930.264*−0.1090.1610.1080.2310.0640.203−0.1261 
Mana0.375**0.452**−0.401**0.1110.612**0.409**−0.367**−0.1180.0130.0941
CEE0.4