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Siddha medicines for Eraippu erumal (bronchial asthma) : preliminary phytochemical and anti-microbial studies

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Siddha system of medicine is one among the great heritages of India. As the popularity for the harmless, time-tested Traditional medicine increases, it is time to standardize and prove the efficacy of these medicines through universally accepted scientific parameters. Six frequently prescribed Siddha medicines for Eraippu erumal (Bronchial Asthma) namely Pavala Parpam (P.P), Muthuchippi Parpam (M.C.P), Kasthuri Karuppu, (K.K), Thalaga Karuppu, (T.K.) Vasanthakusumakara Mathirai, (V.K. Pills) and Swasakudori Mathirai (S.K. Pills) were selected and subjected to preliminary phytochemical (Brinda et al. 1981) and anti-microbial (Kirby Baur Disc Diffusion method) screening. Since the study was conducted in a controlled and authenticated manner, the phytochemical and anti-microbial results can be used for the standardization of the above said medicines.
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Siddha Medicines for Eraippu erumal (Bronchial asthma) -
Preliminary Phytochemical and Anti-Microbial studies.
Devarajan,C * Thomas M.Walter ** Pauline Vincent ,C???
Abstract:
Siddha system of medicine is one among the great heritages of India. As the
popularity for the harmless, time-tested Traditional medicine increases, it is time to
standardize and prove the efficacy of these medicines through universally accepted
scientific parameters. Six frequently prescribed Siddha medicines for Eraippu erumal
(Bronchial Asthma) namely Pavala Parpam (P.P), Muthuchippi Parpam (M.C.P),
Kasthuri Karuppu, (K.K), Thalaga Karuppu, (T.K.) Vasanthakusumakara Mathirai, (V.K.
Pills) and Swasakudori Mathirai (S.K. Pills) were selected and subjected to preliminary
phytochemical (Brinda et al. 1981) and anti-microbial (Kirby Baur Disc Diffusion
method) screening. Since the study was conducted in a controlled and authenticated
manner, the phytochemical and anti-microbial results can be used for the standardization
of the above said medicines.
Keywords: Siddha, Eraippu erumal, Bronchial asthma, Pavala parpam, Muthuchippi
parpam, Kasthuri karuppu, Thalaga karuppu, V.K. pills, S.K. pills, Phyto chemistry,
Anti-microbial studies.
* Vice Principal, Govt. Siddha Medical College, Palayamkottai, Tamilnadu, India.
** Asst. Lecturer, P.G. Department of Gunapadam (Pharmacology), Govt. Siddha Medical
College Hospital, Palayamkottai, Tamilnadu, India. dr.thomaswalter@gmail.com
??? Ph.D scholar, Center of Bio Diversity and Bio Technology, St. Xavier’s College,
Palayamkottai, Tamilnadu, India. dr.paulinevincent@yahoo.co.in
Introduction:
Siddha system of medicine is one among the great heritages of India. As the
popularity for the harmless, time-tested Traditional medicines are on the increase, it is
time to standardize and prove the efficacy of these medicines through universally
accepted scientific parameters.
Siddha Materia Medica is classified into three major kingdoms namely Vegetable
(Herbal), Metals & Minerals and Animal. According to Siddha literatures, there are 64
dosage forms of which 32 are meant for Oral (enteral) route and 32 for parentral and
external (including topical) applications.
Materials and Methods:
“Siddha Maruthuvam” by Dr. Kuppusamy Muthaliar serves as the Text book for
both U.G. and P.G. students of Siddha Medicine. Eraippu erumal is being mentioned as
Swasakaasam (Eraippu) in this book and some 12 prepared medicines are prescribed for
the treatment. Out of these, one Herbal (Swasa Kudori pills), three Herbo-Mineral
(Vasantha Kusumakara pills, Kasthuri Karuppu and Thaalaga Karuppu) and two Animal
origin (Pavala parpam & Muthuchippi parpam) medicines are subjected to preliminary
Phytochemical and Antimicrobial sensitivity testing. Preliminary Phytochemical analysis
of the aqueous extracts of the above said medicines have been performed by Brindha et al
(1981) method and Anti-microbial sensitivity testing was done by Kirby Baur Disc
Diffusion method and the findings are discussed.
Steroids, reducing sugars, sugars, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, anthroquinones and
amino acids were tested qualitatively in the selected medicines. Sensitivity was also
tested against the organisms Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella,
Pseudomonas aeriginosa and Candida.
Phyto-chemical analysis:
1. Pavala Parpam (P.P)
2. Muthuchippi Parpam (M.C.P)
3. Kasthuri Karuppu, (K.K)
4. Thalaga Karuppu, (T.K.)
5. Vasanthakusumakara Mathirai, (V.K. Pills)
6. Swasakudori Mathirai (S.K. Pills)
These medicines have literary evidence and are in regular therapeutic use in
Siddha practice for Eraippu erumal. The major ingredients, dosage, vehicle, therapeutic
properties and literary evidence of the selected drugs are mentioned in Table no: 1. In
order to conduct authenticated screening, market samples of all the five medicines were
avoided and they were prepared in the Gunapadam (Materia Medica) lab of Govt. Siddha
Medical College, Palayamkottai, T.N., India.
The phytochemical screening was done at the Center of Bio-diversity and Bio-
technology, St. Xavier’s College (XCH), Palayamkottai, Tamilnadu. Since the common
vehicle for the test medicines are water, the same was used as solvent for all the six
medicines. These extracts were concentrated and used for preliminary phytochemical
screening following the procedure given by Brindha et al. (1981).
Anti-microbial sensitivity testing:
Table: 1. Information regarding the screened Siddha Medicines for Eraippu.
Serial
No
Name of the
Medicine
Major
Ingredients
Dosage &
Vehicle
Literary
evidence
1
Pavala
Parpam
Kodipavalam
,
Juice of
Adathoda.
100
-
200 mg
B.D. with milk
Kaasam,
Swasm,
Erumal
Impcops
pharmacopoeia
Page no: 108
2
Muthu Chippi
Parpam
Muthuchippi,
juices of
adathoda,
nochi,
nilapanai.
200
-
400 mg,
B.D. with ghee
Kaasam,
Kshyam,
Moolam.
Siddha
Vaithiya
Thirattu,
Page no: 124
3
Kasthuri
Karuppu
Kasthuri,
purified
Rasam,
sulphur,
Lingam,
Pooram etc.
6
5
-
1
30
mg,
B.D. with
honey
Erumal,
Eraippu,
Kabham.
Siddha
Vaithiya
Thirattu,
Page no: 160
4
Thalaga
Karuppu
Thalagam,
Snail’s flesh.
65
-
130 mg,
B.D. with
honey
Kaasam,
Swasam.
Siddha
Vaithiya
Thirattu,
Page no: 160
5
Vasanthakusu
Magara
Mathirai
(V.K. Pills)
Lingam,
Venkaram,
Elavangam,
Thippili,
Koshtum etc.
100 mg, 1 tab,
tds with honey
Kabha
kaasam,
suram.
Siddha
Vaithiya
Thirattu,
Page no: 40.
6
Swasakudori
Mathirai
(S.K. Pills)
Velerukkam
poo, milagu.
130 mg, 1 tab
tds with
Thaleesapathiri
kudineer.
Erumal,
Kaasam.
Siddha
Vaithiya
Thirattu,
Page no: 61.
Table: 2. Phytochemical Screening of Selected Traditional Indian Herbal Medicines
Serial
No:
Phyto
-
Chemical
Pavala
Parpam
Muthuchippi
Parpam
Kasthuri
Karuppu
Thalaga
Karuppu
V.K.
Pills
S.K.
Pills
1
Steroids
- - + + - -
2
Reducing
Sugars
- - - - - -
3
Sugars
- - - - - -
4
Alkaloids
- - + - + -
5
Saponins
+ - - + + -
6
Tannins
+ - + + - -
7
Anthroquinones
- - - - - -
8
Amino acids.
- - - - - -
Abbreviations: - Absent
+ Present
1. Pavala Parpam (P.P)
2. Muthuchippi Parpam (M.C.P)
3. Kasthuri Karuppu, (K.K)
4. Thalaga Karuppu, (T.K.)
5. Vasanthakusumakara Mathirai, (V.K. Pills)
6. Swasakudori Mathirai (S.K. Pills)
Table 3. Anti-Microbial sensitivity testing.
Drug
Organism
Pavala
parpam
(P.P)
Muthu
chippi
Parpam
(MCP)
Kasthuri
Karuppu
(K.K)
Thalaga
Karuppu
(T.K)
Vasantha
kusumakara
mathirai
(V.K. pills)
Swasa
kudori
Mathirai
(S.K.pills)
Staphylococcus
aureus
R
R
R
R
R
R
Proteus vulgaris
R
R
R
15 mm
R
15 mm
Klebsiella
R
R
13 mm
R
10 mm
18 mm
Pseudomonas
aeriginosa
R
R
R
R
R
R
Candida.
R
R
R
10 mm
R
10 mm
R Resistant
Zone inhibition: in millimeters.
Results and Discussion:
Six selected Siddha medicines for treating Eraippu erumal (Bronchial asthma)
from the text, Siddha Maruthuvam by Dr. Kuppusamy Muthaliar was subjected to
preliminary Phyto-chemical and Anti-microbial sensitivity testing. The phyto-chemical
results show that reducing sugars, sugars, anthroquinones and amino acids are absent in
all the medicines. The presence of steroids, alkaloids, tannins and saponins were noted.
Kasthuri karuppu and Thalaga karuppu exhibited higher number of phyto chemicals.
In the Microbial analysis, the selected drugs were resistant for two organisms
namely Staphyloccus aureus and Pseudomonas aeriginosa. Swasa kudori pills (S.K. pills)
and Thalaga karuppu were sensitive against Proteus vulgaris. S.K. pills, V.K. pills and
Kasthuri karuppu were sensitive against Klebsiella. S.K. pills and Thalaga karuppu were
sensitive against Candida. Swasa kudori pills (S.K. pills a pure herbal drug) was
sensitive for 3 of the 5 organisms tested followed by Thalaga karuppu (a herbo mineral
drug) being sensitive for 2 out of the 5 organisms.
The overall results indicate that Swasa kudori pills, a 100% herbal Siddha drug
used exclusively in the treatment of Eraippu erumal is highly sensitive against three
micro-organisms and Thalaga karuppu and Kasthuri karuppu exhibits more phyto-
chemical properties. These results will be useful for the standardization of the drugs and
for further continuation of research on these drugs.
Reference:
1. Dr. Kuppusamy Muthaliar (First edition: 1954), Siddha Maruthuvam, Tamilnadu
Siddha medical council, Chennai, second edition 1987.
2. Formulary (1992) - The Siddha Formulary of India, Part I, Ministry of Health and
Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi.
3. Formulary (1972) - Formulary of Siddha medicines, published by the Indian
Medical Practitioners' Cooperative Pharmacy and Stores Ltd., Adyar, Madras; ed.
1989.
4. T.V. Sambasivam Pillai, Tamil-English Dictionary of Medicine, Chemistry,
Botany and Allied Sciences, publisher: The Research Institute of Siddhar’s
Science, Mount Road, Madras, India. 1931.
5. Dr. Murugesa Muthaliar, Siddha Materia Medica (Vegetable section), Volume I,
Fourth edition 1988, Publisher; Tamilnadu Siddha Medical Council, Chennai.
6. Kuppusamy Muthaliar, Uthamarayan, Siddha vaithiya thirattu, 1998, Publisher:
Directorate of Indian Medicine and Homeopathy, Chennai, India.
7. Dr. K.M. Nadkarani, Indian Materia Medica Vol: 1 Publisher: Popular Prakash,
Mumbai, India.
8. The Wealth of India Vol 1- 12, Publisher Council for Scientific and Industrial
Research (C.S.I.R), New Delhi, India.
9. Thomas M, Walter and Pauline Vincent (2008) Preliminary phytochemical
screening of selected Siddha herbal medicines. Siddha Papers. ISSN 0974-2522
http://openmed.nic.in/2763
Article
Full-text available
Background: The corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an acute respiratory disease, caused by a novel corona virus (SARS-CoV-2, previously known as 2019-nCoV), obtained worldwide attention. In this review, we explored the potential siddha strategies for COVID -19 infections. Objectives: To evaluate the additional benefits of siddha drugs Vasantha kusumakaram mathirai, Thippili rasayanam, Adathodai manapagu and Kabasura kudineer compared to the allopathic standard treatment of care alone in COVID-19 asymptomatic, mild - moderate cases. Materials and methods: The present study was an open label Two arm - randomized controlled interventional clinical study. The Group I patients were assigned to Siddha add on treatment whereas Group II subjects were assigned with standard treatment alone. The sample size was 100 for each group. Result: The average number of days taken for reduction of symptoms showed significant results (P < 0.001) in Siddha add on compared with standard treatment. The real - time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) investigation turned negative for 78.33% in Siddha add on and 33.33% in standard treatment after 11-14 days. Similarly, CT chest, covid pattern lung involvement percentage showed highly significant reduction (P < 0.0001) in Siddha add on treatment. In addition, Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) ratio, showed significant reduction (P < 0.01) when analyzed by Wilcoxon signed rank test, and Renal, Liver parameters were within the normal limits in Siddha add on Group for 25 samples in post treatment. Conclusion: Finally, it was concluded that Siddha add on Group showed accelerated recovery for COVID - 19 patients compared to standard Group. The synergistic effect of Siddha add on with standard treatment gave more promising results in the current study of COVID -19.
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