Propuesta de indicadores para valorar la calidad de los programas de educación preescolar

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El objetivo de este artículo es dar a conocer dos aspectos: por un lado, justificar la dificultad que existe a la hora de plantear un programa educativo de calidad para la etapa de educación preescolar. Por otro lado, derivado de esta dificultad, el artículo enuncia los indicadores a los que se puede prestar atención para poder identificar un programa de calidad en educación preescolar. Se espera que esta información sea clarificadora para padres y educadores, en orden a enjuiciar cualquier intervención educativa.

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Anexos: p. 385-432 p. 433-482 1.- Justificar que se puede y se debe ofrecer un servicio educativo de calidad a todos los niños escolarizados en el primer ciclo de educación infantil. 2.- Conocer si realmente se responde a la petición de la LOGSE y la LOCE de ofrecer un servicio educativo de calidad en este primer ciclo educativo, evaluando el programa de la escuela infantil Kutunbaita, 11 alumnos de entre 2 y 3 años del centro Kutunbaita de educación infantil de San Sebastián
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There is widespread interest in the claim that new breakthroughs in neuroscience have radical implications for early child care policy. Yet despite parents', educators', and policy makers' enthusiasm, there are good reasons to be skeptical. The neuroscience cited in the policy arguments is not new, depending primarily on three well-established neurobiological findings: rapid postnatal synapse formation, critical periods in development, and the effects of enriched rearing on brain connectivity in rats. Furthermore, this neuroscience is often oversimplified and misinterpreted. While child care advocates are enthusiastic about potential applications of brain science, for the most part neuroscientists are more cautious and skeptical. After reviewing the evidence and the arguments, the author suggests that in the interest of good science and sound policy, more of us might adopt a skeptical stance.
When it comes to applying neuroscientific research to classroom practice, educators must look before they leap.
Truly new results in neuroscience, rarely mentioned in the brain and education literature, point to the brain's lifelong capacity to reshape itself in response to experience. The challenge for educators is to develop Learning environments and practices that can exploit the brain's lifelong plasticity; define the behaviors we want to teach; design learning environments to impart them; and constantly test the educational efficacy of these environments.
The values and ambitions of many parents lead them to exert pressure on young children for high, early achievement and to constrain early childhood educators to accelerate formal academic instruction. The conflicts between this kind of parental pressure and the values and training of early childhood educators are discussed. Implications for policy and practice are drawn from an overview of the contemporary conditions of childhood, concerns of achievement-oriented parents, and the knowledge base of early childhood education.
: The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) has always contained the provision that early intervention services for eligible infants, toddlers, and their families be provided in natural environments. The reemphasis on natural environments in the 1997 reauthorization of the IDEA, however, has caused states and early intervention programs to increase efforts to ensure that Part C services provide and support learning experiences within the context of the child's family and community. This emphasis on natural environments and, in some cases, the move away from segregated, clinic-based service delivery models have been challenging. This article presents 10 common myths about service delivery in natural environments and the literature available to refute them. (C)2001Aspen Publishers, Inc.
This research was an initial study designed to explore differences in the frequency of stress behaviors exhibited by children (n = 37) in developmentally appropriate (n = 20) and developmentally inappropriate (n = 17) kindergarten classrooms. Results indicated that children in the developmentally inappropriate classroom exhibited significantly more stress behaviors than children in the appropriate classroom. In looking at stress within various activity types, higher frequencies of stress behaviors were found during whole group and workbook/worksheet activities for children in the inappropriate classroom, whereas those in the appropriate classroom had higher levels of stress during center and transition activities. Differences were also found between the two classrooms in amount of time spent in various activities. More center, group story, and transition activities were found in the appropriate classroom, whereas there were more whole group and workbook/worksheet activities in the inappropriate classroom. Marginal gender differences were also noted, with males exhibiting more overall stress behaviors than females.
Traducción de: The myth of the first three years: a new understanding of early brain development and lifelong learning Incluye bibliografía e índice
Now revised and updated, this acclaimed book takes an in-depth look at the latest scientific research in to the brain. Pulitzer Prize-winner Ronald Kotulak reveals n ew understandings of how nature builds the brain then develo ps it during early life. '
Brain development is affected by stress early in development. Activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis plays a role in mediating the effects of adversity on the developing brain. The impact of glucocorticoids on brain development has been studied in animal models. The literature linking activity of the HPA axis to memory, attention, and emotion in human children is briefly reviewed. Evidence for decreased reactivity of the HPA system developing over the first year of life is presented. Finally, the role of sensitive and responsive caregiving in buffering reactivity of the HPA system to potentially stressful events is described. It is argued that these data provide yet more support for the importance of fostering safe, secure care for children early in their development.
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