Article

# Ergonomics Designs of Aluminum Beverage Cans & Bottles

AIP Conference Proceedings 08/2005; 778(1). DOI: 10.1063/1.2011308
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT

This paper introduced the finite element analyses into the ergonomics designs to evaluate the human feelings numerically and objectively. Two design examples in developing aluminum beverage cans & bottles are presented. The first example describes a design of the tab of the can with better finger access. A simulation of finger pulling up the tab of the can has been performed and a pain in the finger has been evaluated by using the maximum value of the contact stress of a finger model. The finger access comparison of three kinds of tab ring shape designs showed that the finger access of the tab that may have a larger contact area with finger is better. The second example describes a design of rib-shape embossed bottles for hot vending. Analyses of tactile sensation of heat have been performed and the amount of heat transmitted from hot bottles to finger was used to present the hot touch feeling. Comparison results showed that the hot touch feeling of rib-shape embossed bottles is better than that of cylindrical bottles, and that the shape of the rib also influenced the hot touch feeling. © 2005 American Institute of Physics.

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##### Article: Numerical modeling of micro- and macro-behavior of viscoelastic porous materials
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ABSTRACT: This paper presents a numerical method for solving the two-dimensional problem of a polygonal linear viscoelastic domain containing an arbitrary number of non-overlapping circular holes of arbitrary sizes. The solution of the problem is based on the use of the correspondence principle. The governing equation for the problem in the Laplace domain is a complex hypersingular boundary integral equation written in terms of the unknown transformed displacements on the boundaries of the holes and the exterior boundaries of the finite body. No specific physical model is involved in the governing equation, which means that the method is capable of handling a variety of viscoelastic models. A truncated complex Fourier series with coefficients dependent on the transform parameter is used to approximate the unknown transformed displacements on the boundaries of the holes. A truncated complex series of Chebyshev polynomials with coefficients dependent on the transform parameter is used to approximate the unknown transformed displacements on the straight boundaries of the finite body. A system of linear algebraic equations is formed using the overspecification method. The viscoelastic stresses and displacements are calculated through the viscoelastic analogs of the Kolosov–Muskhelishvili potentials, and an analytical inverse Laplace transform is used to provide the time domain solution. Using the concept of representative volume, the effective viscoelastic properties of an equivalent homogeneous material are then found directly from the corresponding constitutive equations for the average field values. Several examples are given to demonstrate the accuracy of the method. The results for the stresses and displacements are compared with the numerical solutions obtained by commercial finite element software (ANSYS). The results for the effective properties are compared with those obtained with the self-consistent and Mori–Tanaka schemes.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2008 · Computational Mechanics